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Habitat fragmentation and landscape change : an ecological and conservation synthesis

著者: David Lindenmayer; Joern Fischer
出版商: Washington : Island Press, ©2006.
版本/格式:   图书 : 英语查看所有的版本和格式
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Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Part V: Mitigating the Negative Effects of Landscape Change on Species and Assemblages -- Managing Landscape Pattern to Mitigate the Decline of Species and Assemblages -- Strategy 1: Maintain and/or restore large and structurally complex patches of native vegetation -- Rationale -- Protection -- Restoration -- Strategy 2: Maintain and/or restore a matrix that is  再读一些...
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材料类型: 互联网资源
文件类型: 书, 互联网资源
所有的著者/提供者: David Lindenmayer; Joern Fischer
ISBN: 1597260207 9781597260206 1597260215 9781597260213
OCLC号码: 65400102
描述: xviii, 328 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm.
内容: Dedication --
Acknowledgements --
Preface --
Introduction --
Why this book was written --
"Disentangling" habitat fragmentation --
The scope of this book: definitions and key themes --
Definitions --
The importance of spatial scale --
Putting landscape change into context --
Single species or multiple species? --
Pattern versus process --
The structure of this book --
How to read this book --
Further reading --
Part I: Landscape Change: An Overview --
How Landscapes Change --
Typical patterns of landscape change --
Forman's (1995) patterns of landscape change --
The McIntyre and Hobbs (1999) model of landscape change --
Examples of landscape change --
The non-random pattern of landscape change and vegetation cover --
Dynamism in the patterns of vegetation cover and landscape change --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
How Landscape Change Affects Organisms: A Conceptual Framework --
Processes affecting the distribution of individual species. The landscape contour model --
Limitations of single species approaches --
Pattern-based landscape models --
The island model --
The patch-matrix-corridor model --
The variegation model --
Limitations of pattern-based landscape models --
The link between single species and multiple species --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Part II: The Species Perspective: Key Processes Affecting Individual Species --
Habitat Loss --
Clearly defining habitat as a prelude to understanding habitat loss --
Habitat loss is a deterministic process --
Habitat loss as a temporal phenomenon --
Habitat loss and other threatening processes --
Caveats --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Habitat Degradation --
Case studies of the effects of habitat degradation --
Decline in food resources --
Decline in shelter and nest availability --
Other examples of habitat degradation --
Chronic degradation and extinction debts --
Summary --
Links to other chapters. Further reading --
Habitat Sub-Division and Habitat Isolation --
Scales of habitat isolation --
Day-to-day movements --
Dispersal between habitat patches --
Metapopulations --
Large-scale movements --
What represents isolation? --
Confounding of habitat loss and habitat isolation --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Changes in the Behavior, Biology, and Interactions of Species --
Altered behavior and biology --
Breeding patterns and social systems --
Dispersal --
Altered use of space --
Body symmetry --
Other forms of altered behavior and biology --
Altered species interactions --
Competition --
Predation and parasitism --
Mutualisms --
Strongly interacting species --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Synthesis: Threatening Processes for Species in Modified Landscapes --
Threatening processes and their interactions --
Deterministic threatening processes --
Stochastic threatening processes --
Interactions of threatening processes. Which species are extinction-prone? --
Linking threatening processes and extinction proneness --
Empirical evidence: predictions of extinction proneness --
Landscape modification in context --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Part III: The Human Perspective: Landscape Patterns and Species Assemblages --
Land Cover Change and Patch Sizes --
Landscape modification, loss of native vegetation cover and species loss --
Vegetation loss, remaining patch size and species richness --
Mechanisms underlying species-area relationships --
Immigration and extinction rates --
Disturbance --
Habitat diversity and random placement --
Equations for species-area relationships and forecasting species loss --
Caveats of species-area relationships in modified landscapes --
Large patches and other conservation strategies --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Deterioration of Vegetation and the Physical Environment. Deterioration of the physical environment due to grazing and pastoralism --
Deterioration of the physical environment due to forestry --
Logging and the structural complexity of the forest --
Other ways in which logging can deteriorate the physical environment --
Deterioration of the physical environment due to firewood and fuelwood collection --
Interactions with other processes associated with landscape alteration --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Edge Effects --
Types of edges and edge effects --
Abiotic edge effects --
Biotic edge effects --
Variation in edge effects --
Regional variation --
The influence of the matrix --
Edge sensitivity and extinction proneness --
Predicting edge effects --
Caveats --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Landscape Connectivity --
Landscape connectivity and other connectivity concepts --
Quantifying landscape connectivity --
Negative effects of reduced landscape connectivity. Features contributing to landscape connectivity --
Wildlife corridors --
Stepping stones --
A "soft" matrix --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Nestedness and Community Assembly --
Nested subset theory --
Definition, origin and examples --
Mechanisms --
Necessary pre-conditions for nestedness --
Nestedness in a conservation context --
Quantification of nestedness --
Assembly rules --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
The Matrix and Landscape Heterogeneity --
Ecological roles of the matrix --
Habitat --
Landscape connectivity --
Ecological context --
Landscape heterogeneity --
Landscape models in heterogeneous landscapes --
Benefits of heterogeneity: case studies --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Synthesis: Cascading Effects of Landscape Change --
Cascading effects of landscape change --
Vegetation cover and associated disturbance regimes --
Structural complexity --
Species composition. Why avoiding regime shifts is important --
Other regime shifts --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Part IV: Studying Species and Assemblages in Modified Landscapes --
Field-based Approaches to Studying Species and Assemblages in Modified Landscapes --
Process-oriented approaches for single species --
Habitat analyses --
Other methods --
Habitat selection --
Studies of movement patterns --
Other useful approaches for single species --
Pattern-oriented approaches --
Experiments --
"Natural" experiments --
Observational studies --
Experimental model systems and microcosm experiments --
The underlying landscape models used in pattern-oriented approaches --
Why field studies in modified landscapes are difficult --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Desktop Approaches to Studying Species and Assemblages in Modified Landscapes --
Models and modeling --
Population Viability Analysis (PVA) and metapopulation modeling --
Landscape indices --
Reviews. Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Part V: Mitigating the Negative Effects of Landscape Change on Species and Assemblages --
Managing Landscape Pattern to Mitigate the Decline of Species and Assemblages --
Strategy 1: Maintain and/or restore large and structurally complex patches of native vegetation --
Rationale --
Protection --
Restoration --
Strategy 2: Maintain and/or restore a matrix that is structurally similar to native vegetation --
Rationale --
Managing the vertical structure of the matrix --
Managing the spatial pattern of the matrix --
Strategy 3: Maintain and/or restore buffers around sensitive areas --
Rationale --
Examples of buffers --
Large-scale buffer zones --
A semi-formal approach to buffer design --
Strategy 4: Maintain and/or restore corridors and stepping stones --
Rationale --
Corridors --
Stepping stones --
Small patches as valuable complements to large patches. Strategy 5: Maintain and/or restore landscape heterogeneity and capture environmental gradients --
Rationale --
Natural heterogeneity as a guide for landscape management --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Managing Individual Species and Ecological Processes to Mitigate the Decline of Species and Assemblages --
Strategy 1: Maintain key species interactions and functional diversity --
Rationale --
Keystone species --
Response diversity --
Strategy 2: Maintain or apply appropriate disturbance regimes --
Rationale --
Fire: an example of a commonly altered disturbance regime --
Strategy 3: Maintain species of particular concern --
Rationale --
The Seychelles Magpie-Robin --
The Western Swamp Tortoise: an example of a threatened species --
Purpose-built structures: a method to enhance habitat connectivity for particular species of conservation concern --
Caveats --
Strategy 4: Control aggressive, over-abundant and invasive species --
Rationale. The Beaver in Tierra del Fuego: an invasive introduced animal species --
The Brown-headed Cowbird: an overabundant native animal species --
Strategy 5: Minimize ecosystem-specific threatening processes --
Rationale --
Considering ecosystem trajectories --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Guiding Principles for Mitigating the Decline of Species and Assemblages of Species --
Guiding principles that consider patterns and processes --
Putting it altogether: a case study from South America --
Beyond science: Mitigating landscape change in the real world --
Reserves --
Off-reserve conservation --
Integrating protected areas and off-reserve conservation --
Landscape "accounting" and improved whole of landscape management --
Summary --
Links to other chapters --
Further reading --
Part VI: Synthesis --
Synthesis, Conclusions and Priorities for the Future --
Tackling the "fragmentation panchreston" --
Summary of key concepts and themes --
Future research priorities --
Challenges at the individual species level --
Challenges at the ecosystem level --
Issues of scale --
The challenge of integration --
Concluding remarks --
Summary.
责任: David B. Lindenmayer, Joern Fischer.
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Brings together information from a wide range of sources to define the ecological problems caused by landscape change and to highlight the relationships among landscape change, habitat fragmentation,  再读一些...

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This new book by Lindenmayer and Fischer provides a holistic clarity that is sorely needed and is a must-read for conservation biologists, landscape ecologists, and other serious students interested 再读一些...

 
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schema:description"Further reading -- Habitat Sub-Division and Habitat Isolation -- Scales of habitat isolation -- Day-to-day movements -- Dispersal between habitat patches -- Metapopulations -- Large-scale movements -- What represents isolation? -- Confounding of habitat loss and habitat isolation -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Changes in the Behavior, Biology, and Interactions of Species -- Altered behavior and biology -- Breeding patterns and social systems -- Dispersal -- Altered use of space -- Body symmetry -- Other forms of altered behavior and biology -- Altered species interactions -- Competition -- Predation and parasitism -- Mutualisms -- Strongly interacting species -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Synthesis: Threatening Processes for Species in Modified Landscapes -- Threatening processes and their interactions -- Deterministic threatening processes -- Stochastic threatening processes -- Interactions of threatening processes."@en
schema:description"Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Part V: Mitigating the Negative Effects of Landscape Change on Species and Assemblages -- Managing Landscape Pattern to Mitigate the Decline of Species and Assemblages -- Strategy 1: Maintain and/or restore large and structurally complex patches of native vegetation -- Rationale -- Protection -- Restoration -- Strategy 2: Maintain and/or restore a matrix that is structurally similar to native vegetation -- Rationale -- Managing the vertical structure of the matrix -- Managing the spatial pattern of the matrix -- Strategy 3: Maintain and/or restore buffers around sensitive areas -- Rationale -- Examples of buffers -- Large-scale buffer zones -- A semi-formal approach to buffer design -- Strategy 4: Maintain and/or restore corridors and stepping stones -- Rationale -- Corridors -- Stepping stones -- Small patches as valuable complements to large patches."@en
schema:description"Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Part V: Mitigating the Negative Effects of Landscape Change on Species and Assemblages -- Managing Landscape Pattern to Mitigate the Decline of Species and Assemblages -- Strategy 1: Maintain and/or restore large and structurally complex patches of native vegetation -- Rationale -- Protection -- Restoration -- Strategy 2: Maintain and/or restore a matrix that is structurally similar to native vegetation -- Rationale -- Managing the vertical structure of the matrix -- Managing the spatial pattern of the matrix -- Strategy 3: Maintain and/or restore buffers around sensitive areas -- Rationale -- Examples of buffers -- Large-scale buffer zones -- A semi-formal approach to buffer design -- Strategy 4: Maintain and/or restore corridors and stepping stones -- Rationale -- Corridors -- Stepping stones -- Small patches as valuable complements to large patches."@en
schema:description"The Beaver in Tierra del Fuego: an invasive introduced animal species -- The Brown-headed Cowbird: an overabundant native animal species -- Strategy 5: Minimize ecosystem-specific threatening processes -- Rationale -- Considering ecosystem trajectories -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Guiding Principles for Mitigating the Decline of Species and Assemblages of Species -- Guiding principles that consider patterns and processes -- Putting it altogether: a case study from South America -- Beyond science: Mitigating landscape change in the real world -- Reserves -- Off-reserve conservation -- Integrating protected areas and off-reserve conservation -- Landscape "accounting" and improved whole of landscape management -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Part VI: Synthesis -- Synthesis, Conclusions and Priorities for the Future -- Tackling the "fragmentation panchreston" -- Summary of key concepts and themes -- Future research priorities -- Challenges at the individual species level -- Challenges at the ecosystem level -- Issues of scale -- The challenge of integration -- Concluding remarks -- Summary."@en
schema:description"Features contributing to landscape connectivity -- Wildlife corridors -- Stepping stones -- A "soft" matrix -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Nestedness and Community Assembly -- Nested subset theory -- Definition, origin and examples -- Mechanisms -- Necessary pre-conditions for nestedness -- Nestedness in a conservation context -- Quantification of nestedness -- Assembly rules -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- The Matrix and Landscape Heterogeneity -- Ecological roles of the matrix -- Habitat -- Landscape connectivity -- Ecological context -- Landscape heterogeneity -- Landscape models in heterogeneous landscapes -- Benefits of heterogeneity: case studies -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Synthesis: Cascading Effects of Landscape Change -- Cascading effects of landscape change -- Vegetation cover and associated disturbance regimes -- Structural complexity -- Species composition."@en
schema:description"Dedication -- Acknowledgements -- Preface -- Introduction -- Why this book was written -- "Disentangling" habitat fragmentation -- The scope of this book: definitions and key themes -- Definitions -- The importance of spatial scale -- Putting landscape change into context -- Single species or multiple species? -- Pattern versus process -- The structure of this book -- How to read this book -- Further reading -- Part I: Landscape Change: An Overview -- How Landscapes Change -- Typical patterns of landscape change -- Forman's (1995) patterns of landscape change -- The McIntyre and Hobbs (1999) model of landscape change -- Examples of landscape change -- The non-random pattern of landscape change and vegetation cover -- Dynamism in the patterns of vegetation cover and landscape change -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- How Landscape Change Affects Organisms: A Conceptual Framework -- Processes affecting the distribution of individual species."@en
schema:description"Why avoiding regime shifts is important -- Other regime shifts -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Part IV: Studying Species and Assemblages in Modified Landscapes -- Field-based Approaches to Studying Species and Assemblages in Modified Landscapes -- Process-oriented approaches for single species -- Habitat analyses -- Other methods -- Habitat selection -- Studies of movement patterns -- Other useful approaches for single species -- Pattern-oriented approaches -- Experiments -- "Natural" experiments -- Observational studies -- Experimental model systems and microcosm experiments -- The underlying landscape models used in pattern-oriented approaches -- Why field studies in modified landscapes are difficult -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Desktop Approaches to Studying Species and Assemblages in Modified Landscapes -- Models and modeling -- Population Viability Analysis (PVA) and metapopulation modeling -- Landscape indices -- Reviews."@en
schema:description"Strategy 5: Maintain and/or restore landscape heterogeneity and capture environmental gradients -- Rationale -- Natural heterogeneity as a guide for landscape management -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Managing Individual Species and Ecological Processes to Mitigate the Decline of Species and Assemblages -- Strategy 1: Maintain key species interactions and functional diversity -- Rationale -- Keystone species -- Response diversity -- Strategy 2: Maintain or apply appropriate disturbance regimes -- Rationale -- Fire: an example of a commonly altered disturbance regime -- Strategy 3: Maintain species of particular concern -- Rationale -- The Seychelles Magpie-Robin -- The Western Swamp Tortoise: an example of a threatened species -- Purpose-built structures: a method to enhance habitat connectivity for particular species of conservation concern -- Caveats -- Strategy 4: Control aggressive, over-abundant and invasive species -- Rationale."@en
schema:description"The landscape contour model -- Limitations of single species approaches -- Pattern-based landscape models -- The island model -- The patch-matrix-corridor model -- The variegation model -- Limitations of pattern-based landscape models -- The link between single species and multiple species -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Part II: The Species Perspective: Key Processes Affecting Individual Species -- Habitat Loss -- Clearly defining habitat as a prelude to understanding habitat loss -- Habitat loss is a deterministic process -- Habitat loss as a temporal phenomenon -- Habitat loss and other threatening processes -- Caveats -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Habitat Degradation -- Case studies of the effects of habitat degradation -- Decline in food resources -- Decline in shelter and nest availability -- Other examples of habitat degradation -- Chronic degradation and extinction debts -- Summary -- Links to other chapters."@en
schema:description"Deterioration of the physical environment due to grazing and pastoralism -- Deterioration of the physical environment due to forestry -- Logging and the structural complexity of the forest -- Other ways in which logging can deteriorate the physical environment -- Deterioration of the physical environment due to firewood and fuelwood collection -- Interactions with other processes associated with landscape alteration -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Edge Effects -- Types of edges and edge effects -- Abiotic edge effects -- Biotic edge effects -- Variation in edge effects -- Regional variation -- The influence of the matrix -- Edge sensitivity and extinction proneness -- Predicting edge effects -- Caveats -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Landscape Connectivity -- Landscape connectivity and other connectivity concepts -- Quantifying landscape connectivity -- Negative effects of reduced landscape connectivity."@en
schema:description"Which species are extinction-prone? -- Linking threatening processes and extinction proneness -- Empirical evidence: predictions of extinction proneness -- Landscape modification in context -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Part III: The Human Perspective: Landscape Patterns and Species Assemblages -- Land Cover Change and Patch Sizes -- Landscape modification, loss of native vegetation cover and species loss -- Vegetation loss, remaining patch size and species richness -- Mechanisms underlying species-area relationships -- Immigration and extinction rates -- Disturbance -- Habitat diversity and random placement -- Equations for species-area relationships and forecasting species loss -- Caveats of species-area relationships in modified landscapes -- Large patches and other conservation strategies -- Summary -- Links to other chapters -- Further reading -- Deterioration of Vegetation and the Physical Environment."@en
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