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Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination

Author: Todd D Nelson
Publisher: New York : Psychology Press, ©2009.
Edition/Format:   Book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
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Offers a comprehensive overview of research on prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. This handbook includes sections on cognitive, affective, and neurological processes, followed by chapters  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Todd D Nelson
ISBN: 9780805859522 0805859527
OCLC Number: 263497953
Description: xxiv, 581 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Contents: 1. The study of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination within social psychology : a quick history of theory and research / Charles Stangor --
Defining stereotypes and prejudice --
Predicting prejudice: the prejudiced personality --
Etiology --
Influence: using stereotypes and prejudice --
2. Development of racial and ethnic prejudice among children / Sheri R. Levy and Julie Milligan Hughes --
Theories of the origins of prejudice among children --
Social learning approach --
Linguistic connotation theorizing --
Multicultural theorizing --
Antiracist theorizing --
Colorblind theorizing --
Mere exposure theorizing --
Extended contact theory --
Intergroup contact theory --
cognitive approach --
Social-cognitive developmental approaches --
Social identity development theory --
Common ingroup identity model --
Developmental model of subjective group dynamics --
Social domain model --
Social-developmental perspective on lay theories --
Developmental intergroup theory --
Evolutionary approach --
3. Intergroup threat theory / Walter G. Stephan, Oscar Ybarra, and Kimberly Rios Morrison --
Intergroup threat theory --
Antecedents of threat --
Consequences of threat --
Cognitive responses --
Emotional responses --
Behavioral responses --
4. Automaticity and control in stereotyping and prejudice / Patricia G. Devine and Lindsay B. Sharp --
Evidence of automatic stereotype activation --
Variability of automatic intergroup biases --
Attentional processes --
Social context and social roles --
Individual differences --
Situationally induced motivational factors --
Malleability of automatic intergroup biases --
Effects of practice --
Thinking about counterstereotypic exemplars --
Motor processes and spreading attitudes --
Impact and pervasiveness of automatic biases --
Control --
Individuation --
Correction: overcoming potential bias --
Suppression: banishing stereotypes from consciousness --
Indirect and unintentional control strategies --
Self-regulation: intentional inhibition and replacement --
Limits to deliberative control strategies --
Interplay between automatic and controlled processes --
Social neuroscience approach to the study of automaticity and control --
5. Attributions to discrimination : antecedents and consequences / Brenda Major and Pamela J. Sawyer --
Perceiving and attributing outcomes to discrimination: vigilance or minimization? --
Moderators of perceptions and attributions to discrimination --
Characteristics of the event --
Characteristics of the situation --
Characteristics of the person --
Affect --
Prejudice expectations --
Group identification --
Status-related beliefs --
Impact of perceived discrimination on self-esteem and emotional well-being --
Threat to personal identity --
Clarity of discrimination --
Group identification --
Beliefs --
Implications for interpersonal relationships --
6. Controlling prejudice and stereotyping : antecedents, mechanisms, and contexts / Galen V. Bodenhausen, Andrew R. Todd, and Jennifer A. Richeson --
Galen v. Bodenhausen, Andrew R. Todd, and Jennifer A. Richeson --
Automatic activation of stereotypes and prejudice --
Motivational antecedents of prejudice control --
Cognitive mechanisms of prejudice control --
Executive function and self-regulation --
Controlling the initial activation of biased associations --
social contexts of control --
Interpersonal interactions --
Verbal versus nonverbal behavior --
Affective and cognitive consequences of control --
Institutional and cultural contexts --
Social norms --
Diversity ideology --
diverse environments --
7. Stereotypes and shifting standards / Monica Biernat --
Shifting standards in social judgement --
Translation and the communication of subjective language --
Setting standards --
Behaving toward members of stereotyped groups --
8. Stereotype and social identity threat / Joshua Aronson and Matthew S. McGlone --
The process of social identity threat --
The role of individual differences --
Mediating mechanisms of short-term performance --
Anxiety --
Reduced working memory and impaired self-regulation --
Expectations --
Effort --
Priming effects --
Longer term effects on achievement --
Avoidance of challenge --
Disidentification --
The pitfalls and promise of social identity salience --
beyond the academic context: athletic performance, aging an memory, political knowledge, managerial performance --
Threat-reducing interventions --
Forewarning --
Reframing the nature of ability --
Role models --
Self-affirmations --
9. The role of entitativity in stereotyping : processes and parameters / David L. Hamilton ... [et al.] --
Perceptions of entitativity and homogeneity --
The outgroup homogeneity effect --
The relation between similarity and stereotyping --
The relation between entitativity and similarity --
Entitativity, stereotype development , generalization, and the interchangeability of group members --
10. The unbearable accuracy of stereotypes / Lee Jussim ... [et al.] --
Accuracy of ethnic and racial stereotypes --Accuracy of gender stereotypes --
Role of stereotypes in enhancing or reducing the accuracy of person perception --
11. Downward and upward spirals in intergroup interactions : the role of egosystem and ecosystem goals / Jennifer Crocker and Julie A. Garcia --
Stigma and self-image threat --
Social norms against prejudice --
Consequences of self-image threat --
Vigilance --
Physiological responses --
Flight responses --
Fight responses --
Emotional responses --
cognitive responses --
Self-regulation --
Downward spirals --
Goals in intergroup interactions --
Ecosystem goals --
Egosystem and ecosystem goals and disclosure of concealable stigmas --
Creating upward spirals --
12. The stereotypic behaviors of the powerful and their effect on the relatively powerless / Theresa K. Vescio ... [et al.] --
Stereotyping, power, and the maintenance of the status quo --
13. Mechanisms underlying the malleability of implicit prejudice and stereotypes : the role of automaticity and cognitive control / Nilanjana Dasgupta --
Implicit attitudes are malleable --
cognitive control influences the malleability of implicit attitudes --
Accessibility of automatic associations --
Increasing the salience of group membership increases implicit bias by activating automatic associations --
Increasing the salience of counterstereotypic cues decreases implicit bias by activating different positive associations --
Specific motivations can increase or decrease implicit bias by changing in cognitive control --
Source of motivation: emotion, self-image threat and social identity threat, promotion and prevention focus, social norms global executive control --
Motivation to control prejudice --
14. Intergroup emotions theory / Diane M. Mackie and Angela T. Maitner, and Eliot R. Smith --
15. How our dreams of death transcendence breed prejudice, stereotyping, and conflict : terror management theory / Jeff Greenberg ... [et al.] --
Terror management: theory and evidence --
TMT, prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination --
TMT and prejudice as a response to the threat of alternative worldview --
TMT and two special kinds of prejudice: sexism and ageism --
TMT and stereotyping --
TMT and the eradication of the evil other: the ultimate form of discrimination --
TMT and the psychological consequences of prejudice --
TMT and other approaches to understanding of prejudice --
Individual differences --
Realistic group conflict theory --
Scapegoat theory --
Social identity theory --
Just World and system justification theories --
Social cognitive approaches --
TMT and the amelioration of prejudice and intergroup conflict --
16. You were always on my mind : how event-related potentials inform impression formation research / Jennifer T. Kubota and Tiffany A. Ito --
Understanding ERPS --
Social categorization --
Individuation --
Moderation of early visual processing --
Perception of racially ambiguous faces --
17. Pictures in our heads : contributions of fMRI to the study of prejudice and stereotyping / David M. Amodio and Matthew D. Lieberman --
Neural mechanisms of implicit prejudice --
Neural correlates of implicit stereotyping --
Neurocognitive mechanisms of control --
Inhibition of race-biased emotion --
Neural basis of intergroup person perception --
Neural substrates of ingroup versus outgroup perception --
Neural basis of outgroup empathy --
18. Measures of prejudice / Michael A. Olson --
Racial Attitudes Scale (RAS) --
Attitudes Toward Blacks (ATB) --
Attitudes toward Whites (ATW) --
Pro-black / anti-black attitudes questionnaire --
Subtle and blatant prejudice scales --
The modern racism scale --
More recent measures of modern and symbolic racism --
Distal measures --
Measure of motivation --
Priming measures --
IAT (Greenwald et al., 1998) --
19. Racism in the 21st century / Michael A. Zárate --
Racism and ethnicity --
Racism in the workplace --
Ethnic cleansing --
Essentialism --
Social identity theory --
Social categorization --
Stereotype confirmation --
Confrontational approaches --
Collective approaches to prejudice reduction --
Common ingroup identity --
Multiculturalism --
20. Sexism / Janet K. Swim and Lauri L. Hyers --
Gender differences --
Feminist theories of gender socialization --
Gender stereotypes --
Traditional gender roles --
Modern sexism and neosexism --
Reactions toward feminism and feminists --
Ambivalent sexism --
Beliefs supporting sexual aggression against women --
Sexist behaviors --
Judgments of women and men --
Backlash --
Social context --
Traditional gender roles --
Everyday experiences and interpersonal sexism --
Violence --
Objectification of women --
Internalization of sexism --
21. Ageism / Todd D. Nelson --
;The institutionalization of ageism --
Age stereotypes --
Positive intentions --
Influence of ageism on older persons --
History of ageism --
Cross-cultural differences in ageism --
22. Sexual prejudice / Gregory M. Herek --
Sexual stigma and prejudice --
Enacted sexual stigma --
Felt sexual stigma --
Internalized sexual stigma --
Sexual prejudice --
Distinguishing sexual prejudice from other sexual orientation attitudes --
Cognitive, affective, and behavioral sources of sexual prejudice --
Sexual prejudice and beliefs about sexual minorities --
Affective sources off sexual prejudice --
Key correlates of sexual prejudice --
Gender --
Religious beliefs and affiliations --
Personal experience and relationships --
Motivations for sexual prejudice --
23. Anti-fat prejudice / Christian S. Crandall, Angela Nierman, and Michelle Hebl --
Effects on mental health --
Teasing --
Self-esteem --
Education --
Workplace --
Hiring paradigms --
Promotion and pay scales --
Customer service --
Marriage, relationships, and family --
Health care --
Gender, ethnicity, culture, and social class --
Theoretical accounts of anti-fat prejudice --
Stereotype content model --
Intergroup emotions theory --
Evolutionary approaches --
System justification approach --
Justification suppression model --
Weight-based prejudice --
Social norms about expression --
Is obesity related research biased against the null hypothesis? --
24. A common ingroup identity : a categorization-based approach for reducing intergroup bias / Samuel L. Gaertner and John F. Dovidio --
Social categorization --
Categorization and bias --
Categorization-based models of bias reduction --
The common ingroup identity model --
Common identity and the reduction of intergroup bias --
The value of a dual identity --
The Green Circle Elementary School Anti-Bias Education Program --
25. The self-regulation of prejudice / Margo J. Monteith and Aimee Y. Mark --
Self-regulation through suppression --
Prejudice-related discrepancies --
Discrepancy-related affect --
Behavioral inhibition and retrospective reflection --
Prospective reflection and prejudice regulation in the presence of cues for control --
Application to high-prejudice individuals --
Neuroscientific evidence for the self-regulation of prejudice --
Self-regulation in intergroup interactions --
26. The future of research on prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination / Susan T. Fiske ... [et al.] --
Behavior: remember discrimination? --
Culture --
Brain.
Responsibility: edited by Todd D. Nelson.
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schema:description"26. The future of research on prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination / Susan T. Fiske ... [et al.] -- Behavior: remember discrimination? -- Culture -- Brain."@en
schema:description"23. Anti-fat prejudice / Christian S. Crandall, Angela Nierman, and Michelle Hebl -- Effects on mental health -- Teasing -- Self-esteem -- Education -- Workplace -- Hiring paradigms -- Promotion and pay scales -- Customer service -- Marriage, relationships, and family -- Health care -- Gender, ethnicity, culture, and social class -- Theoretical accounts of anti-fat prejudice -- Stereotype content model -- Intergroup emotions theory -- Evolutionary approaches -- System justification approach -- Justification suppression model -- Weight-based prejudice -- Social norms about expression -- Is obesity related research biased against the null hypothesis? -- 24. A common ingroup identity : a categorization-based approach for reducing intergroup bias / Samuel L. Gaertner and John F. Dovidio -- Social categorization -- Categorization and bias -- Categorization-based models of bias reduction -- The common ingroup identity model -- Common identity and the reduction of intergroup bias -- The value of a dual identity -- The Green Circle Elementary School Anti-Bias Education Program -- 25. The self-regulation of prejudice / Margo J. Monteith and Aimee Y. Mark -- Self-regulation through suppression -- Prejudice-related discrepancies -- Discrepancy-related affect -- Behavioral inhibition and retrospective reflection -- Prospective reflection and prejudice regulation in the presence of cues for control -- Application to high-prejudice individuals -- Neuroscientific evidence for the self-regulation of prejudice -- Self-regulation in intergroup interactions --"@en
schema:description"10. The unbearable accuracy of stereotypes / Lee Jussim ... [et al.] -- Accuracy of ethnic and racial stereotypes --Accuracy of gender stereotypes -- Role of stereotypes in enhancing or reducing the accuracy of person perception -- 11. Downward and upward spirals in intergroup interactions : the role of egosystem and ecosystem goals / Jennifer Crocker and Julie A. Garcia -- Stigma and self-image threat -- Social norms against prejudice -- Consequences of self-image threat -- Vigilance -- Physiological responses -- Flight responses -- Fight responses -- Emotional responses -- cognitive responses -- Self-regulation -- Downward spirals -- Goals in intergroup interactions -- Ecosystem goals -- Egosystem and ecosystem goals and disclosure of concealable stigmas -- Creating upward spirals -- 12. The stereotypic behaviors of the powerful and their effect on the relatively powerless / Theresa K. Vescio ... [et al.] -- Stereotyping, power, and the maintenance of the status quo -- 13. Mechanisms underlying the malleability of implicit prejudice and stereotypes : the role of automaticity and cognitive control / Nilanjana Dasgupta -- Implicit attitudes are malleable -- cognitive control influences the malleability of implicit attitudes -- Accessibility of automatic associations -- Increasing the salience of group membership increases implicit bias by activating automatic associations -- Increasing the salience of counterstereotypic cues decreases implicit bias by activating different positive associations -- Specific motivations can increase or decrease implicit bias by changing in cognitive control -- Source of motivation: emotion, self-image threat and social identity threat, promotion and prevention focus, social norms global executive control -- Motivation to control prejudice --"@en
schema:description"1. The study of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination within social psychology : a quick history of theory and research / Charles Stangor -- Defining stereotypes and prejudice -- Predicting prejudice: the prejudiced personality -- Etiology -- Influence: using stereotypes and prejudice -- 2. Development of racial and ethnic prejudice among children / Sheri R. Levy and Julie Milligan Hughes -- Theories of the origins of prejudice among children -- Social learning approach -- Linguistic connotation theorizing -- Multicultural theorizing -- Antiracist theorizing -- Colorblind theorizing -- Mere exposure theorizing -- Extended contact theory -- Intergroup contact theory -- cognitive approach -- Social-cognitive developmental approaches -- Social identity development theory -- Common ingroup identity model -- Developmental model of subjective group dynamics -- Social domain model -- Social-developmental perspective on lay theories -- Developmental intergroup theory -- Evolutionary approach -- 3. Intergroup threat theory / Walter G. Stephan, Oscar Ybarra, and Kimberly Rios Morrison -- Intergroup threat theory -- Antecedents of threat -- Consequences of threat -- Cognitive responses -- Emotional responses -- Behavioral responses --"@en
schema:description"7. Stereotypes and shifting standards / Monica Biernat -- Shifting standards in social judgement -- Translation and the communication of subjective language -- Setting standards -- Behaving toward members of stereotyped groups -- 8. Stereotype and social identity threat / Joshua Aronson and Matthew S. McGlone -- The process of social identity threat -- The role of individual differences -- Mediating mechanisms of short-term performance -- Anxiety -- Reduced working memory and impaired self-regulation -- Expectations -- Effort -- Priming effects -- Longer term effects on achievement -- Avoidance of challenge -- Disidentification -- The pitfalls and promise of social identity salience -- beyond the academic context: athletic performance, aging an memory, political knowledge, managerial performance -- Threat-reducing interventions -- Forewarning -- Reframing the nature of ability -- Role models -- Self-affirmations -- 9. The role of entitativity in stereotyping : processes and parameters / David L. Hamilton ... [et al.] -- Perceptions of entitativity and homogeneity -- The outgroup homogeneity effect -- The relation between similarity and stereotyping -- The relation between entitativity and similarity -- Entitativity, stereotype development , generalization, and the interchangeability of group members --"@en
schema:description"4. Automaticity and control in stereotyping and prejudice / Patricia G. Devine and Lindsay B. Sharp -- Evidence of automatic stereotype activation -- Variability of automatic intergroup biases -- Attentional processes -- Social context and social roles -- Individual differences -- Situationally induced motivational factors -- Malleability of automatic intergroup biases -- Effects of practice -- Thinking about counterstereotypic exemplars -- Motor processes and spreading attitudes -- Impact and pervasiveness of automatic biases -- Control -- Individuation -- Correction: overcoming potential bias -- Suppression: banishing stereotypes from consciousness -- Indirect and unintentional control strategies -- Self-regulation: intentional inhibition and replacement -- Limits to deliberative control strategies -- Interplay between automatic and controlled processes -- Social neuroscience approach to the study of automaticity and control -- 5. Attributions to discrimination : antecedents and consequences / Brenda Major and Pamela J. Sawyer -- Perceiving and attributing outcomes to discrimination: vigilance or minimization? -- Moderators of perceptions and attributions to discrimination -- Characteristics of the event -- Characteristics of the situation -- Characteristics of the person -- Affect -- Prejudice expectations -- Group identification -- Status-related beliefs -- Impact of perceived discrimination on self-esteem and emotional well-being -- Threat to personal identity -- Clarity of discrimination -- Group identification -- Beliefs -- Implications for interpersonal relationships -- 6. Controlling prejudice and stereotyping : antecedents, mechanisms, and contexts / Galen V. Bodenhausen, Andrew R. Todd, and Jennifer A. Richeson -- Galen v. Bodenhausen, Andrew R. Todd, and Jennifer A. Richeson -- Automatic activation of stereotypes and prejudice -- Motivational antecedents of prejudice control -- Cognitive mechanisms of prejudice control -- Executive function and self-regulation -- Controlling the initial activation of biased associations -- social contexts of control -- Interpersonal interactions -- Verbal versus nonverbal behavior -- Affective and cognitive consequences of control -- Institutional and cultural contexts -- Social norms -- Diversity ideology -- diverse environments --"@en
schema:description"17. Pictures in our heads : contributions of fMRI to the study of prejudice and stereotyping / David M. Amodio and Matthew D. Lieberman -- Neural mechanisms of implicit prejudice -- Neural correlates of implicit stereotyping -- Neurocognitive mechanisms of control -- Inhibition of race-biased emotion -- Neural basis of intergroup person perception -- Neural substrates of ingroup versus outgroup perception -- Neural basis of outgroup empathy -- 18. Measures of prejudice / Michael A. Olson -- Racial Attitudes Scale (RAS) -- Attitudes Toward Blacks (ATB) -- Attitudes toward Whites (ATW) -- Pro-black / anti-black attitudes questionnaire -- Subtle and blatant prejudice scales -- The modern racism scale -- More recent measures of modern and symbolic racism -- Distal measures -- Measure of motivation -- Priming measures -- IAT (Greenwald et al., 1998) -- 19. Racism in the 21st century / Michael A. Zárate -- Racism and ethnicity -- Racism in the workplace -- Ethnic cleansing -- Essentialism -- Social identity theory -- Social categorization -- Stereotype confirmation -- Confrontational approaches -- Collective approaches to prejudice reduction -- Common ingroup identity -- Multiculturalism --"@en
schema:description"20. Sexism / Janet K. Swim and Lauri L. Hyers -- Gender differences -- Feminist theories of gender socialization -- Gender stereotypes -- Traditional gender roles -- Modern sexism and neosexism -- Reactions toward feminism and feminists -- Ambivalent sexism -- Beliefs supporting sexual aggression against women -- Sexist behaviors -- Judgments of women and men -- Backlash -- Social context -- Traditional gender roles -- Everyday experiences and interpersonal sexism -- Violence -- Objectification of women -- Internalization of sexism -- 21. Ageism / Todd D. Nelson -- ;The institutionalization of ageism -- Age stereotypes -- Positive intentions -- Influence of ageism on older persons -- History of ageism -- Cross-cultural differences in ageism -- 22. Sexual prejudice / Gregory M. Herek -- Sexual stigma and prejudice -- Enacted sexual stigma -- Felt sexual stigma -- Internalized sexual stigma -- Sexual prejudice -- Distinguishing sexual prejudice from other sexual orientation attitudes -- Cognitive, affective, and behavioral sources of sexual prejudice -- Sexual prejudice and beliefs about sexual minorities -- Affective sources off sexual prejudice -- Key correlates of sexual prejudice -- Gender -- Religious beliefs and affiliations -- Personal experience and relationships -- Motivations for sexual prejudice --"@en
schema:description"14. Intergroup emotions theory / Diane M. Mackie and Angela T. Maitner, and Eliot R. Smith -- 15. How our dreams of death transcendence breed prejudice, stereotyping, and conflict : terror management theory / Jeff Greenberg ... [et al.] -- Terror management: theory and evidence -- TMT, prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination -- TMT and prejudice as a response to the threat of alternative worldview -- TMT and two special kinds of prejudice: sexism and ageism -- TMT and stereotyping -- TMT and the eradication of the evil other: the ultimate form of discrimination -- TMT and the psychological consequences of prejudice -- TMT and other approaches to understanding of prejudice -- Individual differences -- Realistic group conflict theory -- Scapegoat theory -- Social identity theory -- Just World and system justification theories -- Social cognitive approaches -- TMT and the amelioration of prejudice and intergroup conflict -- 16. You were always on my mind : how event-related potentials inform impression formation research / Jennifer T. Kubota and Tiffany A. Ito -- Understanding ERPS -- Social categorization -- Individuation -- Moderation of early visual processing -- Perception of racially ambiguous faces --"@en
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