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Handbook of Psychopharmacology : Volume 7: Principles of Behavioral Pharmacology

Author: Leslie L Iversen; Susan D Iversen; Solomon H Snyder
Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 1977.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Technical achievements in the design of apparatus and the recording of behavior played an important role in these developments, and the resultant behavioral methods have been accepted and found  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Printed edition
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Leslie L Iversen; Susan D Iversen; Solomon H Snyder
ISBN: 9781461342168 1461342163 9781461342144 1461342147
OCLC Number: 852789655
Description: 1 online resource (volumes)
Contents: Methods for Studying Unconditioned and Conditioned Behavior.- 1 The Contribution of Ethological Techniques to the Study of Drug Effects.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Behavior of Laboratory Rodents.- 2.1. Exploration.- 2.2. Eating and Drinking.- 2.3. Digging and Nest-Building.- 2.4. Social Behavior.- 2.5. Analysis of Behavior.- 2.6. Social Structure.- 3. Pharmacological Investigations.- 3.1. Chlorpromazine.- 3.2. Ethyl Alcohol.- 3.3. Nicotine.- 3.4. Trichloroethylene Vapor.- 3.5. Cannabis.- 4. Effect of Olfactory Signals on Behavior.- 5. Ethological Methods in Clinical Drug Trials.- 6. Discussion.- 7. References.- 2 A Critique of the Methods Available for the Measurement of Spontaneous Motor Activity.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods of Measuring Locomotor Activity.- 2.1. Photocell Cages.- 2.2. Running Wheels.- 2.3. Stabilimeters and Jiggle Cages.- 2.4. Tilt Cages.- 2.5. Open Fields.- 2.6. Direct Observation.- 3. Internal and External Factors That Affect Activity.- 3.1. Baseline Levels of Activity.- 3.2. Internal Factors.- 3.3. External Factors.- 4. Statistical Analysis of Results.- 4.1. Locomotor Activity.- 4.2. Rating Scales.- 5. Combining Modes of Measurement.- 6. Exploration and Its Measurement.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Methodological Considerations.- 6.3. Conclusions.- 7. References.- 3 The Study of Sequences of Motor Behavior.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Organization of Behavior.- 2.1. Sequences of Behavior (Behavior Patterns).- 2.2. Interval Histograms of Acts.- 2.3. Duration of Acts.- 2.4. Frequency of Acts.- 2.5. The Motor Act.- 2.6. Conclusions.- 3. Methods of Analysis.- 3.1. Environmental Factors.- 3.2. Data-Recording.- 3.3. Reliability of Observers.- 4. Examples and Results.- 4.1. Continuous Recording.- 4.2. Time-Sampling Methods.- 4.3. Stereotyped Behavior.- 5. Summary.- 6. References.- 4 Schedules of Reinforcement.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Some Schedule Effects.- 2.1. Schedules and Programs.- 2.2. Responses.- 2.3. S(D) T x sec N1 S(rf) (Program of FI Schedules).- 2.4. S(D) N n S(rf) (Program of FR Schedules).- 2.5. S(D1) T x sec N1 S(rf), S(D2) N n S(rf) (Program of a mult FI, FR Schedule).- 2.6. S(D) [T x sec S(p) or N1 T y sec S(p)].- 2.7. S(D) N n S(rf) and N n' S(p) ("Punishment").- 2.8. Transitional States.- 3. Behavioral Pharmacology.- 3.1. Schedules of Reinforcement in Behavioral Pharmacology.- 3.2. How to Express Drug Effects.- 3.3. Effects of Drugs on Responding under FI and FR.- 3.4. Effects of Drugs on Responding under Postponement Schedules and Schedules of Suppression.- 3.5. Summary.- 4. What Do Drugs Affect When They Affect Behavior?.- 5. References.- 5 Control of Behavior by Noxious Stimuli.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Behavioral Processes That Can Be Controlled by Noxious Stimuli.- 1.2. Characteristics of Events That Modify Behavior.- 1.3. Use of Electric Shock in Behavioral Experiments.- 2. Schedules Using Noxious Stimuli to Maintain Behavior.- 2.1. Behavior Maintained by the Termination of Noxious Stimuli (Escape).- 2.2. Behavior Maintained by the Postponement of Noxious Stimuli (Avoidance).- 2.3. Behavior Maintained by the Presentation of Noxious Stimuli.- 3. Effects of Drugs on Behavior Maintained by Noxious Stimuli and Other Events.- 4. Behavior Suppressed by Noxious Stimuli (Punishment).- 4.1. Behavior Maintained by Food or Water Presentation.- 4.2. Behavior Maintained by, or in the Context of, Schedules of Electric Shock Termination, Postponement, or Presentation.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- 6. References.- 6 Theories of Reinforcement, Drive, and Motivation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Reinforcement.- 3. Cognitive Learning Theories.- 3.1. McCorquodale and Meehl's Expectancy Theory.- 3.2. Drive-Initiated Behavior.- 3.3. Attention.- 3.4. Criteria for Overt Responses.- 3.5. Motivation.- 4. Physiological Interpretation of the Expectancy Model.- 5. Self-Stimulation.- 6. Responses to Aversive Stimuli.- 7. Conclusion.- 8. References.- 7 New Considerations in the Neuropsychology of Motivated Behaviors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Lateral Hypothalamic Syndrome.- 2.1. Impairments in Food and Water Intake.- 2.2. Sensorimotor Impairments.- 2.3. Activational Changes.- 3. The Ventromedial Hypothalamic Syndrome.- 4. Selective Lesion Technique: The Lateral Hypothalamic Syndrome.- 5. Clinical Disorders of Movement Involving Brain Dopamine.- 6. Levels of Control over Behavior.- 7. Conclusions.- 8. References.- 8 Animal Behavioral Models of Relevance to Psychiatry.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Animal Models of Some Psychiatric Disorders.- 2.1. Schizophrenic Disorders.- 2.2. Manic-Depressive Disorders.- 2.3. Fear and Anxiety.- 3. General Comments.- 4. References.- Factors That Influence Behavioral Responses to Drugs.- 9 Pharmacogenetics.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Sex Differences.- 3. Selection.- 3.1. Pharmacogenetic Selection.- 3.2. Other Selections.- 4. Strain Differences.- 4.1. Variability of Response.- 4.2. Amphetamine and Other Stimulants.- 4.3. Diallel Cross.- 4.4. Tranquilizers.- 4.5. Anticonvulsants and Convulsants.- 4.6. Recombinant Inbred Strains.- 4.7. Alcohol and Opiates.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- 6. References.- 10 Experimental and Clinical Aspects of Drug Dependence.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Epidemiological Approaches.- 2.1. Prevalence Studies.- 2.2. Retrospective Studies.- 2.3. Prospective Studies.- 3. Experimental Analyses of Drug-Taking Behavior.- 3.1. Positive Primary Reinforcement.- 3.2. Positive Secondary Reinforcement.- 3.3. Aversive Control.- 3.4. Discriminative Control by Drugs.- 3.5. Role of Adjunctive Behavior.- 4. Drug Tolerance, Learning, and Memory.- 4.1. Critique of Learning Factors in Tolerance.- 4.2. Proposed Criteria.- 4.3. Parallels Between Tolerance and Memory.- 5. Treatment of Drug Dependence.- 5.1. Enforced Abstinence.- 5.2. Psychological and Social Rehabilitation.- 5.3. Controlled Prescription and Maintenance.- 5.4. Pharmacological Antagonists.- 5.5. Aversive Control.- 5.6. Psychosurgery.- 5.7. General Principles of Management.- 6. References.- 11 Social Experience as a Determinant of Normal Behavior and Drug Effect.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Environment and Brain Evolution.- 3. Subject-Environment Interaction.- 4. Socioenvironmental Impoverishment.- 5. Socioenvironmental Deprivation (Isolation).- 6. Psychotropic Drug Activity.- 7. The Limbic System and Emotional Behavior.- 8. Socioenvironmental Enrichment.- 9. Conclusions.- 10. References.- 12 Developmental Psychopharmacology.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Neurochemical Development.- 2.1. The Monoamines.- 2.2. Acetylcholine.- 3. Developmental Drug Effects.- 3.1. Drugs That Act Selectively on the Monoamines.- 3.2. Drugs That Act Selectively on Acetylcholine.- 4. Conclusions.- 5. References.
Responsibility: edited by Leslie L. Iversen, Susan D. Iversen, Solomon H. Snyder.

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