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Health effects, dosimetry and radiological protection of tritium : part of the Tritium Studies Project.

Author: Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission.
Publisher: Ottawa, Ont. : Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, 2010
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : National government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Commission, Canadian Nuclear Safety.
Health Effects, Dosimetry and Radiological Protection of Tritium.
Ottawa : Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, ©2010
Material Type: Document, Government publication, National government publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission.
ISBN: 9781100155838 110015583X
OCLC Number: 898908227
Notes: "April 2010."
"INFO-0798."
Description: 1 online resource (xii, 193 pages) : illustrations, digital file
Contents: Executive summary --
1. Introduction. 2. Physical, chemical and radioactive properties of tritium. 2.1. Radioactive properties --
2.2. Chemical forms and properties: 2.2.1. Tritiated water; 2.2.2. Tritiated gas; 2.2.3. Organically bound tritium. 3. Adverse health effects due to tritium. 3.1. Deterministic effects: 3.1.1. Lethality; 3.1.2. Teratogenic effects; 3.1.3. Reproductive effects --
3.2. Stochastic effects: 3.2.1. Carcinogenicity; 3.2.2. Hereditary effects; 3.2.3. Adverse health effects of organically bound tritium --
3.3. Non radiological effects of tritium: 3.3.1. Transmutation; 3.3.2. Isotopic effect of tritium --
3.4. Conclusion on adverse health effects. 4 Epidemiology. 4.1. Introduction: 4.1.1. Types of epidemiological studies --
4.2. Studies of radiation workers: 4.2.1. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority workers; 4.2.2. Atomic weapons establishment workers; 4.2.3. Three groups of UK classified workers; 4.2.4. British Nuclear Fuel Limited Capenhurst; 4.2.5. Chapelcross Nuclear Reactor workers; 4.2.6. Sellafield Nuclear workers; 4.2.7. UK National Registry for Radiation Workers: mortality and cancer incidence following occupational radiation exposure; 4.2.8. United States: Savannah River Site workers and other US nuclear workers; 4.2.9. Canada: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and other Canadian nuclear workers; 4.2.10. The International Agency for Research on Cancer multi-country worker studies --
4.3. Case-control studies of in utero exposure and of offspring of radiation workers: 4.3.1. Case-control and cohort studies of childhood leukaemia around British nuclear plants; 4.3.2. Congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation at the Hanford Site; 4.3.3. Congenital anomalies in offspring of Ontario Hydro Power workers --
4.4. Studies of environmental releases and people living in the vicinity --
of nuclear facilities: 4.4.1. Childhood leukaemia in communities around nuclear installations in Britain; 4.4.2. Congenital malformations, childhood leukaemia and mortality in communities around nuclear sites in the United States. 4.4.3. Birth defects, childhood leukaemia, infant mortality and other health indicators in communities around Canadian nuclear facilities; 4.4.4. Childhood cancer and leukaemia in communities near German nuclear power plants; 4.4.5. Incidence of childhood leukaemia near nuclear sites in France; 4.4.6. Meta-analysis of childhood leukaemia in proximity to nuclear facilities; 4.4.7. Authoritative reviews of epidemiological studies of childhood leukaemia around nuclear facilities --
4.5. Review of Tritium Epidemiological Studies: 4.5.1. United Kingdom report of the Committee Examining Radiation Risk of Internal Emitters; 4.5.2. The Independent Advisory Group on Ionizing Radiation's review of epidemiological studies of exposure to tritium --
4.6. Discussion --
4.7. Conclusions. 5. Relative biological effectiveness. 5.1. RBE literature reviews and experimental studies --
5.2. Summary of relative biological effectiveness determinations: 5.2.1. In vivo studies using x-rays as the reference radiation; 5.2.2. In vivo studies using gamma rays as the reference radiation; 5.2.3. In vitro studies using x-rays as the reference radiation; 5.2.4. In vitro studies using gamma rays as the reference radiation; 5.2.5. Relative biological effectiveness studies --
summary --
5.3. Factors affecting RBE: 5.3.1. Reference radiation; 5.3.2. Dose and dose rate effects; 5.3.3. Dosimetric considerations; 5.3.4. Experimental environments; 5.3.5. Biological endpoints; 5.3.6. Electron energy and ionization path lengths: why tritium radiation is more effective than gamma radiation --
5.4. Summary and conclusions. 6. Dosimetry and biokinetics. 6.1. Overview of current ICRP models for tritiated water and organically bound tritium --
6.2. Internal dosimetry of tritiated compounds using the ICRP HTO model: 6.2.1. The ICRP model for the inhalation and ingestion of tritiated water; 6.2.2. Absorption of HTO through skin; 6.2.3. Inhalation of elemental tritium gas; 6.2.4. Tritiated hydrocarbons; 6.2.5. Metal tritides; 6.2.6. Summary of dose coefficients based on the ICRP HTO model --
6.3. Internal dosimetry of tritiated compounds using the ICRP OBT model --
6.4. Intakes of tritium in relation to pregnancy and nursing: 6.4.1. Pregnancy and tritium intake; 6.4.2. Nursing and tritium intake --
6.5. Review of currently available information about the biokinetics of tritiated compounds: 6.5.1. Dosimetry of tritiated compounds using the HTO model; 6.5.2. Absorption of HTO through skin; 6.5.3. The inhalation of elemental tritium gas; 6.5.4. Intake resulting from skin contact with tritium-gas-contaminated surfaces; 6.5.5. Ingestion of organically bound tritium; 6.5.6. Biokinetics of tritiated DNA precursors --
6.6. Summary and conclusions. 7. Options for assessing and controlling risks associated with tritium exposure. 7.1. The ICRP's approach to radiation protection from internal emitters: 7.1.1. Change the radiation weighting factor (wR) --
7.2. Summary and conclusions. 8. Conclusions --
9. Glossary --
10. Abbreviations --
11. Units --
12. References.
Other Titles: Tritium : effets sur la santé, dosimétrie et radioprotection
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