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The hereafter : Sheol, Hades and Hell, the world to come, and the Scripture doctrine of retribution according to law

Author: James Fyfe
Publisher: Edinburgh : T. & T. Clark, 1890.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: James Fyfe
ISBN: 9781331709121 1331709121
OCLC Number: 2749067
Description: xxiii, 407 pages ; 23 cm
Contents: Part 1-Sheol, Hades, and hell: the world to come --
Historical, archaeological, and exegetical evidence --
I. Testimony of history to a future life and retribution --
Introduction --
Beliefs of the most ancient peoples forming the three great divisions of mankind --
A. Egypt: book of the dead --
1. Belief in being and unity of God and a future life --
2. Progress of the soul in death and judgment --
B. Babylonians and Assyrians: Acadians and Sumirs --
1. Highlanders and lowlanders --
2. The origin of Chaldeans of history --
3. Beliefs --
4. One only God --
5. Man immortal and accountable --
6. Hymns --
7. Ishtar's decent into Hades --
C. Iranians or Persians: Zoroaster and his pure and lofty religion --
1. One supreme eternal God the creator --
2. Who rewards and punishes men in the life to come --
D. Indians: Rig-Veda --
1. Hymn --
2. No trace of transmigration --
Future life, and rewards and punishments --
E. Canaanites and Phoenicians: manufacturers, merchants, and sailors --
1. The British of that age --
2. Antiquities not yet explored --
3. Religion same as that of Egypt, Babylon --
4. Great God Bel --
5. Sidon --
Joshua and Homer --
6. Alphabet --
7. Melchizedek --
8. Necromancy --
F. Arabians: high antiquity 1. Nomadic people --
2. Children of Abraham, Lot and Esau absorbed --
3. Job and Jethro --
4. Three religions: Jewish, Christian, and Mahometan originated --
5. And in all God and future life crystallized --
G. Pelasgi or Greeks: Javan --
1. Iones --
2. Greeks --
3. Mythology --
4. Kronos and his three sons, Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades --
5. Hades God of underworld --
6. Greek art and its teaching --
7. Homer's ideas of Hades --
H. Etruscans and Romans: Tiras, grandson of Noah --
1. National gods --
2. Family gods --
3. Lares and penates, spirits of ancestors --
I. Chinese: Taoism, religion of reason --
1. Confucius --
2. Unity of family living and dead --
3. Fearful power of dead hand --
4. Ancestral worship chief bond of society --
5. A Taoist hell --
J. American Indians: origin in antediluvian or early post-diluvian times --
1. Religion in accord with that of ancient nations --
2. One God --
3. A fallen race --
4. Future life --
K. Central Africa: primitive belief still prevalent --
1. Spirits at death go to the land of the sunset --
2. Judged by a great Being III. Testimony of the old testament to a future life and retribution --
A. Place and design of the Hebrew politico-religious economy: belief in a future life underlies it, and ever crops up --
1. An elementary principle well known and accepted --
2. Mosaic economy did not require to reveal or appeal to it --
3. Sense veiled by imperfect translation --
4. More light in this than in any previous age from cognate languages and archaeology --
B. Distinctive name of the unseen state: Sheol, Hades, and hell, originally the spirit world --
1. Meaning obscured by mistranslation --
2. Etymology, schedule --
C. Belief in a world to come, the national creed: Enoch --
1. Gathered to fathers --
2. Moses in Egypt --
3. Patriarchal faith --
4. Necromancer --
5. Jacob and Joseph --
6. David's and Job's belief --
7. Resurrection --
D. Descriptions of Sheol, and its inhabitants: witch of Endor and Samuel --
1. Elijah --
2. King of Babylon and pharaoh enter Sheol, and their reception and companions --
3. The Rephaim, shades --
E. Sheol gradually develops into heaven and hell --
1. Stage 1-Homer's Hades --
2. The Sheol of the patriarchs --
3. Of David and of the prophets --
4. Contrasted destinies IV. Testimony of the apocrypha to a future life and retribution --
A. Place of the apocrypha in this discussion: evidence of Jewish opinion --
1. The human side --
2. Important historical documents --
3. Echo of the teaching of the prophets --
B. Tobit and Judith, and Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, and Baruch: everlasting place --
1. Darkness --
2. Fire and worms --
3. Wail with pain forever --
4. Striking contrasts of character --
5. Conduct and destiny of the good and bad --
6. Hope full of immortality --
7. A kingdom of glory --
8. A crown of beauty --
9. God makes creation a weapon to punish his enemies --
10. They who honor wisdom reign forevermore --
11. Punishment does not cure sin --
12. Fire and worm --
13. Fruit of tree immortality --
C. Esdras: important leaf of MS. lost and restored V. Testimony of the new testament to a future life and retribution --
A. The mission of Christ: His advent --
1. Reveals God and man --
2. Unites God and man --
3. And heaven and earth --
4. He Himself is the great wonder --
5. The supernatural is the natural to Him --
6. Brings salvation --
7. Note explanatory --
8. Importance of understanding terms --
B. The kingdom of God: nature, origin and purpose --
1. Christ grand agent --
2. Subjects of this kingdom --
3. Higher division of Hades, Paradise --
4. Heaven --
5. Intermediate state --
6. Sleep of body, not of soul --
7. Righteous go to heaven --
8. Sinners to Hades --
9. Judgment --
10. Rewards and punishments completed --
C. Hades: equivalent to Sheol 2. Punishment, human and divine --
3. War --
4. Fever --
5. Pestilence --
6. Passion of all sorts, as anger, love --
7. Pain of any kind --
8. Wickedness --
9. Strife --
10. Affliction --
11. The judgments of God, however inflicted, are all called fire, and the furnace --
12. The most appropriate symbol of future punishment --
13. In what sense unquenchable --
F. The undying worm, why symbol of punishment --
1. Exegesis of Isaiah 66:24 --
a. Were dead bodies ever burned and devoured by worms in Hinnom? no historical evidence for it, but everything against it --
b. Jeremiah testifies that it continued the place of worship of fire-gods till Jerusalem was destroyed --
c. Carcasses neither devoured in glen, not on battle-field --
2. The three most troublesome and destructive worms --
a. The tape --
b. Trichina --
c. And guinea --
3. Job's disease probably the guinea worm --
a. Many references to it --
b. Idumea habitat of it --
4. The guinea worm the fiery serpent --
a. Worm included serpent --
b. The circumstances favor this theory --
c. Dr. Kuckenmeister maintains it --
d. Historical support, Agatharchides --
e. All furnish substantial grounds for belief 5. Worms preying on living bodies well known --
a. The Herods --
b. Antiochus Epiphanes --
c. Jehoram? --
d. Not isolated cases --
e. Josephus's fiery worm --
f. Isaiah's vision --
g. He and Christ obtained figure of worm from its ravages in living bodies --
G. Terms describing retribution on God's side --
1. Dich (Dike) and family, right; first branch --
a. Origin of the idea of right --
b. Justice --
c. Moral sense --
d. Dike, nemesis, goddess of justice --
e. Law, custom --
f. Equity personified --
g. Her function to distribute rewards and punishments according to desert --
h. The judge renders and exacts the right --
i. Root idea of whole family is, right --
j. Schedules --
2. Dich (Dike), second branch; Dicaioj (Dikaios), and family, just, righteous --
a. Answering to Hebrew tsadak, just, right, a condition conformable to order and right --
b. Righteousness with ancients included man's relations to God and men --
c. In Scripture a condition of rightness, the standard of which is God --
d. Righteousness lays claim to whole range of life --
e. Perfect in God --
f. Degrees of in man --
g. Christ makes men righteous 3. Krinw (Krino), and family, to separate, judge, give a verdict --
a. Legal administration --
b. Judicial decision for or against, but always according to law and right --
c. Often implies condemnation --
d. Judgment final --
e. Schedules --
4. Qumoj (Thumos) and Orgh (Orge), wrath and indignation --
a. Life in activity and excitement --
b. What in God? not personal passion, but the opposition of His nature to evil --
c. Wine and winepress of wrath --
d. Wrath of God has its root in love --
e. Schedules --
H. Terms describing retribution on man's side --
1. Qliyij (Thlipsis) and Stenocwria (Stenochoria) tribulation and anguish --
a. Pain from pressure from without and from within --
b. Schedules --
2. Kolasij (Kolasis), and Basanoj (Basanos), punishment and torment --
a. Kolasis --
b. Pruning --
c. Punishment pure and simple in Scripture, LXX., and Apocrypha --
d. Schedules showing sense where used III. Duration-annihilation at death --
A. Immortality; ancient and universal belief --
B. Philosophy shows it possible --
C. Simplicity of soul --
D. Evolution from protoplasm? moral philosophy shows it highly probable --
E. Moral arguments --
F. Will a being of such noble powers die out? --
G. A moral nature, with the sense, desire, and capacity for immortality, a promise and prophecy of it --
H. This world needs another to explain it --
I. No future life, no God --
J. Scriptures establish it --
K. Religion built upon it --
L. Christ's teaching has no sense and meaning without it --
IV. Duration-conditional immortality --
A. Constitution of man --
1. Conditional theory stated --
2. Undue limitation, and exaggeration --
3. Image of God --
4. Moral nature --
5. Soul and spirit, breath, life --
6. Mind, man --
7. Inner and outer nature --
8. Former separated and lives in Sheol --
9. God, spirit --
10. Man, body and soul --
11. Flesh and spirit --
12. Fleshy --
13. Soulical --
14. Spiritual --
15. Need for discrimination of sense of terms --
B. Death; how it came 9. Perish --
a. Wine-skins, member of body, meat, gold, flowers, a country, material heavens, bodies and souls of men --
b. Material things dissolve and perish, become extinct because material --
c. Souls perish in sin, and do not become extinct --
d. Are perishing now --
e. A soul in sin is a soul lost --
f. Destroyed, perished in this life and that which is to come --
g. Has missed the right way --
h. All that is worth calling life --
i. Is ruined --
j. Sin is hell --
k. Destruction --
l. Perdition --
m. Pit --
n. But names of hell --
o. Schedules --
E. Corruption --
1. Phtheiro and family, to corrupt --
2. Schedules --
a. Physically: a laurel crown, ships, a country, man --
b. Morally: to act corruptly, corrupted in mind and manners --
c. Spiritually: God incorruptible, man corruptible --
3. Life in heaven, incorruption --
4. Life in punitive Sheol, corruption --
5. Exegesis 2 Peter 2:12, Revelation 11:18 --
6. Corruption includes destruction --
7. A crown, a country, the earth, a man, a maid, corrupted, is to that extent spoiled, ruined, destroyed --
8. A soul in sin is a soul corrupted, turned from its original purpose, debased, ruined, and to that extent destroyed now --
9. But more complete destruction awaits it at the judgment 3. What the Scriptures teach concerning the cause of condemnation --
a. Separation from God by sin, death --
b. Restoration to His favor and friendship, life --
c. Changed relationship through fellowship with Christ --
d. Does not touch the natural life of soul --
4. Rev. E. White's extravagant views of Spirit's work; another gospel --
5. Salvation --
a. Saved from hell in being saved from sin --
b. In Christ forgiven, healed, restored to the love of God --
c. Made all that a soul ought to be to God and man --
V. Duration-universal restoration --
A. Purgatory --
1. Pythagoras and Plato --
2. Sin a disease that may be cured in Hades --
3. Purgatory --
4. Can punishment cure sin and produce love? --
B. Object of punishment --
1. Punishment retributive --
2. Then corrective and vindicatory --
3. Reign of law natural and moral --
4. Divine laws automatic --
5. Names of punishment, dike and krino and families, and perhaps even kolasis, though not so used, may include correction as well as retribution --
6. But when punishment passes over into death, destruction, perdition, corruption, it is purely retributive, deterrent, and vindicatory VI. Duration-retribution eternal --
A. The terms of Scripture expressive of duration --
1. Vitality of this theory overlaid by horrible doctrine of literal fire --
2. Hebrew concept of duration --
3. Olam starts with the hidden, unlimited, and comes down to the limited --
4. Greek aion starts with limited, and expands into the unlimited --
5. World --
a. Course of time --
b. Three ages, past, present, and to come --
6. The whole of duration --
7. Schedules --
8. Formula --
9. Eis ton aiona, always limitless --
Followed by genitive, superlative --
10. Spoken of God --
11. Christ --
12. Saints --
13. Sinners --
14. Heaven and hell alike --
15. Aionios always unlimited duration --
16. Contrasts --
17. Temporary and eternal --
18. Aeonial what? --
a. Aeonial salvation --
b. Aeonial life --
c. Aeonial God --
19. Christ eternal, priest and king --
20. Will of God seems to be that punishment is as eternal as the life of saints, of Christ, and of God --
B. Names and descriptions of punishment 1. Gehenna of fire --
a. Eternal fire undying worm --
b. Unquenchable fire --
c. Christ adopts the figurative nomenclature in common use --
2. Names of punishment on God's side --
a. Justice, judgment, condemnation, vengeance, indignation, and wrath --
b. Express the opposition of His nature to evil --
c. His love compels Him to punish in maintenance of right the well-being of the moral universe --
d. Names on man's side --
e. As man has the nature of God in him the penalty of wrong-doing comes of necessity to him --
f. Tribulation and anguish --
g. Torment, destruction, perdition, corruption, death --
C. The unpardonable, eternal sin --
1. No forgiveness without repentance --
2. No repentance without the Holy Spirit, and if He is, through the means of grace, despised, no pardon for ever --
3. Neglecting, rejecting the Spirit's influence, a hardening process --
4. Sin unto death --
D. Apostasy from Christ --
1. No Savior but Christ --
2. If He is rejected, no other way of life --
3. Offender against Moses' law dies VII. Objections to eternal punishment --
A. Repugnant to human feeling --
1. Canon Kingsley's passionate appeal --
2. Applied to present life, God monster of cruelty --
3. Course of nature condemned --
4. World full of suffering --
5. Can it be prevented? punishment not arbitrary, but according to just law --
6. Does God interfere with laws of nature? --
No reason to believe that God will do it in the hereafter --
B. Eternal punishment inconsistent with the divine character --
1. Assumes we know God --
2. Do we? --
3. Many god makers --
4. Sources of knowledge --
5. Bible and nature --
6. Reveal God full of mercy --
7. Yet terribly and severely just --
8. The well-being of moral agents, His own nature, His very love, compel Him to punish --
9. Can present life be reconciled with popular notion of a God all love? --
10. If men lived on here for ever, would it be unjust to let them reap what they had sown? --
C. Eternal punishment inconsistent with the conduct of God 10. Will God put an end to sin? --
11. So long as there is sin there must be suffering --
12. Mawkish sentimentality --
13. Men want to make their own God --
14. Law --
15. Future punishment answers important ends in this world, whatever it may do in the next --
16. Denying or minimizing it disastrous to morals --
17. Cicero and philosophers --
18. Indulgences --
19. Rationalists in reign of Charles II --
E. Eternal punishment disproportionate, and so unjust --
1. Unjust to punish eternally for a short life of sin --
2. Can desert of sin be gauged and purposes of punishment defined? sin an infinite evil, a barren field --
3. Analogy better --
4. What proportion between sin and suffering here? --
5. Adam's sin and results --
6. Many suffer through no fault of their own --
7. From faults, errors of judgment in youth --
8. Bishop Butler --
9. Civil government --
10. Sin brings suffering during natural life --
11. So during natural life of soul --
12. If soul immortal punishment eternal --
13. If unjust there unjust here --
14. Is there any righteous Governor at all?
Responsibility: by James Fyfe.

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   schema:description "IV. Testimony of the apocrypha to a future life and retribution -- A. Place of the apocrypha in this discussion: evidence of Jewish opinion -- 1. The human side -- 2. Important historical documents -- 3. Echo of the teaching of the prophets -- B. Tobit and Judith, and Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, and Baruch: everlasting place -- 1. Darkness -- 2. Fire and worms -- 3. Wail with pain forever -- 4. Striking contrasts of character -- 5. Conduct and destiny of the good and bad -- 6. Hope full of immortality -- 7. A kingdom of glory -- 8. A crown of beauty -- 9. God makes creation a weapon to punish his enemies -- 10. They who honor wisdom reign forevermore -- 11. Punishment does not cure sin -- 12. Fire and worm -- 13. Fruit of tree immortality -- C. Esdras: important leaf of MS. lost and restored"@en ;
   schema:description "9. Perish -- a. Wine-skins, member of body, meat, gold, flowers, a country, material heavens, bodies and souls of men -- b. Material things dissolve and perish, become extinct because material -- c. Souls perish in sin, and do not become extinct -- d. Are perishing now -- e. A soul in sin is a soul lost -- f. Destroyed, perished in this life and that which is to come -- g. Has missed the right way -- h. All that is worth calling life -- i. Is ruined -- j. Sin is hell -- k. Destruction -- l. Perdition -- m. Pit -- n. But names of hell -- o. Schedules -- E. Corruption -- 1. Phtheiro and family, to corrupt -- 2. Schedules -- a. Physically: a laurel crown, ships, a country, man -- b. Morally: to act corruptly, corrupted in mind and manners -- c. Spiritually: God incorruptible, man corruptible -- 3. Life in heaven, incorruption -- 4. Life in punitive Sheol, corruption -- 5. Exegesis 2 Peter 2:12, Revelation 11:18 -- 6. Corruption includes destruction -- 7. A crown, a country, the earth, a man, a maid, corrupted, is to that extent spoiled, ruined, destroyed -- 8. A soul in sin is a soul corrupted, turned from its original purpose, debased, ruined, and to that extent destroyed now -- 9. But more complete destruction awaits it at the judgment"@en ;
   schema:description "VI. Duration-retribution eternal -- A. The terms of Scripture expressive of duration -- 1. Vitality of this theory overlaid by horrible doctrine of literal fire -- 2. Hebrew concept of duration -- 3. Olam starts with the hidden, unlimited, and comes down to the limited -- 4. Greek aion starts with limited, and expands into the unlimited -- 5. World -- a. Course of time -- b. Three ages, past, present, and to come -- 6. The whole of duration -- 7. Schedules -- 8. Formula -- 9. Eis ton aiona, always limitless -- Followed by genitive, superlative -- 10. Spoken of God -- 11. Christ -- 12. Saints -- 13. Sinners -- 14. Heaven and hell alike -- 15. Aionios always unlimited duration -- 16. Contrasts -- 17. Temporary and eternal -- 18. Aeonial what? -- a. Aeonial salvation -- b. Aeonial life -- c. Aeonial God -- 19. Christ eternal, priest and king -- 20. Will of God seems to be that punishment is as eternal as the life of saints, of Christ, and of God -- B. Names and descriptions of punishment"@en ;
   schema:description "1. Nomadic people -- 2. Children of Abraham, Lot and Esau absorbed -- 3. Job and Jethro -- 4. Three religions: Jewish, Christian, and Mahometan originated -- 5. And in all God and future life crystallized -- G. Pelasgi or Greeks: Javan -- 1. Iones -- 2. Greeks -- 3. Mythology -- 4. Kronos and his three sons, Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades -- 5. Hades God of underworld -- 6. Greek art and its teaching -- 7. Homer's ideas of Hades -- H. Etruscans and Romans: Tiras, grandson of Noah -- 1. National gods -- 2. Family gods -- 3. Lares and penates, spirits of ancestors -- I. Chinese: Taoism, religion of reason -- 1. Confucius -- 2. Unity of family living and dead -- 3. Fearful power of dead hand -- 4. Ancestral worship chief bond of society -- 5. A Taoist hell -- J. American Indians: origin in antediluvian or early post-diluvian times -- 1. Religion in accord with that of ancient nations -- 2. One God -- 3. A fallen race -- 4. Future life -- K. Central Africa: primitive belief still prevalent -- 1. Spirits at death go to the land of the sunset -- 2. Judged by a great Being"@en ;
   schema:description "3. What the Scriptures teach concerning the cause of condemnation -- a. Separation from God by sin, death -- b. Restoration to His favor and friendship, life -- c. Changed relationship through fellowship with Christ -- d. Does not touch the natural life of soul -- 4. Rev. E. White's extravagant views of Spirit's work; another gospel -- 5. Salvation -- a. Saved from hell in being saved from sin -- b. In Christ forgiven, healed, restored to the love of God -- c. Made all that a soul ought to be to God and man -- V. Duration-universal restoration -- A. Purgatory -- 1. Pythagoras and Plato -- 2. Sin a disease that may be cured in Hades -- 3. Purgatory -- 4. Can punishment cure sin and produce love? -- B. Object of punishment -- 1. Punishment retributive -- 2. Then corrective and vindicatory -- 3. Reign of law natural and moral -- 4. Divine laws automatic -- 5. Names of punishment, dike and krino and families, and perhaps even kolasis, though not so used, may include correction as well as retribution -- 6. But when punishment passes over into death, destruction, perdition, corruption, it is purely retributive, deterrent, and vindicatory"@en ;
   schema:description "III. Testimony of the old testament to a future life and retribution -- A. Place and design of the Hebrew politico-religious economy: belief in a future life underlies it, and ever crops up -- 1. An elementary principle well known and accepted -- 2. Mosaic economy did not require to reveal or appeal to it -- 3. Sense veiled by imperfect translation -- 4. More light in this than in any previous age from cognate languages and archaeology -- B. Distinctive name of the unseen state: Sheol, Hades, and hell, originally the spirit world -- 1. Meaning obscured by mistranslation -- 2. Etymology, schedule -- C. Belief in a world to come, the national creed: Enoch -- 1. Gathered to fathers -- 2. Moses in Egypt -- 3. Patriarchal faith -- 4. Necromancer -- 5. Jacob and Joseph -- 6. David's and Job's belief -- 7. Resurrection -- D. Descriptions of Sheol, and its inhabitants: witch of Endor and Samuel -- 1. Elijah -- 2. King of Babylon and pharaoh enter Sheol, and their reception and companions -- 3. The Rephaim, shades -- E. Sheol gradually develops into heaven and hell -- 1. Stage 1-Homer's Hades -- 2. The Sheol of the patriarchs -- 3. Of David and of the prophets -- 4. Contrasted destinies"@en ;
   schema:description "1. Gehenna of fire -- a. Eternal fire undying worm -- b. Unquenchable fire -- c. Christ adopts the figurative nomenclature in common use -- 2. Names of punishment on God's side -- a. Justice, judgment, condemnation, vengeance, indignation, and wrath -- b. Express the opposition of His nature to evil -- c. His love compels Him to punish in maintenance of right the well-being of the moral universe -- d. Names on man's side -- e. As man has the nature of God in him the penalty of wrong-doing comes of necessity to him -- f. Tribulation and anguish -- g. Torment, destruction, perdition, corruption, death -- C. The unpardonable, eternal sin -- 1. No forgiveness without repentance -- 2. No repentance without the Holy Spirit, and if He is, through the means of grace, despised, no pardon for ever -- 3. Neglecting, rejecting the Spirit's influence, a hardening process -- 4. Sin unto death -- D. Apostasy from Christ -- 1. No Savior but Christ -- 2. If He is rejected, no other way of life -- 3. Offender against Moses' law dies"@en ;
   schema:description "2. Punishment, human and divine -- 3. War -- 4. Fever -- 5. Pestilence -- 6. Passion of all sorts, as anger, love -- 7. Pain of any kind -- 8. Wickedness -- 9. Strife -- 10. Affliction -- 11. The judgments of God, however inflicted, are all called fire, and the furnace -- 12. The most appropriate symbol of future punishment -- 13. In what sense unquenchable -- F. The undying worm, why symbol of punishment -- 1. Exegesis of Isaiah 66:24 -- a. Were dead bodies ever burned and devoured by worms in Hinnom? no historical evidence for it, but everything against it -- b. Jeremiah testifies that it continued the place of worship of fire-gods till Jerusalem was destroyed -- c. Carcasses neither devoured in glen, not on battle-field -- 2. The three most troublesome and destructive worms -- a. The tape -- b. Trichina -- c. And guinea -- 3. Job's disease probably the guinea worm -- a. Many references to it -- b. Idumea habitat of it -- 4. The guinea worm the fiery serpent -- a. Worm included serpent -- b. The circumstances favor this theory -- c. Dr. Kuckenmeister maintains it -- d. Historical support, Agatharchides -- e. All furnish substantial grounds for belief"@en ;
   schema:description "3. Krinw (Krino), and family, to separate, judge, give a verdict -- a. Legal administration -- b. Judicial decision for or against, but always according to law and right -- c. Often implies condemnation -- d. Judgment final -- e. Schedules -- 4. Qumoj (Thumos) and Orgh (Orge), wrath and indignation -- a. Life in activity and excitement -- b. What in God? not personal passion, but the opposition of His nature to evil -- c. Wine and winepress of wrath -- d. Wrath of God has its root in love -- e. Schedules -- H. Terms describing retribution on man's side -- 1. Qliyij (Thlipsis) and Stenocwria (Stenochoria) tribulation and anguish -- a. Pain from pressure from without and from within -- b. Schedules -- 2. Kolasij (Kolasis), and Basanoj (Basanos), punishment and torment -- a. Kolasis -- b. Pruning -- c. Punishment pure and simple in Scripture, LXX., and Apocrypha -- d. Schedules showing sense where used"@en ;
   schema:description "5. Worms preying on living bodies well known -- a. The Herods -- b. Antiochus Epiphanes -- c. Jehoram? -- d. Not isolated cases -- e. Josephus's fiery worm -- f. Isaiah's vision -- g. He and Christ obtained figure of worm from its ravages in living bodies -- G. Terms describing retribution on God's side -- 1. Dich (Dike) and family, right; first branch -- a. Origin of the idea of right -- b. Justice -- c. Moral sense -- d. Dike, nemesis, goddess of justice -- e. Law, custom -- f. Equity personified -- g. Her function to distribute rewards and punishments according to desert -- h. The judge renders and exacts the right -- i. Root idea of whole family is, right -- j. Schedules -- 2. Dich (Dike), second branch; Dicaioj (Dikaios), and family, just, righteous -- a. Answering to Hebrew tsadak, just, right, a condition conformable to order and right -- b. Righteousness with ancients included man's relations to God and men -- c. In Scripture a condition of rightness, the standard of which is God -- d. Righteousness lays claim to whole range of life -- e. Perfect in God -- f. Degrees of in man -- g. Christ makes men righteous"@en ;
   schema:description "10. Will God put an end to sin? -- 11. So long as there is sin there must be suffering -- 12. Mawkish sentimentality -- 13. Men want to make their own God -- 14. Law -- 15. Future punishment answers important ends in this world, whatever it may do in the next -- 16. Denying or minimizing it disastrous to morals -- 17. Cicero and philosophers -- 18. Indulgences -- 19. Rationalists in reign of Charles II -- E. Eternal punishment disproportionate, and so unjust -- 1. Unjust to punish eternally for a short life of sin -- 2. Can desert of sin be gauged and purposes of punishment defined? sin an infinite evil, a barren field -- 3. Analogy better -- 4. What proportion between sin and suffering here? -- 5. Adam's sin and results -- 6. Many suffer through no fault of their own -- 7. From faults, errors of judgment in youth -- 8. Bishop Butler -- 9. Civil government -- 10. Sin brings suffering during natural life -- 11. So during natural life of soul -- 12. If soul immortal punishment eternal -- 13. If unjust there unjust here -- 14. Is there any righteous Governor at all?"@en ;
   schema:description "Part 1-Sheol, Hades, and hell: the world to come -- Historical, archaeological, and exegetical evidence -- I. Testimony of history to a future life and retribution -- Introduction -- Beliefs of the most ancient peoples forming the three great divisions of mankind -- A. Egypt: book of the dead -- 1. Belief in being and unity of God and a future life -- 2. Progress of the soul in death and judgment -- B. Babylonians and Assyrians: Acadians and Sumirs -- 1. Highlanders and lowlanders -- 2. The origin of Chaldeans of history -- 3. Beliefs -- 4. One only God -- 5. Man immortal and accountable -- 6. Hymns -- 7. Ishtar's decent into Hades -- C. Iranians or Persians: Zoroaster and his pure and lofty religion -- 1. One supreme eternal God the creator -- 2. Who rewards and punishes men in the life to come -- D. Indians: Rig-Veda -- 1. Hymn -- 2. No trace of transmigration -- Future life, and rewards and punishments -- E. Canaanites and Phoenicians: manufacturers, merchants, and sailors -- 1. The British of that age -- 2. Antiquities not yet explored -- 3. Religion same as that of Egypt, Babylon -- 4. Great God Bel -- 5. Sidon -- Joshua and Homer -- 6. Alphabet -- 7. Melchizedek -- 8. Necromancy -- F. Arabians: high antiquity"@en ;
   schema:description "III. Duration-annihilation at death -- A. Immortality; ancient and universal belief -- B. Philosophy shows it possible -- C. Simplicity of soul -- D. Evolution from protoplasm? moral philosophy shows it highly probable -- E. Moral arguments -- F. Will a being of such noble powers die out? -- G. A moral nature, with the sense, desire, and capacity for immortality, a promise and prophecy of it -- H. This world needs another to explain it -- I. No future life, no God -- J. Scriptures establish it -- K. Religion built upon it -- L. Christ's teaching has no sense and meaning without it -- IV. Duration-conditional immortality -- A. Constitution of man -- 1. Conditional theory stated -- 2. Undue limitation, and exaggeration -- 3. Image of God -- 4. Moral nature -- 5. Soul and spirit, breath, life -- 6. Mind, man -- 7. Inner and outer nature -- 8. Former separated and lives in Sheol -- 9. God, spirit -- 10. Man, body and soul -- 11. Flesh and spirit -- 12. Fleshy -- 13. Soulical -- 14. Spiritual -- 15. Need for discrimination of sense of terms -- B. Death; how it came"@en ;
   schema:description "V. Testimony of the new testament to a future life and retribution -- A. The mission of Christ: His advent -- 1. Reveals God and man -- 2. Unites God and man -- 3. And heaven and earth -- 4. He Himself is the great wonder -- 5. The supernatural is the natural to Him -- 6. Brings salvation -- 7. Note explanatory -- 8. Importance of understanding terms -- B. The kingdom of God: nature, origin and purpose -- 1. Christ grand agent -- 2. Subjects of this kingdom -- 3. Higher division of Hades, Paradise -- 4. Heaven -- 5. Intermediate state -- 6. Sleep of body, not of soul -- 7. Righteous go to heaven -- 8. Sinners to Hades -- 9. Judgment -- 10. Rewards and punishments completed -- C. Hades: equivalent to Sheol"@en ;
   schema:description "VII. Objections to eternal punishment -- A. Repugnant to human feeling -- 1. Canon Kingsley's passionate appeal -- 2. Applied to present life, God monster of cruelty -- 3. Course of nature condemned -- 4. World full of suffering -- 5. Can it be prevented? punishment not arbitrary, but according to just law -- 6. Does God interfere with laws of nature? -- No reason to believe that God will do it in the hereafter -- B. Eternal punishment inconsistent with the divine character -- 1. Assumes we know God -- 2. Do we? -- 3. Many god makers -- 4. Sources of knowledge -- 5. Bible and nature -- 6. Reveal God full of mercy -- 7. Yet terribly and severely just -- 8. The well-being of moral agents, His own nature, His very love, compel Him to punish -- 9. Can present life be reconciled with popular notion of a God all love? -- 10. If men lived on here for ever, would it be unjust to let them reap what they had sown? -- C. Eternal punishment inconsistent with the conduct of God"@en ;
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