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Histones and Nucleohistones

Author: D M P Phillips
Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 1995.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
1 The Preparation and Characterization of Histones.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.1.1 Historical.- 1.2 Definition of Histones.- 1.3 Occurrence of Histones.- 1.3.1 Multicellular organisms.- 1.3.2 Unicellular organisms.- 1.4 Preparation of Whole Histone.- 1.4.1 Isolation of deoxyribonucleoprotein (DNP).- 1.4.2 Preparation of whole histone from DNP.- (a) Acid extraction.- (b) Salt dissociation.- 1.5 Preparation of Whole  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Printed edition:
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: D M P Phillips
ISBN: 9781468418156 1468418157 9781468418170 1468418173
OCLC Number: 840287783
Description: 1 online resource
Contents: 1 The Preparation and Characterization of Histones.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.1.1 Historical.- 1.2 Definition of Histones.- 1.3 Occurrence of Histones.- 1.3.1 Multicellular organisms.- 1.3.2 Unicellular organisms.- 1.4 Preparation of Whole Histone.- 1.4.1 Isolation of deoxyribonucleoprotein (DNP).- 1.4.2 Preparation of whole histone from DNP.- (a) Acid extraction.- (b) Salt dissociation.- 1.5 Preparation of Whole Protamine.- 1.6 Fractionation Procedures for Whole Histone.- 1.6.1 Column chromatography.- 1.6.2 Other methods.- 1.7 Selective Extraction Procedures.- 1.7.1 Selective dissociation with salts.- 1.7.2 Selective extraction with acid.- 1.7.3 Selective extraction using organic solvents.- 1.8 Fractionation Procedures Applied to Histones for Their Further Subdivision or Purification.- 1.8.1 Methods for the separation of specific mixtures of fractions.- 1.8.2 Further purification and subdivision of the five main histone fractions.- 1.9 Complexity and Heterogeneity of Histones.- 1.10 The Fractionation of Protamine.- 1.11 Histone Specificity.- 1.12 Characterization of Histones.- 1.12.1 Amino acid composition.- 1.12.2 Gel electrophoresis.- 1.12.3 Other methods.- 1.12.4 Quantitative determination.- 1.13 Unusual Histones or Nuclear Proteins.- 1.14 A Comparison of Histone Fractions and Nomenclatures.- 1.15 The Aggregation of Histones.- 1.16 Other General Properties of Histones.- 2 The Primary Structure of Histones and Protamines.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Methods Used in Amino Acid Sequence Work with Histones.- 2.2.1 Increasing the specificity of trypsin.- 2.2.2 The use of other proteolytic enzymes.- 2.2.3 Chemical methods used for degrading histones for sequence determination.- 2.3 The Primary Structure of Histone F1(I).- 2.4 The Primary Structure of Histone F2B(IIb2).- 2.5 The Primary Structure of Histone F2A2(IIbl).- 2.6 The Primary Structure of Histone F2A1(IV).- 2.7 The Primary Structure of Histone F3(III).- 2.8 The Primary Structure of Protamines.- 2.9 Histone Sequence and Histone Evolution.- 2.9.1 Internal homology in protamine and histone sequences.- 2.9.2 Comparison of the sequences of different histones.- 2.10 The Primary Structure of Histones in Relation to the Structure of Deoxyribonucleohistone.- 3 Physical and Conformational Studies of Histones and Nucleohistones.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Histones.- 3.2.1 Molecular weights of histones and aggregation.- 3.2.2 Analysis of the primary structure of histones for possible conformations.- 3.2.3 Physical studies of the conformations of histones.- Histones in the solid state.- Optical Rotatory Dispersion studies of histones in solution.- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic studies of histones.- 3.3 The Conformation of Nucleohistone.- 3.3.1 X-Ray diffraction studies of nucleohistones.- 3.3.2 Evidence for the "supercoiled" form of nucleohistone.- 3.3.3 Factors involved in the "supercoiled" structure.- 3.3.4 Conformation of DNA and histones in nucleohistone.- Spatial arrangements of histones on DNA.- 3.4 Partial Nucleoproteins.- 3.4.1 Dissociation of histones from nucleohistones.- 3.4.2 Physical studies of partial nucleohistones.- 3.4.3 Loss of superstructure on histone removal.- 3.5 Recombination of Histones with DNA.- 3.6 A Structural Role for Histones.- 4 The Chemical and Physical Properties of Nucleohistones.- 4.1 The Preparation and Composition of Nucleo-Histones.- 4.1.1 Preparative procedures.- 4.1.2 The composition of nucleohistones.- Nucleic acids.- Proteins.- Acidic proteins.- Histones.- 4.2 Physico-Chemical Properties of Nucleohistones.- 4.2.1 Solubility.- 4.2.2 Gel-forming properties.- 4.2.3 Size and shape.- 4.2.4 Charge and titration.- 4.2.5 Structural studies on nucleohistones and nucleoprotamines.- Conformation of nucleohistones.- Anisotropy and orientation of chromophores.- Conformation of nucleoprotamines.- Ultraviolet spectra of nucleohistones.- 4.3 Interactions of DNA and Nucleohistones with Other Molecules.- 4.3.1 Interactions of DNA with small molecules and polybases.- DNA-protamine interactions.- 4.3.2 Interactions of DNA with histones.- 4.3.3 Dissociation and reassociation of nucleohistones in salt solution.- Characteristics of the dissociation process.- Properties of reassociated nucleohistones.- 4.3.4 Properties of protein-depleted nucleohistones.- 4.3.5 Interactions of nucleohistones with small cations and molecules.- 4.3.6 Interactions of nucleohistones with metal cations.- 4.4 General Conclusions and Structural Aspects.- 4.4.1 Nature of the bonds between histones and DNA.- 4.4.2 Structural hypotheses.- 5 Histone Biosynthesis and the Cell Cycle.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Histone Synthesis.- 5.2.1 Cellular localization of histone synthesis.- 5.2.2 Rates of biosynthesis of individual histone fractions.- 5.2.3 Histone turnover.- 5.2.4 Extracellular factors affecting histone synthesis.- 5.2.5 Histone synthesis during the cell cycle.- 5.3 Histone Synthesis in Gametes and During Embryogenesis.- 5.3.1 Histones in meiosis.- 5.3.2 Arginine-rich proteins of male gametes.- 5.3.3 Histone synthesis in embryos.- 5.4 The Integrity of Chromatin.- 6 Functional and Metabolic Aspects of DNA-Associated Proteins.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.1.1 On the relationship between chromosomal structure and function.- 6.1.2 The chromosomal localization of histones and protamines.- 6.1.3 The problem of histone specificity.- 6.2 The Effect of Histones in the Cell.- 6.2.1 Histone effects on RNA synthesis.- 6.2.2 Histone effects on DNA synthesis.- 6.2.3 Histone effects on cell function-some general observations.- 6.3 Enzymatic Modifications of Histone Structure.- 6.3.1 Histone methylation-methylated lysines.- ?-N-methyl-arginine in histones.- Evidence for 3-methyl histidine in histones.- Methylation of histone carboxyl groups.- 6.3.2 Histone acetylation.- ?-N-acetyllysine in histones-occurrence and formation.- Physiological aspects of histone acetylation.- Correlations between NH2-terminal acetylation and histone synthesis.- 6.3.3 Thiol/disulfide conversions in the F3(III) histone fraction.- 6.3.4 Histone phosphorylation.- 6.3.5 Histone structural modifications-some general conclusions.- 6.4 Changes in Acidic Chromosomal Proteins at Times of Gene Activation.
Responsibility: edited by D.M.P. Phillips.

Abstract:

Chapters 1, 2, part of 3, and all of Chapters 5 and 6, cover the occurrence, preparation, characterization, sequence structure, bio- physical properties and finally, the biosynthesis and functions of  Read more...

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