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A history of French architecture,

Author: Reginald Theodore Blomfield, Sir
Publisher: New York, Hacker Art Books [1973]
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats

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Genre/Form: History
Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Blomfield, Reginald Theodore, Sir, 1856-1942.
History of French architecture.
New York, Hacker Art Books [1973]
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Reginald Theodore Blomfield, Sir
OCLC Number: 2545308
Notes: Plates printed on both sides.
Description: 4 volumes in 2 cc plates (including plans, facsimiles) 26 cm
Contents: v. 1-2. From the reign of Charles VIII till the death of Mazarin, 1494-1661.--
v. 3-4. From the death of Mazarin till the death of Louis XV, 1661-1774.
Responsibility: by Reginald Blomfield. London, G. Bell and sons, ltd., 1921.

Table of Contents:

by smurray (WorldCat user on 2006-02-23)

V. 1-2 Introduction v-xvi List of Illustrations xxiii Bibliography xxvii 1. The Italians in France 1-21 The Renaissance a continuous movement - Divergent views as to the status of the master builders - a change inevitable - Monument at Le Mans - and Laurana - Italian expeditions of Charles VIII - The Juste family - Tombs at Dol, Tours, and of Louis XII at St. Denis - Ornament - "Il Boccador" and the Hotel de Ville, Paris - Francois I and the arts - Fontainebleau - The builders - The decorators - Il Rosso and his men - Primaticcio - not an architect - Serlio, and Fontainebleau, and Ancy le Franc - Francois I his own architect - His influence on the art. 2. "The Master Builders" 22-39 Methods of procedure in building in time of Francois I - Fontainebleau - De Champeverne and the Commissions - The "Devis" of Fonteinebleau - Interposition of the King - The Chambiges, Martin at Beauvais, Pierre at Chantilly - Robert and Pierre the Second - Pierre Nepveu - Master mason of Chambord - Charles Billard and Ecouen - Gilles le Breton and Fontainebleau - Families of builders - Sohier and St. Pierre at Caen - The Bacheliers of Toulouse - Hugues Sambin - The master builders not architects in the modern sense, and their work ignorant and immature. 3. The New Manner and Francois I 40-58 The effect of the Italian expeditions - The Renaissance and domestic architecture - Gaillon - The work of the Italians confined to ornament - Monument to D'Amboise at Rouen compared with the monument to Louis de Breze - The new manner still uncertain and exceptional - Chenonceaux, Azay le Rideau, and Nantouillet - Passion of Francois I for building - Blois - Fontainebleau - The "Devis" - The Cour Ovale - Salle de Bal - Aile de la Belle Cheminee and Serlio - St. Germain-en-Laye - Villars Cotteretes - Chambord - The Chateau de Madrid, and Jerome della Robbia 4. The New Manner till the Death of Francois I 59-72 The Court always on the more - The hunting lodges - La Muette, Chaluau - Domestic architecture so far the work of amateurs and builders - The new manner not liked by the builders - Conservativism of owners of great houses - Bhateaubriant and La Rochefoucauld - Ecouen - Ancy le Franc, and Serlio and Primaticcio - The houses of the financiers - Samblancay at Tours - The Hotel Bourgtheroulde at Rouen - Sculpture and ornament used for hte sake of ornament, and without regard to its architectural value - Advance shown in Hotel d'Ecoville at Caen - Architecture of materials - Auffay - Boos - St. Marguerite - Manoir d'Ango - The immense roofs - Fontaine Henri - The influence of the Italians - No tradition as yet established, and no real advance in planning --French architecture far behind Italian, but the ground broken up for the advance of Neo-Classic architecture. 5. Philibert de L'Orme 73-92 Francois I and Henri II in relation to the arts - The new men - De l'Orme born at Lyons, his work in Italy, return to Lyons - St. Maur des Fosses - De l'Orme conductor-general of fortifications in Brittany, 1547 - Inspector of the royal buildings - De l'Orme and the builders' work at Fontainebleau, La Muette, Villars Cotterets, Vincennes, and St. Germain-en-Laye - His revenues - Anet - Monument to Francois I - De l'Orme's dismissal - His defence - His "architecture" and "Nouvelles Inventions" - Chenonceaux - The Tuileries - His death - His services to French architecture - His defects as an artist - His character - Buildings attributed to De l'Orme. 6. Jean Bullant 93-107 Bullant of Amiens not Jean Bullant - Nothing known of Jean Bullant's training - His work for Anne de Montmorency - The artists of Ecouen - Bullant's work there - The three frontispieces - Fere-en-Tardenois - Bullant appointed Controller of Buildings - His dismissal - The Chatelet at Chantilly - Recueuil d'Horlogiographie - Petit traite de Geometrie - Reigle Generale - Succeeds De l'Orme at the Tuileries - His work there - The Hotel de Soissons - His death - The Chapelle Funeraire at Anet - Bullant as an artist. 7. Lescot and Goujon 108-122 Little known of Lescot's early training - The Jube of St. Germain L'Auxerrois - He introduces Goujon - No evidence to show that Lescot designed the Jube - The rebuilding of the Louvre - Revision of the design under Henri II - Lescot's scheme for rebuilding - Work at the Louvre - Lescot not the architect of the Chapel of the Valois, or of the Hotel Carnavalet - The architectural value of the design for the Louvre - Lescot and Goujon always associated - Goujon probably the designer - Jean Goujon and Rouen - His work at the Hotel Carnavalet - at Ecouen - His knowledge of architecture - The Diana and stag of Anet - He disappears from Paris - Death at Bologna - Loss to French art - Goujon unique among French artists of the sixteenth century. 8. French Sculptors in the Sixteenth Century 123-139 French mediaeval sculpture - Its disappearance before the invasion of Flemish art - The Flemish imagers - Colombe not the reformer of French sculpture - His work - The tomb of Francois II of Brittany at Nantes - The Troyes School - Low standard of their work, and ignorance of the theory of sculpture - Dominique Florentin - Jacques Julyot - Failure of the Troyes School - Goujon and his contemporaries the true reformers - Pierre Bontemps - The urn of St. Denis and the tomb of Francois I - Figures of Chabot, De Magny, and Du Bellay - Germain Pilon - The three Graces - Tomb of Henri II - Break in the development of the arts at the end of the sixteenth century - The Burgundians - Ligier Richier - Dijon - Hugues Sambin - Toulouse - Teutonism in art - Tendency of the sculptors to specialize. 9. The Du Cerceau Family 140-156 The detente at end of the sixteenth century - Catherine de Medicis - Families of artists and the Du Cerceau - Jacques Androuet du Cerceau born at Montargis - De Geymuller's theories of his studies in Italy - No evidence for this, or for work by him at churches of Montargis or Tonnerre - His publications - Retires to Montargis - "Les plus excellens Bastiments" - De Geymuller's theory that he was architect of Verneuil and Charleval without foundation - His real work that of a draughtsman and engraver - Du Cerceau as an archaeologist - as a designer - as a draughtsman - Du Cerceau's family - Baptiste, architect of Charleval and the Pont Neuf - Charleval - Jehan de Brosse and Verneuil - The Du Cerceau typical of a period of relapse in architecture. 10. Neo-Classic Architecture in the Sixteenth Century 157-169 From the end of the fifteenth century till death of Francois I, the age of the amateur - Types of plan - The courtyard plan - The block plan - Martainville - Remodelling of old buildings - Effort concentrated on ornament, not on architectural composition - Position of the art at death of Francois I and end of first period - Henri II and the new generation - Failure of the builders, rise of the architects - Their duties and status defined for the first time - But tradition of Neo-Classic not yet established - The pattern books - Work so far individual - Advance made in planning, in larger design, in technical details - and in the relation of the arts, their co-operation at Fontainebleau and Ecouen - Close of second period and failure of the arts in the last quarter of the sixteenth century. V. 3-4 List of Illustrations xi Introduction xv Bibliography xxiii A List of Surintendants des Batiments and of Directeurs de l'Academie de France a Rome xxix 1. Louis XIV, Colbert, and the Academies 1 Development of French Architecture continuous from Francois I till death of Louis XV - Mazarin and the arts: change of direction after his death - Louis XIV: his character - Colbert - The Academies and the Maitrise - The Academy of Painting and Sculpture (1648) - Revolt of the students - Reorganization of the Academy - Its abolition and re-establishment. 2. The Academy of Architecture 12 Colbert's petit conseil - The new buildings of the Louvre and the "Conseil des Batiments" - The Academy of Architecture (1671): its duties, organization, and discussions - The Academicians practical men: members paid and Architectes du Roi - Examination of quarries, of bridges and foundations - The aqueduct of Maintenon - Academy reorganizaed 1699, abolished 1793, re-established 1795 - Its study of technique, and conception of architecture as a science - Value of its educational work. 3. The French Academy at Rome 25 Henri IV and a "pepiniere d'ouvriers" - Colbert and a state-aided establishment in Rome - Errard the first Director (1666) - Statutes of the French Academy in Rome - The Director also an agent for purchases - Noel Coypel - Errard's return - La Teuliere (1683-1699) and Louvois and J. H. Mansart - Houasse and J. H. Mansart - Disastrous administration - Poerson and D'Antin - Wleughels - De Troy - Correspondence of the Directors - Colbert's aim to make France supreme in the arts by means of state-aided academies and manufactures. 4. The Royal Building Staff 43 Disorganized state of finances under Mazarin - Methods of contract under Francois I - Lack of proper control - Colbert's reforms - The "surintendant" - The "intendants" - The "controleurs" - The "tresoriers" - "Officiers des bastimens" - "Officiers qui ont gages" - Architects assigned to specific buildings - Buildings carried out by measure and value to agreed schedule - Materials found by the State, and prices - Conditions of labour - Faults of Colbert's organization too many officers, too much nepotism - A Note on the Aqueduct of Maintenon. 5. Louis Le Val, Francois D'Orbay, Richer, Lambert, and the last of the Old Regine 55 Three periods in the reign of Louis XIV - Le Vau represents transition from Mazarin to Colbert - Louis Le Vau (1612-1670) - Hotel Lambert - Hotel Sale - Vaux le Vicomte, its design - Le Vau "premier architecte du Roi" - Vincennes - Rincy - S. Sepolcre - Houses for M. Henselin and Hotel de Lyonne, Paris - His work at the Louvre, at Versailles, and the Tuileries - The College des Quatre Nations - Le Vau a competent practitioner, but not a great artist - Francois Le Vau - Francois D'Orbay - His work at Lyons and Montpellier - D'Orbay fils - Richer - Houses in Paris - Lambert, Controleur des Batiments. 6. The Completion of the Louvre, Bernini and Claude Perrault 68 Colbert's anxiety to complete the Louvre - Le Vau - Bernini invited - The intrigues of Charles Perrault - Bernini's designs impracticable - His return to Rome - Claude Perrault's design adopted - His two schemes - The east front, the double columns, and the construction of the masonry - Hostile criticisms by Francois Blondel - Perrault's originality - Undoubtedly the author of the design - The work abandoned and not completed till 1755. 7. Claude Perrault. Francois Blondel 84 The Observatory, Paris - The Arc de Triomphe du Trone (1668) - The work abandoned - Referred to the Academy of Architecture (1685) - Perrault ignored - Hostility of the Academy - Intrigues at the Court - Death of Perrault (1688) - His learning and ability - Comparison with Wren - Francois Blondel commands a galley - Tutor - Professor of mathematics - Diplomat - Engineer - His bridge-building - A member of the Academy of Science - First Director of the Academy of Architecture - Scheme for the improvement of Paris - The Gates of Paris - S. Bernard - S. Antoine and Goujon - S. Denis - Does little architectural work - His Cours d'Architecture - Uncompromising advocate of classical architecture and authority - His theories of art confused and illogical - His controversy with Perrault - A learned but acriomonious pedant. 8. Errard, Mignard, La Valfeniere, and Le Pautre 99 Charles Errard, born 1606 - Studies at Rome - Work at the Palais Royal - Association with Roland Freart de Chambray - Helps to found the Academy of Painting and Sculpture - A Recot of the Academy - Appointed the first Director of the French Academy in Rome - Death, 1689 - His marriage - Designs Church of the Assumption, Rue S. Honore, Paris - Its faults - Le Brun and Church of S. Nicholas du Chardonnet and the French order - Pierre Mignard, born 1640 - Painter and architect - Drawings of old buildings in Languedoc and Provence - Member of Academy of Architecture - Retires to Avignon - The Abbey of Montmajour, near Arles - Death, 1725 - Avignon and Royer de la Valfeniere - Anthoine Le Pautre - Port Royal - His "Oeuves" - The Hotel de Beauvais - S. Ouen - S. Cloud - Superseded at Clagny by J. H. Mansart - His quarrel with his brother - His ability as an architect - The meaning of architecture. 9. Cottart, Richer, Robelin, De Lisle, Leve, Girard, Gobert, Le Duc, Gittard 118 Cottart and the Hotel de Bisseuil - Hotel de Ville, Troyes - Church at Villacerf - His pension - The Minor Men: Richer - Houses in Paris - Robelin - The Hotel de Leon - De L'Isle - The Hotel du Grand Prieur - Level - Girard - S. Cloud - Gobert an Academician - The Trianon of S. Cloud - Difficulty of disentangling these men - Le Duc - Church of the Val de Grace - S. Louis en l'Ile - Hotel Falconi - Gittard - Choir of S. Sulpice - S. Jacques et S. Philippe du Haut Pas - Houses in Paris - Chantilly - Connection with J. H. Mansart - The French architects and their workmen. 10. Bruant, Bullet 130 Hereditary callings and monopoly of the official architects and tradesmen - Liberal Bruant - His family "de bonne bourgeoisie Parisienne" - La Salpetriere - Hotel de Mars, ou les Invalides - Fine design - Its faults - The Maison et Bureau of the Merchant Drapers, Paris - Superseded by Mansart - Death, 1697 - Financial embarrassment - Pierre Bullet (1639) - Assistant to F. Blondel - Designs Porte S. Martin, the Quai Pelletier, and Church of the Noviciat General des Dominicains - Academician and Architecte du Roi - Designs for bridges - Archbishop's Palace, Bourges - L'Architecture pratique - Issi - Houses in Paris - Bullet as an architect - Jacques Bruant, fils - Professor or Architecture - Hotel de Belle-Isle - Liberal Bruant (nephew) - The Academy of Architecture a family affair. 11. The Draughtsmen: Jean Marot, Daniel Marot, Jean le Pautre, Pierre le Pautre, Le Blond, Berain, Le Clerc, Israel Silvestre, and Adam Perelle 149 Jean Marot - The family - Prepares designs for the Louvre, houses in Paris, Palace Mannheim - His skill as a draughtsman - The "Petit Marot" - The "Grand Marot" - His designs for grottoes - Daniel Marot - Flies to Holland - Designed gardens, Hampton Court - His drawings and designs - Jean Le Pautre - His invention and draughtmanship - The value of his work - Pierre Le Pautre - Draughtsman and engraver - Use made of him by J. H. Mansart - Jean Berain - The Court draughtsman ad designer - Sebastian Le Clerc - His plate of the building of the Louvre - Israel Silvestre - His topographical work - Mariette's account - The Perelles - Adam Perelle - The best of the topographical draughtsman - Their disappearance - The Academy's insistence on accurate draughtsmanship - Finally spoilt by spurious archaeology - Effect of this on architecture. 12. Andre Le Notre 164 Le Notre and Saint-Simon - Appointed to the Tuileries Gardens - Vaux le Vicomte - Methods of Le Notre - Appointed "Controleur-General des Bastiments" - The Gardens of Versailles - The use of water in French garden design - The Aqueduct of Maintenon - Le Notre and Mansart - S. Germain-en-Laye - Chantilly and the water garden - Cost of these gardens - Sceaux - Death, 1700 - His visit to Italy and the Pope - Member of the Academy of Architecture - Chevalier of S. Michel - His character - High esteem of Saint-Simon and Louis XIV. 13. Jules Hardouin Mansart 181 The problem of Mansart's career - His relationship to Francois Mansart - Supersedes Le Pautre at Clagny - Entrusted with Versailles (1676) - His advancement by Louis XIV - The King and the Royal buildings - The earlier Versailles - Alterations made by Mansart - His methods with the King and lack of chivalry - His energy and adroitness - The cost of Versailles - Architecturally a failure - Saint-Simon's criticisms. 14. Jules Hardouin Mansart 191 The Orangery at Versailles a masterpiece of design - The problem of its author - The sketch by Le Notre - The measured drawings by Desgodetz in Tome - The design of the Orangery so unlike the rest of the design of Versailles that another hand is suggested - Possibly Desgodetz under Mansart - Mansart made Comte de Sagonne - The Ecuries and Grand Commun, Versailles - The Grand Trianon and the Trianon de Porceleine - The episode of the "Fenetre de Trianon" and Louvois - Marly - Its cost and the absurdity of its design. 15. Jules Hardouin Mansart 201 Mansart at Chantilly - His Philistinism - Supersedes Bruand at the Invalides and designs the Church of the Dome - Desgodetz employed in the design, but personal part taken in it by Mansart - Its plan - Comparison with St. Paul's - L'Assurance employed at the Invalides - The "architecte sous clef" - The Hotel de Ville at Arles - The Place des Victoires and the Place Vendome - The chapel at Versailles - S. Cyr - Dampierre - The parish church, Versailles - Mansart becomes surintendant - The value of this appointment - Mansart's death - The bridge at Moulins - Mansart and the Academy - Estimate of Mansart as a man - His unscrupulousness and disloyalty to colleagues - Mansart as an artist - Different opinions - A capable but unscrupulous man and a bad artist. Appendix. On the Flat Vaulting of the Roussillon 221.


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