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Human behavior and environment : advances in theory and research. Volume 2

Author: Irwin Altman; Joachim F Wohlwill
Publisher: New York : Plenum Press, 1977.
Series: Human behavior and environment, v. 2.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Irwin Altman; Joachim F Wohlwill
ISBN: 0306333023 9780306333026
OCLC Number: 10815333
Description: xvi, 341 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: 1 Multidimensional Analysis in the Study of Environmental Behavior and Environmental Design.- Measurement and Data.- Some Multidimensional Methods.- Fundamentals of Multidimensional Scaling.- Factor Analysis.- Cluster Analysis.- Repertory Grids.- Some Other Multivariate Methods.- Summary.- References.- 2 Understanding Professional Media: Issues, Theory, And a Research Agenda.- Roles of Simulation in the Planning/Design Process.- Analysis of the Existing Environment.- Design Generation.- Presentation and Public Communication.- A Communications Model of the Planning-Review Process.- The Proponents.- The Evaluators.- Simulations.- The Information Base and Storage System.- Simulation Media and Presentation Formats.- The Simulation Setting.- Public Criteria for Simulation Media.- Realism: Which Reality? Whose Reality?.- Accuracy.- Comprehensibility and Evaluation.- Engagement.- Costs and Flexibility.- Initial Costs.- Production Costs.- Flexibility.- Conflicts Among Criteria.- Assessing Realism.- Visual Replication.- Detail and Texture.- Tone.- Color.- Field of View.- Multiple Viewpoints.- Three-Dimensionality.- Movement.- Sound.- The Media.- Verbal Descriptions.- Architectural Plans, Sections and Elevations, Site and Land-Use Plans.- Aerial Perspectives, Axonometrics.- Ground-Level Perspectives.- Photomontage.- Perspective Sequences.- Abstract Models.- Naturalistic Models.- Computer Graphics.- Model Simulators.- Evaluating the Media.- Research Agenda.- References.- 3 Environmental Stress.- Sources of Stress.- Environmental Stressors.- Person-induced Stress.- Stress-Response Characteristics.- Somatic.- Behavioral.- Subjective.- Inadequacies of Conventional Approaches to Stress.- An Alternative Model.- Stress at Different Levels of Analysis.- Mediating Processes.- Transaction and interaction.- Implications for Environmental Psychology Research.- Implications for Research on Stress and Coping.- References.- 4 Applied Behavior Analysis and the Solution of Environmental Problems.- The Current State of Environmental Psychology and the Solution of Environmental Problems.- The Applied Analysis of Environmentally Relevant Behavior.- Environmental Aesthetics.- The Problem of Littering.- The Problem of Noise.- Conserving Natural and Human-Produced Resources.- Promoting Recycling.- Changing the Use of Transportation Systems.- Changing Patterns and Levels of Energy Use.- Conclusions and Implications.- Problem-Focused Research.- Generalization to Other Environmental Problems.- Synergistic Effects.- References.- 5 Personal Space: An Analysis of e. T. HALL'S Proxemics Framework.- Spatial Distances and Zones.- Intimate Distance.- Personal Distance.- Social Distance.- Public Distance.- Qualifications Concerning Spatial Zones.- The Rationale for Four Spatial Zones.- Qualifying Factors.- Culture and Proxemics.- The Present Status of Research on Personal Space.- Methods of Study.- Content Areas of Research.- Plan for Analyzing Research on Personal Space.- General Characteristics of Personal Space Research.- Methodological Features of Research on Distancing Behavior.- Use of Spatial Zones.- Studies of Spatial Intrusion and Invasion.- General Characteristics of Invasion Studies.- Findings of Spatial-Invasion Studies.- Reactions to Intruding on Others.- Interpersonal Relationships and Spatial Distance.- General Characteristics of Studies of Interpersonal Relationships.- Findings of Studies of Interpersonal Relations and Distance.- Individual Characteristics and Spatial Distance.- General Characteristics of Studies on Individual Factors.- Findings of Studies of Individual Factors and Distance.- Relationship between Distance and Other Behaviors.- General Characteristics of Studies of the Relationship between Distance and Other Behaviors.- Findings of Studies of the Relationship between Distance and Other Behaviors.- Culture and Personal Space.- General Characteristics of Studies of Culture and Distance.- Findings of Studies of Culture and Distance.- Summary and Conclusions.- Summary of Findings.- Directions for Future Research.- A Final Note.- References.- 6 Energy and the Structuring of Society: Methodological Issues.- Tools for Thinking about Energy and Society.- Man-Environment Knowledge as Part of Knowledge about Society.- A Nesting System and Its Levels of Generality.- Energy as an Environmental Issue.- Environment and Culture: The General Connection.- Environment as a Socially Integrative Focus.- The Resolution of Environmental Conflicts.- Energy in Society.- Energy: The Social Potentiator.- Socially Relevant Characteristics of Energy.- Social Changes Associated with Energy.- A Research Suggestion.- Appendix A: On Social Science, Philosophical Anthropology, and Social Policy.- Appendix B: The Nested System: A Short Commentary.- The Three-Termed Unit Act.- The Cultural Paradigm.- Institutional Rules.- Relational Organizations.- Ecological Units and Ecological Organizations.- The Articulation of the Systems.- Appendix C: Indicators for the Energy-Society Model.- References.- 7 The Use of Social Indicators in Environmental Planning.- Social Indicators: Integral Components of Environmental Planning Models.- Some Questions to be Addressed.- A Brief History of the Social-Indicator Movement.- Environmental Planning in a General Systems-Theory Framework.- Planning Definition.- Definition of Environment.- Systems Definitions and Their Relevance to Social Indicators and Environmental Planning.- Social Indicators as Measures of System Performance.- Some Traditional Indicators.- Characteristics of Systems Allowing Measurement of Change.- Characteristics of Social Indicators that Measure System Change.- A Measure of Perceived Life Quality.- A Measure of Satisfaction with the Allocation of Time.- Leisure Time.- Social Alienation.- Environmental Planning.- Conclusion.- References.
Series Title: Human behavior and environment, v. 2.
Responsibility: edited by Irwin Altman and Joachim F. Wohlwill.


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