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Human exploitation of seabirds in coastal southern Chile during the mid-Holocene
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Human exploitation of seabirds in coastal southern Chile during the mid-Holocene

Author: XIMENA NAVARRO Affiliation: Universidad Católica de Temuco, Chile; ALEJANDRO SIMEONE Affiliation: Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile; Institut für Meereskunde an der Universität Kiel, Germany
Edition/Format: Article Article : English
Publication:Revista chilena de historia natural, v75 n2 (200206): 423-431
Summary:
We analyzed a collection of 738 bird bones, representing a minimum of 71 individuals, found in a settlement of hunter-gatherers from the mid-Holocene, 5,000 years BP, in the coastal locality of Chan Chan, southern Chile. The camp was inhabited for over ca. 500 years, during which time a steady hunting pressure on the local marine resources was exerted, particularly on seabirds. The most abundant taxon (bones/number  Read more...
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Document Type: Article
All Authors / Contributors: XIMENA NAVARRO Affiliation: Universidad Católica de Temuco, Chile; ALEJANDRO SIMEONE Affiliation: Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile; Institut für Meereskunde an der Universität Kiel, Germany
ISSN:0716-078X
Language Note: English
Unique Identifier: 5728256276
Notes: Collection: SciELO Chile
Awards:

Abstract:

We analyzed a collection of 738 bird bones, representing a minimum of 71 individuals, found in a settlement of hunter-gatherers from the mid-Holocene, 5,000 years BP, in the coastal locality of Chan Chan, southern Chile. The camp was inhabited for over ca. 500 years, during which time a steady hunting pressure on the local marine resources was exerted, particularly on seabirds. The most abundant taxon (bones/number of individuals) was the red-legged cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi (551/44) which was also the prey which provided the highest edible proportion of body mass. Albatrosses Thalassarche cf. melanophris (103/12) and shearwaters Puffinus cf. griseus (20/5) were secondary prey. Cormorants were presumably hunted at their breeding colonies (which are still present in the area) so it is probable that egging also occurred. Because they are pelagic, albatrosses could have been hunted at sea, but the adequate technology for this (boats, hooks) is not apparent in the archaeological record. The bird assemblage obtained in the sample does not qualitatively differ from that of the present, indicating a reasonable stability in species richness from the considered period until the present. The high diversity of coastal resources in Chan Chan was likely important in leading to the, at least seasonal, occupation of these areas by hunter-gatherers and also may have encouraged the development of the adequate technology for the exploitation of these resources Se analizaron 738 restos óseos de aves, correspondientes a un mínimo de 71 individuos, encontrados en un asentamiento de cazadores-recolectores del Holoceno medio, 5.000 años AP, en la localidad costera de Chan Chan, sur de Chile. El campamento fue habitado durante al menos 500 años, tiempo durante el cual se ejerció una presión de caza persistente sobre los recursos marinos locales, particularmente las aves marinas. El taxón más numeroso (restos/ número de individuos) fue el lile Phalacrocorax gaimardi (551/44) que además fue la presa comestible más aprovechable. Albatros Thalassarche cf. melanophris. (103/12) y fardelas Puffinus cf. griseus (20/5) fueron presas secundarias. Los cormoranes fueron presumiblemente cazados en sus colonias reproductivas (las que aún existen en la zona) por lo que es probable que también se hayan consumido los huevos. Por sus hábitos pelágicos, los albatros pudieron haber sido cazados en el mar, aunque la tecnología necesaria para ello (botes, anzuelos) aún no ha sido demostrada en el registro arqueológico. El ensamble avifaunístico de la muestra no difiere cualitativamente del actual, lo que indica una estabilidad en la riqueza de especies desde el período considerado hasta el presente. La gran diversidad de recursos costeros de Chan Chan habría sido importante en la ocupación de estos sectores por grupos de cazadores-recolectores, al menos estacionalmente, lo que además habría estimulado el desarrollo de tecnologías para su explotación

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Primary Entity

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