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Hydrogen storage technologies : new materials, transport, and infrastructure

ผู้แต่ง: Agata Godula-Jopek; Walter Jehle; Jörg Wellnitz
สำนักพิมพ์: Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, ©2012.
ครั้งที่พิมพ์/รูปแบบ:   พิมพ์หนังสือ : ภาษาอังกฤษดูครั้งที่พิมพ์และรูปแบบ
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An industrial perspective on hydrogen storage, including analyses of storage alternatives based on environmental, economic and safety aspects. Emphasis is placed on those technologies with the  อ่านมากขึ้น…

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ผู้แต่งทั้งหมด : ผู้แต่งร่วม Agata Godula-Jopek; Walter Jehle; Jörg Wellnitz
ISBN: 9783527326839 3527326839
OCLC Number: 812577900
คำอธิบาย: ix, 254 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm
สารบัญ: 1 Introduction 1 --
1.1 History/Background 1 --
1.2 Tanks and Storage 4 --
2 Hydrogen --
Fundamentals 11 --
2.1 Hydrogen Phase Diagram 23 --
2.2 Hydrogen in Comparison with Other Fuels 14 --
2.3 Hydrogen Production 16 --
2.3.1 Reforming Processes in Combination with Fossil Fuels (Coal, Natural Gas, and Mineral Oil) 18 --
2.3.1.1 Steam Reforming of Natural Gas 19 --
2.3.1.2 Partial Oxidation and Autothermal Reforming of Hydrocarbons 20 --
2.3.1.3 HyPr-RING Method to Produce Hydrogen from Hydrocarbons 21 --
2.3.1.4 Plasma-Assisted Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbons 23 --
2.3.1.5 Coal Gasification 25 --
2.3.2 Water-Splitting Processes (Hydrogen from Water) 27 --
2.3.2.1 Electrolysis of Water with Electricity from Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy Sources (Low-Temperature Water Splitting) 27 --
2.3.2.2 Different Types of Electrolyzers 33 --
2.3.2.3 High-Temperature Water Splitting in Combination with High-Temperature Nuclear Energy and Solar Energy 42 --
2.3.3 Hydrogen from Biomass 45 --
2.3.3.1 Thermochemical Processes 47 --
2.3.3.2 Biological Processes 47 --
2.3.4 Hydrogen from Aluminum 50 --
2.3.5 Outlook 51 --
2.4 Hydrogen Storage Safety Aspects 53 --
2.4.1 Hydrogen Properties Related to Safety 55 --
2.4.2 Selected Incidents with Hydrogen 61 --
2.4.3 Human Health Impact 62 --
2.4.4 Sensors 63 --
2.4.5 Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) 63 --
2.4.6 Safety Aspects in the Hydrogen Chain from Production to the User 65 --
2.4.6.1 Hydrogen Production 66 --
2.4.6.2 Hydrogen Refuelling Stations 67 --
2.4.6.3 Storage/Transportation (Compressed/Liquid/Metal Hydride) 68 --
2.4.6.4 Garage for Repairing Cars 70 --
2.4.7 Safety Aspects of Hydrogen Vehicles 70 --
2.4.8 Safe Removal of Hydrogen 73 --
References 73 --
3 Hydrogen Application: Infrastructural Requirements 81 --
3.1 Transportation 81 --
3.2 Filling Stations 86 --
3.3 Distribution 87 --
3.4 Military 89 --
3.5 Portables 92 --
3.6 Infrastructure Requirements 93 --
References 96 --
Further Reading 96 --
4 Storage of Pure Hydrogen in Different States 97 --
4.1 Purification of Hydrogen 97 --
4.2 Compressed Hydrogen 98 --
4.2.1 Properties 98 --
4.2.2 Compression 98 --
4.2.2.1 Mechanical Compressors 100 --
4.2.2.2 Nonmechanical Compressor 101 --
4.2.3 Materials 106 --
4.2.3.1 Hydrogen Embrittlement 106 --
4.2.3.2 Hydrogen Attack 107 --
4.2.3.3 Hydrogen Permeation 107 --
4.2.3.4 Used Structural Materials 108 --
4.2.3.5 Used Materials for Sealing and Liners 109 --
4.2.3.6 High Pressure Metal Hydride Storage Tank 109 --
4.2.4 Sensors, Instrumentation 110 --
4.2.5 Tank Filling 110 --
4.2.6 Applications 111 --
4.2.6.1 Storage in Underground 111 --
4.2.6.2 Road and Rail Transportation 112 --
4.2.6.3 Vehicles 112 --
4.3 Liquid/Slush Hydrogen 114 --
4.3.1 Properties 114 --
4.3.2 Ortho Para Conversion 114 --
4.3.3 Liquefaction 116 --
4.3.3.1 Linde Process 116 --
4.3.3.2 Claude Process 117 --
4.3.3.3 Collins Process 117 --
4.3.3.4 Joule-Brayton Cycle 118 --
4.3.3.5 Magnetic Liquefaction 118 --
4.3.3.6 Thermoacoustic Liquefaction 120 --
4.3.4 Hydrogen Slush 120 --
4.3.5 Boil-Off 121 --
4.3.5.1 Zero Boil-Off Solutions 122 --
4.3.6 Materials 123 --
4.3.6.1 Tank Material 123 --
4.3.6.2 Insulation 123 --
4.3.6.3 Braze Materials 124 --
4.3.7 Sensors, Instrumentation 124 --
4.3.8 Applications 125 --
4.3.8.1 Storage 125 --
4.3.8.2 Sea Transportation 126 --
4.3.8.3 Road and Rail Transportation 126 --
4.3.8.4 Vehicles 127 --
4.3.8.5 Aircraft 130 --
4.3.8.6 Rockets 131 --
4.3.8.7 Solar Power Plants 131 --
4.4 Metal Hydrides 131 --
4.4.1 Classical Metal Hydrides 135 --
4.4.1 1 Intermetallic Hydrides (Heavy Metal Hydrides) 135 --
4.4.1.2 Magnesium-Based Hydrides 137 --
4.4.2 Light Metal Complex Hydrides 139 --
4.4.2.1 Alanates 139 --
4.4.2.2 Amides-Imides (Li₃N-Li₂NH-LiNH₂) 143 --
4.4.2.3 Borohydrides 146 --
4.4.3 Application 149 --
4.4.4 Outlook 163 --
References 166 --
5 Chemical Storage 171 --
5.1 Introduction 171 --
5.2 Materials and Properties 172 --
5.3 Hydrogen Storage in Hydrocarbons 173 --
5.4 Hydrocarbons as Hydrogen Carrier 177 --
5.5 Application: Automotive 178 --
5.6 Ammonia 181 --
5.6.1 Properties 181 --
5.6.2 Application Areas of Ammonia 182 --
5.6.3 Production 184 --
5.6.3.1 Production from Nitrogen and Hydrogen 184 --
5.6.3.2 Production from Silicon Nitride 184 --
5.6.4 Methods for Storing Ammonia 285 --
5.6.4.1 Liquid Dry Ammonia 185 --
5.6.4.2 Solid-State Ammonia Storage 185 --
5.6.5 Use of Ammonia as Fuel in High-Temperature Fuel Cells 186 --
5.6.6 Hydrogen from Ammonia 287 --
5.6.6.1 Ammonia Electrolysis 187 --
5.6.6.2 Catalytic Decomposition 187 --
5.6.7 Hydrogen from Ammonia and Metal Hydride 189 --
5.6.8 Energetic Consideration 190 --
5.7 Borohydrides 191 --
5.7.1 Sodium Borohydride 191 --
5.7.1.1 Direct Use of Sodium Borohydride as Fuel in a PEM-Based Fuel Cell 191 --
5.7.1.2 Hydrogen Generation by Hydrolytic Release 192 --
5.7.2 Ammonia Borane 193 --
References 194 --
6 Hydrogen Storage Options: Comparison 197 --
6.1 Economic Considerations/Costs 197 --
6.2 Safety Aspects 200 --
6.2.1 Safety Rules and Regulations 200 --
6.2.2 Safety Equipment 205 --
6.3 Environmental Considerations: Waste, Hazardous Materials 209 --
6.4 Dimension Considerations 212 --
6.5 Sociological Considerations 216 --
6.6 Comparison with Other Energy Storage System 218 --
References 222 --
7 Novel Materials 225 --
7.1 Silicon and Hydropolysilane (HPS) 225 --
7.2 Carbon-Based Materials --
General 228 --
7.2.1 Carbon Nanotubes (CNT), Activated Carbon (AC), Graphite Nanofibers 229 --
7.2.2 Other High-Surface Area Materials 233 --
7.2.3 Zeolites 234 --
7.2.4 Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) 235 --
7.2.5 Covalent Organic Frameworks (COF) 236 --
7.3 Microspheres 239 --
7.3.1 Methods for Discharging 244 --
7.3.2 Resume 245 --
References 246.
ความรับผิดชอบ: Agata Godula-Jopek, Walter Jehle, and Jörg Wellnitz.

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