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Identity of sensory and motor systems that are critical to the immobility reflex (“animal hypnosis”)
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Identity of sensory and motor systems that are critical to the immobility reflex (“animal hypnosis”)

Author: W R Klemm Affiliation: Department of Biology, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas
Edition/Format: Article Article : English
Publication:Journal of Neuroscience Research, v2 n1 (1976): 57-69
Other Databases: WorldCat
Summary:
This review presents an analysis of the sensory and motor mechanisms as they are now understood that cause the immobility reflex (IR). Of the sensory systems that conceivably could trigger and sustain the IR, as commonly induced experimentally by inversion and manual restraint, evidence has been presented to eliminate some senses (vestibular, vision, sound, many visceral sensations, olfaction, taste, temperature),  Read more...
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Details

Document Type: Article
All Authors / Contributors: W R Klemm Affiliation: Department of Biology, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas
ISSN:0360-4012
Language Note: English
Unique Identifier: 5156925740
Notes: Number of Figures: 6
Number of Tables: 4
Number of References: 47
Awards:

Abstract:

This review presents an analysis of the sensory and motor mechanisms as they are now understood that cause the immobility reflex (IR). Of the sensory systems that conceivably could trigger and sustain the IR, as commonly induced experimentally by inversion and manual restraint, evidence has been presented to eliminate some senses (vestibular, vision, sound, many visceral sensations, olfaction, taste, temperature), while incriminating tactile and proprioceptive influences. Of the motor systems which could cause the profound immobility during IR, neurosurgical and electrophysiological evidence identifies the locus of the inhibitory neurons in the brain stem and/or spinal cord.
The evidence reviewed leads to a unified working hypothesis of IR mechaisms. IR is considered to be caused by a group of neurons in the brain stem which inhibit spinal motoneurons, either directly or indirectly, when those inhibitory neurons are activated by a specific pattern of tactile and proprioceptive input.
Modulation of the IR control system appears to come from the limbic system, which under fear-producing conditions, potentiates the IR in part by release of epinephrine. Inhibition of the IR control system appears to come from the neocortex, as well as the brain stem reticulum, when it is activated by nonspecific, arousing somaesthetic sensations that produce generalized activation of the neocortex and skeletal muscle.

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The evidence reviewed leads to a unified working hypothesis of IR mechaisms. IR is considered to be caused by a group of neurons in the brain stem which inhibit spinal motoneurons, either directly or indirectly, when those inhibitory neurons are activated by a specific pattern of tactile and proprioceptive input.
Modulation of the IR control system appears to come from the limbic system, which under fear-producing conditions, potentiates the IR in part by release of epinephrine. Inhibition of the IR control system appears to come from the neocortex, as well as the brain stem reticulum, when it is activated by nonspecific, arousing somaesthetic sensations that produce generalized activation of the neocortex and skeletal muscle.
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