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Improving adult literacy instruction : options for practice and research

Author: Alan M Lesgold; Melissa K Welch-Ross; National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Learning Sciences: Foundations and Applications to Adolescent and Adult Literacy.
Publisher: Washington, D.C. : The National Academies Press, [2012]
Edition/Format:   Print book : National government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats

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Material Type: Government publication, National government publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Alan M Lesgold; Melissa K Welch-Ross; National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Learning Sciences: Foundations and Applications to Adolescent and Adult Literacy.
ISBN: 9780309219594 0309219590
OCLC Number: 754723563
Description: xv, 417 pages ; 23 cm
Contents: 1. Introduction --
Literacy in the United States --
Study charge, scope, and approach --
Conceptual framework and approach to the review of evidence --
Study scope --
Organization of the report --
2. Foundations of reading and writing --
Social, cultural, and neurocognitive mechanisms of literacy development --
Types of text --
Literacy tools --
Literacy activities --
Teacher knowledge, skills, and beliefs --
Neurocognitive mechanisms --
Reading --
Decoding --
Vocabulary --
Fluency --
Reading comprehension --
Writing --
Components and processes of writing --
Writing instruction --
Neurobiology of reading and writing development and difficulties --
Neurobiology of reading --
Neurobiology of writing --
Implications for instruction --
Instruction for struggling readers and writers --
Decontextualized interventions --
Principles of instruction for struggling leaners --
Reading and writing across the life span --
Summary and discussion --
3. Literacy instruction for adults --
Contexts for literacy learning --
Adult education programs --
Literacy instruction in adult education programs --
Developmental education courses in colleges --
Instructional practices and outcomes : State of the research --
Assumptions and sources of evidence --
Orientation to the findings --
Adults in basic and secondary education programs --
Topics for future study from adult literacy research --
Collaborative learning --
Contextualized instruction --
Instructional materials --
Writing instruction --
Funds of knowledge and authentic learning experiences --
Social, psychological, and functional outcomes --
Underprepared postsecondary students --
Summary and directions for research --
4. Principles of learning for instructional design --
The development of expertise --
Supporting attention, retention, and transfer --
Present material in a clear and organized format --
Use multiple and varied examples --
Present material in multiple modalities and formats --
Teach in the zone of proximal development --
Space presentations of new material --
Test on multiple occasions, preferably with spacing --
Ground concepts in perceptual-motor experiences. Supporting generation of content and reasoning --
Encourage the learner to generate content --
Encourage the generation of explanations, substantive questions, and the resolution of contradictions --
Encourage the learner to construct ideas from multiple points of view and different perspectives --
Complex strategies, critical thinking, inquiry, and self-regulated learning --
Structure instruction to develop effective use of complex strategies --
Combine complex strategy instruction with learning of content --
Feedback --
Accurate and timely feedback helps learning --
Qualitative feedback is better for learning than test scores and error flagging --
Adaptive and interactive learning environments --
Adaptive learning environments foster understanding in complex domains --
Interactive learning environments facilitate learning --
Learning is facilitated in genuine and coherent learning environments --
Learning is influenced by motivation and emotion --
Summary and directions for research --
5. Motivation, engagement, and persistence --
The psychology of motivation and learning --
Self-efficacy --
Intrinsic motivation --
Social, contextual, and systemic mediators of persistence --
Formal school structures and persistence --
Cultural and linguistic differences --
Social relationships and interactions --
Potentially negative effects of stereotype --
Social and systemic supports for and barriers to persistence --
Directions for research --
6. Technology to promote adult literacy --
Classes of technologies for learning --
How technologies affect learning --
Digital tools for practicing skills --
Summary and directions for research --
7. Learning, reading, and writing disabilities --
Learning disabilities --
Reading disabilities --
Writing disabilities --
Developing brain systems in struggling readers --
Brain structure and function --
Brain plasticity --
Accommodations to support literacy learning --
Reading accommodations --
Writing accommodations --
Summary and directions for research --
8. Language and literacy development of English language learners --
Component literacy skills of English language learners --
Influences on language and literacy in a second language --
First language knowledge and education level --
English language proficiency --
Age --
Aptitude for a second language --
Reading and learning disabilities --
Cultural knowledge and background --
Approaches to second language literacy instruction --
Integration of explicit instruction and implicit learning of language and literacy --
Development of language and knowledge for learning and reading comprehension --
Access to language and literacy practice outside classrooms --
Leveraging knowledge in the first language, when available --
Integrated multimodal instruction --
Writing --
Affective aspects of learning and instruction --
Assessment --
Summary and directions for research --
9. Conclusions and recommendations --
Conclusions --
Adult learners and learning environments --
Principles of effective literacy instruction --
English language learners --
Assessment. Technology --
Adult literacy instruction : state of the evidence --
Recommendations --
Research design --
Priorities for basic and applied research --
Priorities for translational science --
Large-scale data collection and information gathering --
Concluding thoughts : leadership and partnership --
References and Bibliography --
Appendixes --
A. Biographical sketches of committee members and staff --
B. Literacy in a digital age --
Adult literacy practices and proficiencies --
Adults' engagement with information and communication technologies --
Instructional practices and learning environments --
Future research --
References --
C. Interventions to develop the component literacy skills of low-literate adults --
A. Study populations and sample characteristics --
B. Intervention practices, intensity, duration, and attrition rates --
C. Study instruments by measurement construct by study --
References --
D. Search procedures and reviewed studies of adult literacy instruction.
Responsibility: Committee on Learning Sciences: Foundations and Applications to Adolescent and Adult Literacy, Alan M. Lesgold and Melissa Welch-Ross, Editors, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council of the National Academies.


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