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Improving the earthquake resilience of buildings : the worst case approach

Author: Izuru Takewaki; Abbas Moustafa; Kōhei Fujita
Publisher: London : Springer, ©2013.
Series: Springer series in reliability engineering.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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This book discusses the value of the worst-scenario approach for improving earthquake resilience in buildings and nuclear reactor facilities. The approach is applied to modeling of inelastic  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Izuru Takewaki; Abbas Moustafa; Kōhei Fujita
ISBN: 9781447141433 1447141431
OCLC Number: 785082548
Description: xv, 324 pages : illustrations (some color), maps (chiefly color) ; 24 cm.
Contents: Contents note continued: 3. Simulation of Near-Field Pulse-Like Ground Motion --
3.1. Introduction --
3.2. Characterization and Representation of Near-field Pulse-Like Ground Motions --
3.3. Representation of Near-field Pulse-Like Ground Motions Using Deterministic Models --
3.4. Representation of Near-Field Pulse-Like Ground Motions Using Probabilistic Models --
3.5. Numerical Applications --
3.6. Summary --
References --
4. Critical Characterization and Modeling of Pulse-Like Near-Field Strong Ground Motion --
4.1. Introduction --
4.2. Characteristics of Near-Field Pulse-Like Strong Ground Motion From Another Viewpoint --
4.2.1. Measures Based on Recorded Free-Field Ground Motion --
4.2.2. Measures Based on the Structural Response --
4.3. Modeling Near-Field Pulse-Like Ground Motion --
4.3.1. Representation of Pulse-Like Ground Motion Using Trigonometric Functions --
4.3.2. Representation of Pulse-Like Ground Motion Using Trigonometric Functions Modulated by Envelope Function. Contents note continued: 4.4. Damage-Based Critical Earthquake Ground Motion for Inelastic Structures --
4.4.1. Problem Formulation --
4.4.2. Solution Procedures --
4.4.3. Illustrative Example --
4.5. Summary --
References --
5. Characteristics of Earthquake Ground Motion of Repeated Sequences --
5.1. Introduction --
5.2. Characteristics of Earthquake Records of Repeated Sequences --
5.3. Characteristics of Free-Field Acceleration Records of Repeated Sequences --
5.4. Response Quantities of Inelastic Structures to Acceleration Sequences --
5.5. Summary --
References --
6. Modeling Critical Ground-Motion Sequences for Inelastic Structures --
6.1. Introduction --
6.2. Damage Assessment in Inelastic Structures Using Damage indexes --
6.3. Modeling Critical Ground-Motion Sequences for Inelastic Structures --
6.4. Numerical Illustrations and Discussions --
6.4.1. Bilinear Inelastic Single-Story Frame Structure --
6.4.2. Two-Story Elastic-Plastic Framed Structure --
6.5. Summary --
References. Contents note continued: 7. Response of Nonlinear SDOF Structures to Random Acceleration Sequences --
7.1. Introduction --
7.2. Characteristics of Acceleration Records of Repeated Sequences --
7.3. Representation of Random Ground Acceleration with Multiple Sequences --
7.4. Numerical Examples --
7.4.1. Response of Elastic-Plastic Structure to Nonstationary Random Acceleration Sequences --
7.4.2. Reliability of Nonlinear SDOF System to Random Acceleration Sequences --
7.5. Summary --
References --
8. Use of Deterministic and Probabilistic Measures to Identify Unfavorable Earthquake Records --
8.1. Introduction --
8.2. Use of Entropy as a Measure of Resonance/Criticality of Probabilistic Earthquake Models --
8.2.1. Stationary Narrow-Band White Noise Model --
8.2.2. Stationary Band-Limited White Noise Model --
8.2.3. Stationary Kanai-Tajimi Model --
8.2.4. Nonstationary and Evolutionary PSDF Models --
8.2.5. Relative Entropy Rate of Two Random Processes. Contents note continued: 8.3. Dispersion Index and Central Frequency --
8.3.1. Use of Entropy Rate and Dispersion Index to Measure Resonance of Earthquake Records --
8.3.2. Use of Deterministic Measures to Identify Resonance in Earthquake Records --
8.4. Identification of Resonant Accelerations and Selection of Design Records --
8.5. Summary --
References --
9. Damage Assessment of Inelastic Structures Under Worst Earthquake Loads --
9.1. Introduction --
9.2. Damage Assessment for Inelastic Structures Under Earthquakes --
9.2.1. Energy Dissipated by Inelastic Structures --
9.2.2. Damage Measures for Inelastic Structures --
9.3. Formulation of the Worst Case Scenario --
9.4. Numerical Example --
9.4.1. Bilinear Inelastic Frame Structure --
9.4.2. Inelastic Two-Story Frame Structure --
9.5. Summary --
References --
10. Critical Earthquake Loads for SDOF Inelastic Structures Considering Evolution of Seismic Waves --
10.1. Introduction. Contents note continued: 10.2. Dynamic Analysis and Energies Dissipated by Inelastic Structures --
10.3. Quantification of Structural Damage Using Damage indexes --
10.4. Critical Earthquake Loads Considering Evolution of Seismic Waves --
10.5. Numerical Results and Discussions --
10.6. Summary --
References --
11. Critical Correlation of Bidirectional Horizontal Ground Motions --
11.1. Introduction --
11.2. Penzien-Watabe Model and Extended Penzien-Watabe Model --
11.2.1. Penzien-Watabe Model --
11.2.2. Extended Penzien-Watabe Model --
11.3. Stochastic Response to 2DGM Described by Extended Penzien-Watabe Model --
11.3.1. Definition of Nonstationary Ground Motion --
11.3.2. Stochastic Response Evaluation in Frequency Domain --
11.4. Critical Excitation Method for Worst Cross PSD Function Between 2DGM --
11.5. Numerical Example --
11.5.1. Response to 2DGM with the Constraint of Sum of Auto PSD Functions. Contents note continued: 11.5.2. Response to 2DGM Described by Extended Penzien-Watabe Model: Analysis From the Viewpoint of Critical Incident Angle --
11.5.3.Comparison of Response to Critically Correlated 2DGM with that to Perfectly Correlated 2DGM --
11.5.4. Analysis of Recorded 2DGM --
11.6. Summary --
Appendix 1 Computation of Coherence Function and Transformation of PSD Matrices --
Appendix 2 Horizontal Stiffness of Frame --
Appendix 3 Stochastic Response 1 --
Appendix 4 Stochastic Response 2 --
References --
12. Optimal Placement of Visco-Elastic Dampers and Supporting Members Under Variable Critical Excitations --
12.1. Introduction --
12.2. Structural Model with Visco-Elastic Dampers and their Supporting Members --
12.3. Critical Excitation for Variable Design --
12.4. Stochastic Response Evaluation in Frequency Domain --
12.4.1.3N Model --
12.4.2.N Model --
12.5. Optimal Design Problem --
12.6. Optimality Conditions --
12.7. Algorithm for Optimal Damper Placement. Contents note continued: 12.7.1. Algorithm for Optimal Damper Placement and Optimal Design of Supporting Members --
12.7.2. Sensitivity with Respect to Damper Area --
12.7.3. Sensitivity with Respect to Stiffness of Supporting Member --
12.7.4. Sensitivities of Axial Force of Supporting Member --
12.8. Numerical Examples --
12.9. Summary --
Appendix 1 Equivalent Stiffness and Damping Coefficient of Damper Unit Including Supporting Member in N-Model (Eqs. (12.1) and (12.2)) --
Appendix 2 Transformation Matrix from the Nodal Displacements to the Relative Displacements Between both Ends of Supporting Members --
Appendix 3 Second-Order Sensitivities of the Equivalent Stiffness and Damping Coefficient --
References --
13. Earthquake Response Bound Analysis of Uncertain Passively Controlled Buildings for Robustness Evaluation --
13.1. Introduction --
13.2. Concept of Sustainable Building Design Under Uncertain Structural-Parameter Environment. Contents note continued: 13.3. Interval Analysis Methods for Uncertain Structural Parameters --
13.3.1. Interval Analysis Method Based on Approximation of First-Order Taylor Series Expansion --
13.3.2. Interval Analysis Method Based on Approximation of Second-Order Taylor Series Expansion --
13.4. Advanced Interval Analysis Method Based on the Information of the Approximation of Taylor Series Expansion --
13.4.1. Reanalysis Approach Based on the Structural Parameter Set Derived by the Taylor Series Approximation --
13.4.2. Varied Evaluation Point Method Considering the Influence of Initial Value Dependency --
13.4.3. Search of the Exact Solution --
13.5. Numerical Examples --
13.6. Summary --
References --
14. Earthquake Response Bound Analysis of Uncertain Base-Isolated Buildings for Robustness Evaluation --
14.1. Introduction --
14.2. Modeling of Base-Isolated Buildings and Uncertainty of Isolators --
14.3. Past Work on Interval Analysis for Uncertain Input and Structural Parameters. Contents note continued: 14.4. Interval Analysis Using Taylor Series Expansion --
14.4.1. Interval Analysis Using First-Order Taylor Expansion --
14.4.2. Interval Analysis Using Second-Order Taylor Expansion --
14.4.3. Interval Analysis Considering Non-Monotonic Property of Objective Function --
14.5. Numerical Verification of URP Method --
14.5.1. Property of Base-Isolated Building --
14.5.2. Input Ground Motions --
14.5.3. Interval Analysis for Interstory Drift of Base-Isolation Story --
14.5.4. Interval Analysis for Top-Story Maximum Acceleration --
14.6. Summary --
References --
15. Future Directions --
15.1. Earthquake Resilience --
15.2. Improving Earthquake Resilience Based on Redundancy and Robustness --
15.3. Resonant Response and Random Response --
15.4. Robustness Function for Seismic Performance --
References.
Series Title: Springer series in reliability engineering.
Responsibility: Izuru Takewaki, Abbas Moustafa, Kohei Fujita.

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   schema:description "Contents note continued: 3. Simulation of Near-Field Pulse-Like Ground Motion -- 3.1. Introduction -- 3.2. Characterization and Representation of Near-field Pulse-Like Ground Motions -- 3.3. Representation of Near-field Pulse-Like Ground Motions Using Deterministic Models -- 3.4. Representation of Near-Field Pulse-Like Ground Motions Using Probabilistic Models -- 3.5. Numerical Applications -- 3.6. Summary -- References -- 4. Critical Characterization and Modeling of Pulse-Like Near-Field Strong Ground Motion -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.2. Characteristics of Near-Field Pulse-Like Strong Ground Motion From Another Viewpoint -- 4.2.1. Measures Based on Recorded Free-Field Ground Motion -- 4.2.2. Measures Based on the Structural Response -- 4.3. Modeling Near-Field Pulse-Like Ground Motion -- 4.3.1. Representation of Pulse-Like Ground Motion Using Trigonometric Functions -- 4.3.2. Representation of Pulse-Like Ground Motion Using Trigonometric Functions Modulated by Envelope Function."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: 11.5.2. Response to 2DGM Described by Extended Penzien-Watabe Model: Analysis From the Viewpoint of Critical Incident Angle -- 11.5.3.Comparison of Response to Critically Correlated 2DGM with that to Perfectly Correlated 2DGM -- 11.5.4. Analysis of Recorded 2DGM -- 11.6. Summary -- Appendix 1 Computation of Coherence Function and Transformation of PSD Matrices -- Appendix 2 Horizontal Stiffness of Frame -- Appendix 3 Stochastic Response 1 -- Appendix 4 Stochastic Response 2 -- References -- 12. Optimal Placement of Visco-Elastic Dampers and Supporting Members Under Variable Critical Excitations -- 12.1. Introduction -- 12.2. Structural Model with Visco-Elastic Dampers and their Supporting Members -- 12.3. Critical Excitation for Variable Design -- 12.4. Stochastic Response Evaluation in Frequency Domain -- 12.4.1.3N Model -- 12.4.2.N Model -- 12.5. Optimal Design Problem -- 12.6. Optimality Conditions -- 12.7. Algorithm for Optimal Damper Placement."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: 4.4. Damage-Based Critical Earthquake Ground Motion for Inelastic Structures -- 4.4.1. Problem Formulation -- 4.4.2. Solution Procedures -- 4.4.3. Illustrative Example -- 4.5. Summary -- References -- 5. Characteristics of Earthquake Ground Motion of Repeated Sequences -- 5.1. Introduction -- 5.2. Characteristics of Earthquake Records of Repeated Sequences -- 5.3. Characteristics of Free-Field Acceleration Records of Repeated Sequences -- 5.4. Response Quantities of Inelastic Structures to Acceleration Sequences -- 5.5. Summary -- References -- 6. Modeling Critical Ground-Motion Sequences for Inelastic Structures -- 6.1. Introduction -- 6.2. Damage Assessment in Inelastic Structures Using Damage indexes -- 6.3. Modeling Critical Ground-Motion Sequences for Inelastic Structures -- 6.4. Numerical Illustrations and Discussions -- 6.4.1. Bilinear Inelastic Single-Story Frame Structure -- 6.4.2. Two-Story Elastic-Plastic Framed Structure -- 6.5. Summary -- References."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: 7. Response of Nonlinear SDOF Structures to Random Acceleration Sequences -- 7.1. Introduction -- 7.2. Characteristics of Acceleration Records of Repeated Sequences -- 7.3. Representation of Random Ground Acceleration with Multiple Sequences -- 7.4. Numerical Examples -- 7.4.1. Response of Elastic-Plastic Structure to Nonstationary Random Acceleration Sequences -- 7.4.2. Reliability of Nonlinear SDOF System to Random Acceleration Sequences -- 7.5. Summary -- References -- 8. Use of Deterministic and Probabilistic Measures to Identify Unfavorable Earthquake Records -- 8.1. Introduction -- 8.2. Use of Entropy as a Measure of Resonance/Criticality of Probabilistic Earthquake Models -- 8.2.1. Stationary Narrow-Band White Noise Model -- 8.2.2. Stationary Band-Limited White Noise Model -- 8.2.3. Stationary Kanai-Tajimi Model -- 8.2.4. Nonstationary and Evolutionary PSDF Models -- 8.2.5. Relative Entropy Rate of Two Random Processes."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: 8.3. Dispersion Index and Central Frequency -- 8.3.1. Use of Entropy Rate and Dispersion Index to Measure Resonance of Earthquake Records -- 8.3.2. Use of Deterministic Measures to Identify Resonance in Earthquake Records -- 8.4. Identification of Resonant Accelerations and Selection of Design Records -- 8.5. Summary -- References -- 9. Damage Assessment of Inelastic Structures Under Worst Earthquake Loads -- 9.1. Introduction -- 9.2. Damage Assessment for Inelastic Structures Under Earthquakes -- 9.2.1. Energy Dissipated by Inelastic Structures -- 9.2.2. Damage Measures for Inelastic Structures -- 9.3. Formulation of the Worst Case Scenario -- 9.4. Numerical Example -- 9.4.1. Bilinear Inelastic Frame Structure -- 9.4.2. Inelastic Two-Story Frame Structure -- 9.5. Summary -- References -- 10. Critical Earthquake Loads for SDOF Inelastic Structures Considering Evolution of Seismic Waves -- 10.1. Introduction."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: 13.3. Interval Analysis Methods for Uncertain Structural Parameters -- 13.3.1. Interval Analysis Method Based on Approximation of First-Order Taylor Series Expansion -- 13.3.2. Interval Analysis Method Based on Approximation of Second-Order Taylor Series Expansion -- 13.4. Advanced Interval Analysis Method Based on the Information of the Approximation of Taylor Series Expansion -- 13.4.1. Reanalysis Approach Based on the Structural Parameter Set Derived by the Taylor Series Approximation -- 13.4.2. Varied Evaluation Point Method Considering the Influence of Initial Value Dependency -- 13.4.3. Search of the Exact Solution -- 13.5. Numerical Examples -- 13.6. Summary -- References -- 14. Earthquake Response Bound Analysis of Uncertain Base-Isolated Buildings for Robustness Evaluation -- 14.1. Introduction -- 14.2. Modeling of Base-Isolated Buildings and Uncertainty of Isolators -- 14.3. Past Work on Interval Analysis for Uncertain Input and Structural Parameters."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: 10.2. Dynamic Analysis and Energies Dissipated by Inelastic Structures -- 10.3. Quantification of Structural Damage Using Damage indexes -- 10.4. Critical Earthquake Loads Considering Evolution of Seismic Waves -- 10.5. Numerical Results and Discussions -- 10.6. Summary -- References -- 11. Critical Correlation of Bidirectional Horizontal Ground Motions -- 11.1. Introduction -- 11.2. Penzien-Watabe Model and Extended Penzien-Watabe Model -- 11.2.1. Penzien-Watabe Model -- 11.2.2. Extended Penzien-Watabe Model -- 11.3. Stochastic Response to 2DGM Described by Extended Penzien-Watabe Model -- 11.3.1. Definition of Nonstationary Ground Motion -- 11.3.2. Stochastic Response Evaluation in Frequency Domain -- 11.4. Critical Excitation Method for Worst Cross PSD Function Between 2DGM -- 11.5. Numerical Example -- 11.5.1. Response to 2DGM with the Constraint of Sum of Auto PSD Functions."@en ;
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