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India-U.S. relations

Author: Barbara Leitch LePoer; Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Publisher: [Washington, D.C.] : Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, [2001]
Series: CRS issue brief, IB93097.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : National government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
The end of the Cold War freed India-U.S. relations from the constraints of global bipolarity, but interactions continued for a decade to be affected by the burden of history, most notably the longstanding India-Pakistan rivalry and nuclear weapons proliferation in the region. Recent years, however, have witnessed a sea change in bilateral relations, with more positive interactions becoming the norm. India's swift  Read more...
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Material Type: Document, Government publication, National government publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Barbara Leitch LePoer; Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
OCLC Number: 47154394
Notes: Title from title screen.
"Updated March 8, 2001."
Details: Mode of access: World Wide Web.; System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Series Title: CRS issue brief, IB93097.
Other Titles: India-United States relations
Responsibility: Barbara Leitch LePoer.

Abstract:

The end of the Cold War freed India-U.S. relations from the constraints of global bipolarity, but interactions continued for a decade to be affected by the burden of history, most notably the longstanding India-Pakistan rivalry and nuclear weapons proliferation in the region. Recent years, however, have witnessed a sea change in bilateral relations, with more positive interactions becoming the norm. India's swift offer of full support for U.S.-led counterterrorism operations after September 2001 was widely viewed as reflective of such change. Today, the Bush Administration vows to "help India become a major world power in the 21st century." In recent years, the United States and India have engaged in numerous and unprecedented joint military exercises. Discussions of possible sales to India of major U.S.-built weapons systems are ongoing. Plans to expand high-technology trade and civilian space and civilian nuclear cooperation, as well as to expand dialogue on missile defense, have become key bilateral issues in recent years. In July 2005, President Bush and Indian Prime Minister Singh issued a Joint Statement resolving to establish a ₃global partnership₄ between the United States and India. The Bush Administration dubbed India "a responsible state with advanced nuclear technology" and vowed to work on achieving "full civilian nuclear energy cooperation with India." Such cooperation would require changes in both U.S. law and international guidelines. The United States seeks to curtail the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles in South Asia. Both India and Pakistan have resisted external pressure to sign the major nonproliferation treaties. In May 1998, the two countries conducted nuclear tests that evoked international condemnation. Proliferation-related restrictions on U.S. aid were triggered, then later lifted through congressional-executive cooperation from 1998 to 2000. Remaining sanctions on India (and Pakistan) were removed in October 2001. Continuing U.S. interest in South Asia focuses on continuing tensions between India and Pakistan, a problem rooted in unfinished business from the 1947 Partition and competing claims to the former princely state of Kashmir. The United States strongly encourages maintenance of a cease-fire in Kashmir and continued, substantive dialogue between India and Pakistan. The United States also has been concerned with human rights issues related to regional dissidence and separatistism in several Indian states. Strife in these areas has killed tens of thousands of civilians, militants, and security forces over the past two decades. Communalism has been another matter of concern, with early 2002 rioting in the Gujarat state resulting in up to 2,000, mostly Muslim, deaths. Many in Congress, as well as in the State Department and international human rights groups, have criticized India for perceived human rights abuses in these areas. The United States supports India₂s efforts to transform its once quasi-socialist economy through fiscal reform and market opening. Since 1991, India has taken steps to privatize state-owned industries, and to reduce tariffs and licensing controls. Coalition governments have kept India on a general path of reform, though there is U.S. concern that movement remains slow and inconsistent. See also CRS Report RL33072, U.S.-India Bilateral Agreements in 2005; CRS Report RL32259, Terrorism in South Asia; and CRS Report RS21502, India-U.S. Economic Relations.

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