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The Indian Ocean: Exploitable Mineral and Petroleum Resources

Author: Ganpat Singh Roonwal
Publisher: Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1986.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Exploration of marine minerals by geologists and oceanographers started more than a century ago, but at that time this type of work was largely confined to the intertidal zones and shallow waters, as these areas were easily accessible. There are also records of several investigations carried out during the famous Challenger expedition in the deep sea. Since then, marine geological and mineral explorations have  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Ganpat Singh Roonwal
ISBN: 9783642955013 3642955010
OCLC Number: 851388401
Description: 1 online resource (xvi, 198 pages 68 illustrations)
Contents: 1 Introduction --
1.1 General --
1.2 Minerals and Resources --
1.3 Physiographic Divisions of the Ocean and Their Potential Mineral Deposits --
1.4 The Indian Ocean --
Its Area and Associates --
1.5 Outline of the Minerals in the Indian Ocean --
2 Origin and Development of the Indian Ocean --
2.1 Origin and Development from Pangaea to Gondwanaland to Recent Times --
2.2 Structure and Physiography of the Indian Ocean --
2.3 Bathymetry and Bottom Characteristics --
2.4 Sediment Distribution on the Indian Ocean Floor --
3 Exploration Methods --
3.1 Introduction --
3.2 Exploration Technique --
4 Placer Deposits --
4.1 Formation of Placer Deposits --
4.2 Classification --
4.3 Environment and Occurrence --
5 Phosphorite --
5.1 Mineralogy and Geochemistry --
5.2 Form --
5.3 Environment of Formation of Phosphorites --
5.4 Occurrences --
5.5 Resource Position --
6 Ferromanganese Nodules and Encrustations --
6.1 Introduction --
6.2 Ferromanganese Nodules --
6.3 Ferromanganese Encrustations (Ridge Crest and Seamount Deposits) --
6.4 Formation of Marine Ferromanganese Nodules and Encrustations --
6.5 Occurrence of Ferromanganese Nodules in the Indian Ocean --
7 Metalliferous Sediments and Hydrothermal Ores --
7.1 Metalliferous Sediments Associated with Hydrothermal Activity --
7.2 Metalliferous Sediments Found Away from Hydrothermal Activity Zones and in Open Oceans --
7.3 Red Sea Geothermal Deposits --
7.4 Main Indian Ocean --
8. Subsurface Sea Bed Deposits: Petroleum and Natural Gas --
8.1 Deposits Below the Sea Bed --
8.2 Geological Regions of Deep Water Areas --
8.3 Origin of Hydrocarbons --
8.4 Margins of the Indian Ocean --
8.5 Petroleum Potential of Sea Bed Provinces Beyond the Continental Slope --
8.6 Petroleum Occurrences and Exploration Activity Around the Margins of the Indian Ocean --
9 Other Deposits. Unconsolidated Organic and Inorganic Deposits --
9.1 Organic Sediments --
9.2 Calcareous Oozes --
9.3 Red Clay Deposits --
9.4 Diatom Oozes --
9.5 Building Material --
10 Mining and Environment --
10.1 Mining Activity for Hard Minerals in Shallow-Water Regions --
10.2 Environmental Impacts of Dredging --
10.3 Mining of Phosphorites --
10.4 Deep Sea Bed Mining --
10.5 The Red Sea Metalliferous Muds and Sediments --
10.6 Legal Considerations --
References.
Responsibility: by Ganpat Singh Roonwal.

Abstract:

Exploration of marine minerals by geologists and oceanographers started more than a century ago, but at that time this type of work was largely confined to the intertidal zones and shallow waters, as these areas were easily accessible. There are also records of several investigations carried out during the famous Challenger expedition in the deep sea. Since then, marine geological and mineral explorations have progressed considerably, and our knowledge of the sea at depths ranging from 4000 m to 6000 m has increased accordingly. With this development has emerged also a change in the understanding of the resources of the seabed. At present, the seabed has become a focal point of studies, not only on petroleum and other mineral resources, but also on its own evolution in the history of the earth. The concepts of continental drift and plate tectonics being well established, further surveys and exploration have helped in establishing a relationship between the origin of the oceans and the mineral potential that exists in their floor. The Indian Ocean had its birth with the dismemberment of Gondwanaland. The seabed of the Indian Ocean contains minerals ranging from beach sand and gravel to heavy minerals associated with beach deposits. There are also surface occurrences of phosphorites and manganese nodules and sub-surface deposits of petroleum and various other types of mineral. The author of this book, Dr. G.S. Roonwal, has presented several aspects of mineral resources of the Indian Ocean.

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