This dissertation investigates how John Locke's idea of toleration was diversely employed by different groups according to their needs and perspectives in early eighteenth-century England. It demonstrates that Locke as a source and inspiration served various viewpoints for both Whigs and Tories. Chapter 1 describes the thesis, argument, aim, methodology, and sources of this study, along with the scholarly debate. Chapter 2 argues that Locke's idea of toleration must be understood theoretically and historically. From these aspects, Locke's idea of toleration can be portrayed in a variety of ways, including radical, moderate, and conservative outlooks. Moreover, the idea is so comprehensive and complex that it embraces five categories: the philosophical foundation, church and state, the idea of the church and the ministry of the church, the sovereignty of the individual, and religious toleration and intolerance. Chapter 3 explores Locke's influence on two radical Whigs, John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon. They employed Locke to defend Whig doctrine and criticize High Church Anglicanism in a radical manner. Chapter 4 examines how William Warburton, as a moderate Whig, utilized Locke's ideas in a moderate way to support the established state and church, and protest against the test laws and various issues related to toleration Chapter 5 investigates Locke's ideas as appropriated by the Tory High Churchman Thomas Sherlock in a conservative way. Through Sherlock's employment, Locke also was used to defend conservative ideas and vindicate the established government and church. Chapter 6 reiterates the thesis, main argument, and contents of this study. This dissertation reaffirms that the historical significance of Locke in early eighteenth-century England cannot be underestimated. Locke's ideas served as an inspiration and foundation for both Whigs and Tories through their various employments and receptions according to their divergent views and aims.