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Integrated design and operation of water treatment facilities

Author: Susumu Kawamura
Publisher: New York : John Wiley & Sons, ©2000.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 2nd edView all editions and formats
Summary:
"This Second Edition of Susumu Kawamura's landmark volume offers comprehensive coverage of water treatment facility design, from the basic principles to the latest innovations. It covers a broad spectrum of water treatment process designs in detail and offers clear guidelines on how to choose the unit, process, and equipment that will maximize overall efficiency and minimize maintenance costs. This book also
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Kawamura, Susumu.
Integrated design and operation of water treatment facilities.
New York : John Wiley & Sons, ©2000
(OCoLC)606450162
Online version:
Kawamura, Susumu.
Integrated design and operation of water treatment facilities.
New York : John Wiley & Sons, ©2000
(OCoLC)607903497
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Susumu Kawamura
ISBN: 0471350931 9780471350934
OCLC Number: 43083465
Description: xvii, 691 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Contents: 1. Management of a Design Project 1 --
1.1 Role of the Professional Engineer 1 --
1.2 Selection of Consultants 2 --
1.3 Fee Structure for Services 3 --
1.4 Project Control 5 --
1.5 Value Engineering 10 --
1.5.1 Scope and Methodology of Value Engineering 11 --
1.5.2 Information Phase 12 --
1.5.3 Creative Phase 12 --
1.5.4 Judgment Phase 13 --
1.5.5 Development Phase 13 --
1.5.6 Recommendation Phase 13 --
1.6 Privatization Delivery Process 13 --
2. Preliminary Studies 15 --
2.1 Master Planning 15 --
2.2 Feasibility Study 16 --
2.2.1 Planning Period 16 --
2.2.2 Water Supply Areas 16 --
2.2.3 Future Population 17 --
2.2.4 Maximum Daily Water Demand 17 --
2.2.5 Evaluation and Selection of the Water Source 17 --
2.2.6 Size of the Water Treatment Plant 17 --
2.2.7 Treatment Plant Site 18 --
2.2.8 Financing 18 --
2.3 Bench-Scale and Pilot-Plant Studies 20 --
2.3.1 Bench-Scale Studies 20 --
2.3.2 Pilot-Plant Studies 22 --
2.4 Preliminary Engineering Study 26 --
2.4.1 Quality and Treatability of the Raw Water 27 --
2.4.2 Objectives for the Finished Water Quality 28 --
Surface Water Treatment Rule 29 --
Disinfectants/Disinfection By-products Rule 29 --
Enhanced Coagulation Requirements 30 --
Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule 31 --
Other Water Quality-Related Items 32 --
Federal Drinking Water Regulations 33 --
2.4.3 Additional Goals and Objectives 36 --
2.4.4 Restrictions and Constraints on Plant Design 38 --
2.4.5 Alternative Treatment Processes 38 --
2.4.6 Preliminary Design Criteria for Treatment Unit Processes 39 --
2.4.7 Hydraulic Grade Across the Plant 39 --
2.4.8 Geotechnical Considerations 41 --
2.4.9 Structural Design Conditions and Criteria 41 --
2.4.10 Plant Waste Handling and Disposal 49 --
2.4.11 Instrumentation and Control Systems 50 --
2.4.12 Preliminary Cost Estimates 51 --
2.4.13 Recommended Treatment Processes 53 --
2.4.14 Plant Layout and Architectural Design 54 --
2.4.15 Management Planning of the Design Phase 55 --
2.4.16 Environmental Impact Statement 56 --
2.5 Watershed Management 56 --
3. Design of Basic Treatment Process Units 59 --
3.1 Common Basic Water Treatment Processes 59 --
3.1.1 Design Procedure 59 --
3.2 Basic Approach 61 --
3.2.2 General Considerations 64 --
Plant Layout 65 --
Process Flow Diagram 66 --
Preliminary Hydraulic Grade Line Across the Plant 68 --
Design of the Basic Processes 69 --
Modification of the Existing Plant 73 --
3.2.3 Coagulation and Chemical Application Considerations 74 --
Purpose 74 --
Considerations 75 --
Type and Selection Guide 84 --
Discussion of Alternatives 84 --
Design Criteria 88 --
Chemical Diffusers 89 --
Enhanced Coagulation Process 89 --
Example Design Calculations 90 --
Operation and Maintenance 101 --
3.2.4 Flocculation Process 105 --
Type and Selection Guide 109 --
Discussion of Alternatives 113 --
Design Criteria 117 --
Example Design Calculations 126 --
Operation and Maintenance 137 --
3.2.5 Sedimentation (Clarification) Process 139 --
Type and Selection Guide 166 --
Discussion of Alternatives 168 --
Design Criteria 171 --
Example Design Calculations 172 --
Operation and Maintenance 184 --
3.2.6 Dissolved Air Flotation Process 189 --
Type and Selection Guide 192 --
Design Criteria 193 --
3.2.7 Granular Medium Filtration Process 194 --
Type and Selection Guide 206 --
Basic Hydraulics 225 --
Design Criteria 229 --
Example Design Calculations 244 --
Operation and Maintenance 260 --
3.2.8 Specific Types of Filter 281 --
Slow Sand Filters 281 --
Proprietary Filters 286 --
Two-Stage Filtration 287 --
Miscellaneous Filters 290 --
3.2.9 Disinfection Process 292 --
Alternative Disinfectants 293 --
Chlorine 293 --
Chloramines 295 --
Chlorine Dioxide 295 --
Ozone 296 --
Ultraviolet Light 297 --
Design Criteria 301 --
Dechlorination 309 --
Example Design Calculations 309 --
Operation and Maintenance 310 --
3.2.10 Filtered Water Reservoir (Clearwell) 313 --
Type and Selection Guide 316 --
Design Criteria 318 --
3.2.11 Instrumentation and Process Control 318 --
Common Measurements 325 --
Basic Controls 326 --
Computer-Based Monitoring and Control 327 --
Design of the Instrumentation and Control System 330 --
Security System 334 --
3.2.12 Electrical System 335 --
Design Criteria 336 --
4. Subordinate Plant Facilities 343 --
4.1 Chemical Feed System 343 --
Water Treatment Chemicals 343 --
Overview of the Chemical Feed Systems 346 --
Required Capacity for the Chemical Feeder and Storage 354 --
Specific Design Issues 356 --
Design Criteria 358 --
Risk Management Planning 361 --
Example Design Calculations 362 --
Operation and Maintenance 367 --
4.2 Handling Facility for Waste Wash Water 372 --
Design Criteria 377 --
Example Design Calculations 380 --
Operational Issues 382 --
4.3 Sludge Handling and Disposal 384 --
Sludge Characteristics 386 --
Reduction of Sludge Production Rate and Volume 387 --
Sludge Handling 388 --
Ultimate Disposal 391 --
Design Criteria 394 --
Example Design Calculations 397 --
Operation and Maintenance 400 --
4.4 Intake System 404 --
River Intakes 405 --
Lake and Reservoir Intakes 405 --
Groundwater Intakes 406 --
Design Criteria 406 --
Operation and Maintenance 412 --
4.5 Grit Chamber 413 --
Design Criteria 416 --
Operation and Maintenance 416 --
4.6 Operations Building 417 --
Design Criteria 422 --
4.7 Pumping System 423 --
Pump Specifications 426 --
Special Considerations 428 --
Operation and Maintenance 431 --
4.8 Ozonation System 433 --
Design Criteria 447 --
Example Design Calculations 449 --
Operation and Maintenance 453 --
5. Design of Plant Components 455 --
5.1 Flow Measurement 455 --
Type of Flow Meters 455 --
Example Design Calculations 460 --
5.2 Level Measurement 463 --
Float System 464 --
Pressure Elements 464 --
Bubbler Tube System 464 --
Ultrasonic Level Detector 465 --
5.3 Valve Selection 466 --
Types of Valves 468 --
Flow Control Valve Considerations 469 --
Cavitation Considerations 475 --
Example Design Calculations 479 --
5.4 Piping System 481 --
Raw Water Line 482 --
Plant Yard Piping 482 --
Plant Utility and Water Distribution Lines 486 --
Chemical Feed Lines 486 --
Miscellaneous Pipings 487 --
Piping Materials 487 --
5.5 Standby Power Supply 488 --
6. Elements of Detailed Designs 491 --
6.1 Plant Hydraulics 491 --
Example Design Calculations 492 --
6.2 Specifications 497 --
Contents of Specifications 497 --
Types of Contracts 498 --
Contract Revisions 499 --
Standard Specifications 500 --
Master Specifications 500 --
General Provisions 500 --
Technical Specifications 501 --
Construction Specifications Institute 502 --
6.3 Final Cost Estimates 502 --
Development of Strategy and Data 503 --
Direct Costs 504 --
Indirect Costs 504 --
Estimate Summary 504 --
6.4 Supplemental Studies 505 --
Geotechnical/Geological Study 507 --
Cold Weather Design 508 --
Corrosion Studies 509 --
Acoustic Studies 509 --
Surveying 509 --
Landscaping 509 --
7. Specific Water Treatment Processes 510 --
7.1 Lime-Soda Ash Softening 510 --
7.1.2 Basic Chemical Reactions 511 --
7.1.3 Softening Process Alternatives 513 --
Alternative 1 Partial Lime Softening 513 --
Alternative 2 Excess Lime Softening 513 --
Alternative 3 Lime-Soda Ash Softening 514 --
Alternative 4 Caustic Soda Softening 514 --
Alternative 5 Softening with Both Lime and Caustic Soda 514 --
7.1.4 Overall Softening Treatment Process 514 --
7.1.5 Design Criteria 516 --
7.1.6 Operational Considerations 518 --
Chemical Dosages 519 --
Sludge Handling and Disposal 520 --
7.1.7 Example Calculations 520 --
7.2 Iron and Manganese Removal 523 --
7.2.1 Alternative Methods 524 --
Oxidation 524 --
Ion Exchange (Zeolite Process) 526 --
Sequestering Process 527 --
Lime Softening 527 --
7.2.2 Case History 527 --
7.3 Taste and Odor Control 530 --
7.3.1 Major Taste- and Odor-Producing Substances 530 --
7.3.2 Control Measures 531 --
Preventive Measures 531 --
Removal at the Treatment Plant 534 --
7.3.3 Hydrogen Sulfide Removal 538 --
Aeration 539 --
Chlorination 540 --
Ozonation 540 --
Potassium Permanganate Oxidation 540 --
7.3.4 Control in the Distribution System 541 --
7.4 Disinfection By-product Control: THMs, HAA[subscript 5], and VOCs 543 --
7.4.1 THMs 543 --
Instantaneous THM 543 --
Terminal THM 543 --
THM Formation Potential 544 --
Maximum Total THM Potential 544 --
7.4.2 THM Control Measures 545 --
7.4.3 HAA[subscript 5] 546 --
7.4.4 Operational Issues 547 --
Quarterly Sampling for Surface Water Supplies 547 --
Quarterly Sampling for Groundwater Supplies 547 --
7.4.5 VOCs 548 --
Trichloroethylene 548 --
Tetrachloroethlene 548 --
Carbon Tetrachloride (Tetrachloromethane) 548 --
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Methylchloroform) 548 --
1,2-Dichloroethane 549 --
Vinyl Chloride (Chlorethylene) 549 --
Benzene (Benzol) 549 --
7.4.6 VOC Control Measures 549 --
Management Control Measures 549 --
Treatment Control Measures 549 --
7.5 Fluoridation and Fluoride Removal 553 --
7.5.1 Fluoridation 554 --
General Considerations 554 --
Example Design Calculation 555 --
7.5.2 Fluoride Removal 557 --
Chemical Precipitation 557 --
Ion Exchange Process 557 --
7.6 Corrosion Control 559 --
7.6.1 Corrosion of Metals 559 --
General Corrosion of Metals 560 --
Secondary Corrosion Factors 561 --
7.6.2 Corrosion Control for Metals 562 --
Design Efforts 562 --
Application of Corrosion Inhibitors 562 --
Cathodic Protection 562 --
Sacrificial Anodes 563.
Responsibility: Susumu Kawamura.
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Abstract:

Completely up-to-date coverage of water treatment facility design and operation This Second Edition of Susumu Kawamura's landmark volume offers comprehensive coverage of water treatment facility  Read more...

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