This book presents a collection of papers that examine the TEDS-M data results in terms of knowledge and beliefs, the relationship between opportunities to learn during teacher education and outcomes, as well as the relationship between the future teachers background and teacher education outcomes. TEDS-M, under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), carried out the first-ever study to examine primary and lower secondary mathematics teachers competence in their last year of teacher education. In particular, it analyses the relationship between teacher education policies, practices and outcomes. Analysis of these complex relationships indicates both global and regional patterns of similarity and difference and identifies country-specific strengths and weaknesses, thus enabling national policy makers to improve the effectiveness of their systems within their own cultural norms and values. Specifically, through examination and analysis of the TEDS-M data, the papers in this book: add to the body of theory through reflecting on teacher knowledge conceptions, the relationship between teacher knowledge and beliefs, and cultural influences on the assessment and development of teacher knowledge and beliefs; illustrate the potential and ways of exploring possible connections between teacher preparation and student achievement; and discuss policy implications for evaluating teacher preparation and program quality. The book therefore provides a unique insight into teacher training systems and competences around the world and will be an invaluable resource for researchers, government policy makers and teacher trainers everywhere.