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Introduction to computer graphics

Author: James D Foley
Publisher: Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, [1996]
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : [Corr. ed.]View all editions and formats

An introductory text to computer graphics, this book focuses on topics essential for beginners in computer graphics. It contains an illustration program, with more than 50 full-color images. The  Read more...


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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: James D Foley
ISBN: 0201609215 9780201609219
OCLC Number: 36987333
Notes: "Reprinted with corrections May, 1996"--Title page verso.
Description: xxviii, 559 pages, [20] pages of plates : illustrations (some color) ; 24 cm
Contents: (All chapters, except Chapters 5 and 6 contain a Summary, and all chapters conclude with Exercises.)1. Introducing: Computer Graphics. A Few Uses of Computer Graphics.A Brief History of Computer Graphics.Output Technology.Input Technology.Software Portability.The Advantages of Interactive Graphics.Conceptual Framework for Interactive Graphics.Application Modeling.Display of the Model.Interaction Handling.2. Programming in the Simple Raster Graphics Package (SRGP). Drawing with SRGP.Specification of Graphics Primitives.Attributes.Filled Primitives and Their Attributes.Saving and Restoring Attributes.Text.Basic Interaction Handling.Human Factors.Logical Input Devices.Sampling Versus Event-Driven Processing.Sample Mode.Event Mode.Pick Correlation for Interaction Handling.Setting Device Measure and Attributes.Raster Graphics Features.Canvases.Clipping Rectangles.The SRGP_copyPixel Operation.Write Mode or RasterOp.Limitation of SRGP.Application Coordinate Systems.Storage of Primitives for Respecification.3. Basic Raster Graphics Algorithms for Drawing 2D Primitives. Overview.Implications of Display-System Architectures.The Output Pipeline in Software.Scan Converting Lines.The Basic Incremental Algorithm.Midpoint Line Algorithm.Additional Issues.Scan Converting Circles.Eight-Way Symmetry.Midpoint Circle Algorithm.Filling Rectangles.Filling Polygons.Horizontal Edges.Slivers.Edge Coherence and the Scan-Line Algorithm.Pattern Filling Using Scan Conversion.Pattern Filling Without Repeated Scan Conversion.Thick Primitives.Replicating Pixels.The Moving Pen.Clipping in a Raster World.Clipping Lines.Clipping Endpoints.Clipping Lines by Solving Simultaneous Equations.The Cohen-Sutherland Line-Clipping Algorithm.A Parametric Line-Clipping Algorithm.Clipping Circles.Clipping Circles.The Sutherland-Hodgman Polygon-Clipping Algorithm.Generating Characters.Defining and Clipping Characters.Implementing a Text Output Primitive.SRGP_copyPixel.Antialiasing.Increasing Resolution.Unweighted Area Sampling.Weighted Area Sampling.Advanced Topics.4. Graphics Hardware. Hardcopy Technologies.Display Technologies.Raster-scan Display Systems.Simple Raster Display System.Raster Display System with Peripheral Display Processor.Additional Display-Processor Functionality.Raster Display System with Integrated Display Processor.The Video Controller.Bitmap Transformations and Windowing.Video Mixing.Input Devices for Operator Interaction.Locator Devices.Keyboard Devices.Valuator Devices.Choice Devices.Image Scanners.5. Geometrical Transformations. Mathematical Preliminaries.Vector Spaces.The Dot Product in R.Properties of the Dot Product.Orthonormal Bases.Matrices.Matrix Multiplication.Determinants.Matrix Transpose.Matrix Inverse.Exploring Further.2D Transformation.Homogeneous Coordinates and Matrix Representation of 2D Transformations.Composition of 2D Transformations.The Window-to-Viewport Transformation.Efficiency.Matrix Representation of 3D Transformations.Composition of 3D Transformations.Transformations as a Change in Coordinate System.6. Viewing in 3D. The Synthetic Camera and Steps.Projections.Perspective Projections.Parallel Projections.Specifying an Arbitrary 3D View.Examples of 3D Viewing.Perspective Projections.Parallel Projections.Finite View Volumes.The Mathematics of Planar Geometric Projections.Implementing Planar Geometric Projections.Parallel Projection.Perspective Projection.Clipping Against a Canonical View Volume in 3D.Clipping in Homogeneous Coordinates.Mapping into a Viewpoint.Implementation Summary.Coordinate Systems7. Object Hierarchy and Simple PHIGS (SPHIGS). Geometric Modeling.Geometric Models.Hierarchy in Geometric Models.Relationship among Model, Application Program, and Graphics System.Characteristics of Retained-Mode Graphics Packages.Central Structure Storage and Its Advantages.Limitations of Retained-Mode Packages.Defining and Displaying.Opening and Closing Structures.Specifying Output Primitives and Their Attributes.Posting Structures for Display Traversal.Viewing.Graphics Applications Sharing a Screen via Window Management.Modeling Transformations.Hierarchical Structure Networks.Two-Level Hierarchy.Simple Three-Level Hierarchy.Bottom-Up Construction.Interactive Modeling Programs.Matrix Composition in Display Traversal.Appearance-Attributes Handling in Hierarchy.Inheritance Rules.SPHIGS Attributes and Text Unaffected by Transformations.Screen Updating and Rendering Modes.Structure Network Editing for Dynamic Effects.Accessing Elements with Indices and Labels.Intrastructure Editing Operations.Instance Blocks for Editing Convenience.Controlling Automatic Regeneration of the Screen Imaging.Interaction.Locator.Pick Correlation.Advanced Issues.Additional Output Features.Implementation Issues.Optimizing Display of Hierarchical Models.Limitations of Hierarchical Modeling in PHIGS.Alternative Forms of Hierarchical Modeling.Other (Industry) Standards.8. Input Devices, Interaction Techniques, and Interaction Tasks. Interaction Hardware.Locator Devices.Keyboard Devices.Valuator Devices.Choice Devices.Other Devices.3D Interaction Devices.Basic Interaction Tasks.The Position Interaction Task.The Select Interaction Task-Variable-Sized Set of Choices.The Select Interaction Task-Relativity Fixed-Sized Choice.The Text Interaction Task.The Quantify Interaction Task.3D Interaction Tasks.Composite Interaction Tasks.Dialogue Boxes.Construction Techniques.Dynamic Manipulation.Interaction-Technique Toolkits.9. Representation of Curves and Surfaces. Polygon Meshes.Representing Polygon Meshes.Plane Equations.Parametric Cubic Curves.Basic Characteristics.Hermite Curves.Bezier Curves.Uniforum Nonrational B-Splines.Nonuniforum, Rational Cubic Polynomial Curve Segments.Nonuniforum, Rational Cubic Polynomial Curve Segments.Fitting Curves to Digitized Points.Comparison of the Cubic Curves.Parametric Bicubic Surfaces.Hermite Surfaces.Bezier Surfaces.B-Spline Surfaces.Normals to Surfaces.Displaying Bicubic Surfaces.Quaddric Surfaces.Specialized Modeling Techniques.Fractal Models.Grammar-Based Models.10. Solid Modeling. Representing Solids.Regularized Boolean Set Operation.Primitive Instancing.Sweep Representations.Boundary Representations.Polyhedra and Euler's Formula.Boolean Set Operations.Spatial-Partioning Representations.Cell Decomposition.Spatial-Occupancy Enumeration.Octrees Binary Space-Partitioning Tress.Constructive Solid Geometry.Comparison of Representations.User Interface for Solid Modeling.11. Achromatic and Colored Light. Acromatic Light.Selection of Intesities.Halftone Approximation.Chromatic Color.Psychophysics.The CIE Chromaticity Diagram.Color Models for Raster Graphics.The RGB Color Model.The CMY Color Model.The YIG Color Model.The HSV Color Model.Interactive Specification of Color.Interpolation in Color Space.Use of Color in Computer Graphics.12. The Quest for Visual Realism. Why Realism?Fundamental Difficulties.Rendering Techniques for Line Drawings.Multiple Orthographic Views.Perspective Projections.Depth Cueing.Depth Clipping.Texture.Color.Visible-Line Determination.Rendering Techniques for Shaded Images.Visible-Surface Determination.Illumination and Shading.Interpolated Shading.Material Properties.Modeling Curved Surfaces.Improved Illumination and Shading.Texture.Shadows.Transparency and Reflection.Improved Camera Models.Improved Object Models.Dynamics and Animation.The Value of Motion.Animation.Stereopsis.Improved Displays.Interacting With Our Other Senses.13. Visible-Surface Determination. Techniques for Efficient Visible-Surface Algorithms.Coherence.The Perspective Transformation.Extents and Bounding Volumes.Back-Face Culling.Spatial Partitioning.Hierarchy.The z-Buffer Algorithm.Scan-Line Algorithms.Visible-Surface Ray Tracing.Computing Intersections.Efficiency Considerations for Visible-Surface Ray Tracing.Other Approaches.List Priority Algorithms.Area-Subdivision Algorithms.Algorithms for Curved Surfaces.14. Illumination and Shading. Illumination Models.Ambient Light.Diffuse Reflection.Atmospheric Attenuation.Specular Reflection.Improving the Point-Light-Source Model.Multiple Light Sources.Physically Based Illumination Models.Shading Models for Polygons.Constant Shading.Interpolated Shading.Polygon Mesh Shading.Gouraud Shading.Phong Shading.Problems with Interpolated Shading.Surface Detail.Surface-Detail Polygons.Texture Mapping.Bump Mapping.Other Approaches.Shadows.Scan-Line Generation of Shadows.Shadow Volumes.Transparency.Nonrefractive Transparency.Refractive Transparency.Global Illumination Algorithms.Recursive Ray Tracing.Recursive Ray Tracing.Radiosity Methods.The Radiosity Equation.Computing Form Factors.Progressive Refinement.The Rendering Pipeline.Local Illumination Pipelines.Global Illumination Pipelines.Progressive Refinement.Bibliography. Index. 0201609215T04062001
Responsibility: James D. Foley [and others].


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