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Introduction to corrosion science

Author: E McCafferty
Publisher: New York : Springer, ©2010.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Introduction to Corrosion Science is suitable for a one-semester course in corrosion science at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level for students that do not have backgrounds in electrochemistry but have taken introductory courses in materials science or physical chemistry. The text follows the approach of a physical chemist or materials scientist and is geared toward students of physical chemistry,  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
McCafferty, E.
Introduction to corrosion science.
New York : Springer, ©2010
(OCoLC)455832834
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: E McCafferty
ISBN: 9781441904546 1441904549 9781441904553 1441904557 1283510634 9781283510639
OCLC Number: 663096583
Description: 1 online resource (xvi, 575 pages) : illustrations
Contents: Note continued: Enthalpy --
Helmholtz and Gibbs Free Energies --
Free Energy and Spontaneity --
Relationships Between Thermodynamic Functions --
Chemical Potential and Standard States --
More About the Chemical Potential --
Note About Units for & Delta;G° or & Delta;G --
Free Energy and Electrode Potentials --
Nernst Equation --
Standard Free Energy Change and the Equilibrium Constant --
Quandary --
The Sign of Electrode Potentials --
Factors Affecting Electrode Potentials --
Problems --
References --
5. Thermodynamics of Corrosion: Electrochemical Cells and Galvanic Corrosion --
Introduction --
Electrochemical Cells --
Electrochemical Cells on the Same Surface --
Galvanic Corrosion --
Galvanic Series --
Cathodic Protection --
Two Types of Metallic Coatings --
Titanium Coatings on Steel: A Research Study --
Protection Against Galvanic Corrosion --
Differential Concentration Cells --
Metal Ion Concentration Cells --
Oxygen Concentration Cells --
Evans Water Drop Experiment --
Waterline Corrosion --
Crevice Corrosion: A Preview --
Problems --
References --
6. Thermodynamics of Corrosion: Pourbaix Diagrams --
Introduction --
Pourbaix Diagram for Aluminum --
Construction of the Pourbaix Diagram for Aluminum --
Comparison of Thermodynamic and Kinetic Data for Aluminum --
Pourbaix Diagram for Water --
Pourbaix Diagrams for Other Metals --
Pourbaix Diagram for Zinc --
Pourbaix Diagram for Iron --
Pourbaix Diagrams for Additional Metals --
Applications of Pourbaix Diagrams to Corrosion --
Limitations of Pourbaix Diagrams --
Pourbaix Diagrams for Alloys --
Pourbaix Diagrams at Elevated Temperatures --
Problems --
References --
7. Kinetics of Corrosion --
Introduction --
Units for Corrosion Rates --
Methods of Determining Corrosion Rates --
Weight Loss Method --
Weight Gain Method --
Chemical Analysis of Solution --
Gasometric Techniques. Note continued: Thickness Measurements --
Electrical Resistance Method --
Inert Marker Method --
Electrochemical Techniques --
Electrochemical Polarization --
Anodic and Cathodic Polarization --
Visualization of Cathodic Polarization --
Visualization of Anodic Polarization --
Ohmic Polarization --
Electrode Kinetics for Activation Polarization --
Absolute Reaction Rate Theory --
Electrode Kinetics for Non-Corroding Metals --
How to Plot Polarization Curves? --
Tafel Equation --
Reversible and Irreversible Potentials --
Mixed Potential Theory (Wagner and Traud) --
Electrode Kinetic Parameters --
Applications of Mixed Potential Theory --
Metals in Acid Solutions --
Tafel Extrapolation --
Verification of Corrosion Rates Obtained by Tafel Extrapolation --
Cathodic Protection of Iron in Acids --
Effect of the Cathodic Reaction --
Effect of Cathode Area on Galvanic Corrosion --
Multiple Oxidation-Reduction Reactions --
Anodic or Cathodic Control --
Linear Polarization Method (Stern and Geary) --
Advantages and Possible Errors for the Linear Polarization Technique --
Applications of the Linear Polarization Technique --
Small-Amplitude Cyclic Voltammetry --
Experimental Techniques for Determination of Polarization Curves --
Electrode Samples --
Electrode Holders --
Electrochemical Cells --
Instrumentation and Procedures --
Problems --
References --
8. Concentration Polarization and Diffusion --
Introduction --
Where Oxygen Reduction Occurs --
Concentration Polarization in Current Density-Potential Plots --
Solubility and Diffusion --
Solubility of Oxygen in Aqueous Solutions --
Fick's First Law of Diffusion --
Diffusion and Random Walks --
Electrode Kinetics for Concentration Polarization --
Concentration Profile Near an Electrode Surface --
Limiting Diffusion Current Density --
Diffusion Layer vs. The Diffuse Layer. Note continued: Current-Potential Relationship for Concentration Polarization --
Wagner-Traud Theory for Concentration Polarization --
Effect of Environmental Factors on Concentration Polarization and Corrosion --
Effect of Oxygen Concentration --
Effect of Solution Velocity --
Effect of Temperature --
Further Applications of Concentration Polarization Curves --
Cathodic Protection --
Area Effects in Galvanic Corrosion --
Linear Polarization --
Concentration Polarization in Acid Solutions --
Combined Activation and Concentration Polarization --
Rotating Disc Electrode --
Problems --
References --
9. Passivity --
Introduction --
Aluminum: An Example --
What is Passivity? --
Early History of Passivity --
Thickness of Passive Oxide Films --
Purpose of This Chapter --
Electrochemical Basis for Passivity --
Theories of Passivity --
Adsorption Theory --
Oxide Film Theory --
Film Sequence Theory --
Surface Analysis Techniques for the Examination of Passive Films --
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) --
X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy --
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy --
Models for the Passive Oxide Film on Iron --
Bilayer Model --
Hydrous Oxide Model --
Bipolar-Fixed Charge Model --
Spinel/Defect Model --
What Do These Various Models Mean? --
Passive Oxide Films on Aluminum --
Air-Formed Oxide Films --
Films Formed in Aqueous Solutions --
Properties of Passive Oxide Films --
Thickness --
Electronic and Ionic Conductivity --
Chemical Stability --
Mechanical Properties --
Structure of Passive Films --
Passivity in Binary Alloys --
Electron Configuration Theory --
Oxide Film Properties --
Percolation Theory --
Graph Theory Model --
Passivity in Stainless Steels --
Electrochemical Aspects --
Composition of Passive Films on Stainless Steels --
Passivity by Alloying with Noble Metals --
Anodic Protection --
Problems --
References. Note continued: 10. Crevice Corrosion and Pitting --
Introduction --
Crevice Corrosion --
Initiation of Crevice Corrosion --
Propagation of Crevice Corrosion --
Crevice Corrosion Testing --
Area Effects in Crevice Corrosion --
Protection Against Crevice Corrosion --
Pitting --
Critical Pitting Potential --
Experimental Determination of Pitting Potentials --
Effect of Chloride Ions on the Pitting Potential --
Effect of Inhibitors on the Pitting Potential --
Mechanism of Pit Initiation --
Mechanism of Pit Propagation --
Protection Potential --
Metastable Pits and Repassivation --
Experimental Pourbaix Diagrams for Pitting --
Effect of Molybdenum on the Pitting of Stainless Steels --
Effect of Sulfide Inclusions on the Pitting of Stainless Steels --
Effect of Temperature --
Protection Against Pitting --
Pitting of Aluminum --
Occluded Corrosion Cells --
Occluded Corrosion Cell (OCC) on Iron --
Occluded Corrosion Cells on Copper and Aluminum --
Differences Between Pitting and Crevice Corrosion --
Detection of Corrosion Pits --
Problems --
References --
11. Mechanically Assisted Corrosion --
Introduction --
Stress-Corrosion Cracking --
Mechanical Metallurgy --
Characteristics of Stress-Corrosion Cracking --
Stages of Stress-Corrosion Cracking --
Fracture Mechanics and SCC --
SCC Testing --
Interpretation of SCC Test Data --
Metallurgical Effects in SCC --
Environmental Effects on SCC --
Mechanisms of SCC --
Protection Against Stress-Corrosion Cracking --
Corrosion Fatigue --
Corrosion Fatigue Data --
Protection Against Corrosion Fatigue --
Cavitation Corrosion --
Erosion Corrosion and Fretting Corrosion --
Problems --
References --
12. Corrosion Inhibitors --
Introduction --
Types of Inhibitors --
Acidic Solutions --
Chemisorption of Inhibitors --
Effect of Inhibitor Concentration. Note continued: Chemical Factors in the Effectiveness of Chemisorbed Inhibitors --
Involvement of Water --
Competitive vs. Co-operative Adsorption --
Effect of the Electrical Double Layer --
Potential of Zero Charge --
Effect of Molecular Structure --
Adsorption Isotherms --
Nearly Neutral Solutions --
Effect of Oxide Films --
Chelating Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors --
Chromates and Chromate Replacements --
Inhibition of Localized Corrosion --
Pitting Corrosion --
Crevice Corrosion --
Stress-Corrosion Cracking and Corrosion Fatigue --
New Approaches to Corrosion Inhibition --
Biological Molecules --
Langmuir-Blodgett Films and Self-assembled Monolayers --
Vapor-Phase Inhibitors --
Problems --
References --
13. Corrosion Under Organic Coatings --
Introduction --
Paints and Organic Coatings --
Underfilm Corrosion --
Water Permeation into an Organic Coating --
Permeation of Oxygen and Ions into an Organic Coating --
Breakdown of an Organic Coating --
Adhesion of Organic Coatings --
Improved Corrosion Prevention by Coatings --
Filiform Corrosion --
Corrosion Tests for Organic Coatings --
Accelerated Tests --
Cathodic Delamination --
AC Impedance Techniques --
A Brief Comment --
Recent Directions and New Challenges --
Problems --
References --
14. AC Impedance --
Introduction --
Relaxation Processes --
Experimental Setup --
Complex Numbers and AC Circuit Analysis --
Metal/Solution Interface --
Impedance Analysis --
Additional Methods of Plotting Impedance Data --
Multiple Time Constants and the Effect of Diffusion --
Kramers-Kronig Transforms --
Application to Corrosion Inhibition --
Organic Coatings --
Oxide Films and Surface Treatments --
Concluding Remarks --
Problems --
References --
15. High-Temperature Gaseous Oxidation --
Introduction --
Thermodynamics of High-Temperature Oxidation --
Ellingham Diagrams. Note continued: Equilibrium Pressure of Oxygen --
Theory of High-Temperature Oxidation --
Oxidation Rate Laws --
Linear Rate Law --
Parabolic Rate Law --
Logarithmic Rate Law --
Comparison of Rate Laws --
Wagner Mechanism and the Parabolic Rate Law --
Effect of Temperature on the Oxidation Rate --
Defect Nature of Oxides --
Semiconductor Nature of Oxides --
Hauffe Rules for Oxidation --
Effect of Oxygen Pressure on Parabolic Rate Constants --
Non-uniformity of Oxide Films --
Protective vs. Non-protective Oxides --
Pilling-Bedworth Ratio --
Properties of Protective High-Temperature Oxides --
Problems --
References --
16. Selected Topics in Corrosion Science --
Introduction --
Electrode Kinetics of Iron Dissolution in Acids --
Bockris-Kelly Mechanism --
Heusler Mechanism --
Reconciliation of the Two Mechanisms --
Additional Work on Electrode Kinetics --
Distribution of Current and Potential --
Laplace's Equation --
Circular Corrosion Cells --
Parametric Study --
Application to the Experiments of Rozenfeld and Pavlutskaya --
Large Structures and Scaling Rules --
Modeling of the Cathodic Protection System of a Ship --
Scaling Rules --
Acid-Base Properties of Oxide Films --
Surface Hydroxyl Groups --
Nature of Acidic and Basic Surface Sites --
Isoelectric Points of Oxides --
Surface Charge and Pitting --
Pitting Potential of Aluminum as a Function of pH --
Surface Modification by Directed Energy Beams --
Ion Implantation and Related Processes --
Applications of Ion Implantation --
Laser-Surface Processing Techniques --
Applications of Laser-Surface Processing --
Comparison of Ion Implantation and Laser-Surface Processing --
Problems --
References --
17. Beneficial Aspects of Corrosion --
Introduction --
Rust Is Beautiful --
Copper Patinas Are Also Beautiful --
Cathodic Protection --
Electrochemical Machining --
Metal Cleaning --
Etching.
Responsibility: E. McCafferty.

Abstract:

This rigorous text emphasizes basic principles of corrosion science which underpin extensions to practice. The emphasis here is on corrosion in aqueous environments, although a chapter on high  Read more...

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