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An Introduction to industrial chemistry

Author: C A Heaton
Publisher: Blackie Academic, 1991.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : 2nd edView all editions and formats
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It should also be noted that the chemical industry's activities have an influence on all other industries, either in terms of providing raw materials or chemicals for quality control analyses and to  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Introduction to industrial chemistry.
Blackie Academic, 1991
(OCoLC)59202359
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: C A Heaton
ISBN: 9781461564386 1461564387
OCLC Number: 557017407
Reproduction Notes: Electronic reproduction. [S.l.] : HathiTrust Digital Library, 2010. MiAaHDL
Description: 1 online resource ([448] pages)
Details: Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002.
Contents: Editorial introduction.- General bibliography.- References.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Characteristics of the industry.- 1.2 Scale of operations.- 1.3 Major chemical producing countries.- 1.4 Major sectors and their products.- 1.5 Turning chemicals into useful end products.- 1.6 Environmental issues.- 1.6.1 Flixborough.- 1.6.2 Minamata Bay (Japan).- 1.6.3 Thalidomide and drugs.- 1.6.4 Seveso, Bhopal and pesticides.- 1.6.5 CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons).- 2 Sources of chemicals.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Sources of organic chemicals.- 2.2.1 Organic chemicals from oil and natural gas.- 2.2.2 Organic chemicals from coal.- 2.2.3 Organic chemicals from carbohydrates (biomass).- 2.2.4 Organic chemicals from animal and vegetable oils and fats.- 2.3 Sources of inorganic chemicals.- 2.4 Recycling of materials.- References.- 3 The world's major chemical industries.- 3.1 History and development of the chemical industry.- 3.1.1 Origins of the chemical industry.- 3.1.2 Inter-war years, 1918-1939.- 3.1.3 Second World War period, 1939-1945.- 3.1.4 Post-1945 period.- 3.2 The chemical industry today.- 3.2.1 Definition of the chemical industry.- 3.2.2 The need for a chemical industry.- 3.2.3 The major chemicals.- 3.3 The United Kingdom chemical industry.- 3.3.1 Comparison with other U.K. manufacturing industries.- 3.3.2 International comparisons in the chemical industry.- 3.3.3 Major locations of the U.K. chemical industry.- 3.3.4 Some major U.K. chemical companies.- 3.4 The U.S. chemical industry.- 3.5 Other chemical industries.- 3.5.1 Japan.- 3.5.2 West Germany.- 3.5.3 France.- 3.5.4 Italy.- 3.5.5 Netherlands.- 3.6 World's major chemical companies.- 3.7 General characteristics and future of the chemical industry.- 3.7.1 General characteristics.- 3.7.2 The future.- References.- 4 Organization and finance.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Structure of a company.- 4.2.1 Company board functions.- 4.2.2 Operating divisions.- 4.2.3 Divisional structures.- 4.3 Organization of R&D.- 4.3.1 Long-term activities.- 4.3.2 Shorter term-process R&D.- 4.3.3 Shorter term-product R&D.- 4.3.4 Evaluating results of R&D.- 4.3.5 Financing R&D activities.- 4.3.6 Links with other functions.- 4.4 Production organization.- 4.4.1 Management structure.- 4.4.2 Plant management and operation.- 4.4.3 Engineering function.- 4.4.4 Links with other functions.- 4.5 Marketing.- 4.5.1 Role of marketing.- 4.5.2 Short-term sales plans.- 4.5.3 Long-term sales plans.- 4.5.4 Market R&D.- 4.5.5 Links with other functions.- 4.6 Sources of finance.- 4.6.1 Internal sources of finance.- 4.6.2 External finance.- 4.6.3 Financial structure.- 4.7 Multinationals.- 4.7.1 Growth of multinationals.- 4.7.2 Reasons for development.- References.- 5 Technological economics.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Cost of producing a chemical.- 5.3 Variable costs.- 5.3.1 Raw material costs.- 5.3.2 Energy input costs.- 5.3.3 Royalty/licence payments.- 5.3.4 Effect of production rate on variable cost.- 5.3.5 Packaging and transport.- 5.4 Fixed costs.- 5.4.1 Labour charges.- 5.4.2 Depreciation.- 5.4.3 Rates and insurance.- 5.4.4 Overhead charges.- 5.5 Direct, indirect and capital related costs.- 5.6 Profit.- 5.7 Effects of scale of operation.- 5.7.1 Variable costs.- 5.7.2 Fixed costs.- 5.7.3 Plant capital.- 5.8 Effect of low rate operation.- 5.8.1 Break-even production rate.- 5.9 Diminishing return.- 5.10 Absorption costing and marginality.- 5.11 Measuring profitability.- 5.11.1 Return on investment.- 5.11.2 Use of inflated capital-current cost accounting.- 5.11.3 Payback time.- 5.11.4 Equivalent maximum investment period.- 5.12 Time value of money.- 5.12.1 Net present value and discounted cash flow.- 5.12.2 Discounted cash flow return.- 5.12.3 Use of NPV and DCF as profitability measures.- 5.13 Project evaluation.- 5.13.1 Comparison of process variable costs.- 5.13.2 Estimation of plant capital.- 5.13.3 Process cost comparison.- 5.13.4 Estimating markets/prices.- 5.13.5 Effects of uncertainty.- 5.14 Conclusion.- Appendix (D.C.F. calculations).- References.- 6 Chemical engineering.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Material balances.- 6.2.1 The flowsheet.- 6.2.2 General balance equation.- 6.2.3 Material balance techniques.- 6.2.4 Multiple unit balances.- 6.2.5 Chemical reactions.- 6.3 Energy balances.- 6.3.1 Energy balance equations.- 6.3.2 Estimation of enthalpy changes.- 6.3.3 Reactive systems.- 6.3.4 Energy balance techniques.- 6.4 Fluid flow.- 6.4.1 Types of fluid.- 6.4.2 Flow regimes.- 6.4.3 Balance equations.- 6.4.4 Flow in pipes.- 6.5 Heat transfer.- 6.5.1 Mechanisms.- 6.5.2 Shell and tube heat exchangers Separation processes.- 6.6.1 Characteristics of separation processes.- 6.6.2 Phase equilibria.- 6.6.3 Binary distillation.- 6.7 Process control.- 6.7.1 Objectives of process control.- 6.7.2 The control loop.- 6.7.3 Measuring devices.- 6.7.4 The controller.- 6.7.5 Final control element.- 6.7.6 Computer control.- References.- 7 Energy.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.1.1 Energy required by the chemical industry.- 7.1.2 Sources of energy.- 7.1.3 Properties of fuels.- 7.1.4 Cost of energy.- 7.2 Types of energy.- 7.2.1 Power requirements for fluid flow.- 7.2.2 Variation in energy content requirement.- 7.3 Use of energy in the chemical industry.- 7.3.1 Reaction energy.- 7.3.2 Preparation and separation of energy.- 7.3.3 Heat transfer media.- 7.4 Efficient utilization of energy.- 7.4.1 Exothermic reactions.- 7.4.2 Separation processes.- 7.4.3 Restriction of losses.- 7.5 Conclusions.- References.- 8 Environmental pollution control.- 8.1 Technology and pollution.- 8.1.1 Air pollution.- 8.1.2 Water pollution.- 8.2 Methods of pollution control.- 8.2.1 Elimination of effluent at source.- 8.2.2 Reduction of effluent volume.- 8.2.3 Water re-use and recovery of materials.- 8.2.4 Physical, chemical and biological methods of treatment.- 8.3 Economics of pollution control.- 8.3.1 Treatment plant/processes.- 8.3.2 Disposal into sewers.- 8.3.3 Recovery of materials.- 8.4 Industrial health and hygiene.- 8.4.1 Introduction.- 8.4.2 Health hazards.- 8.4.3 Industrial medicine.- 8.5 Legislation.- 8.5.1 U.K. legislation.- 8.5.2 U.S. legislation.- 8.5.3 EEC legislation.- 8.5.4 Responsibility.- 8.5.5 Effects of legislation and standards.- 8.6 Environmental topics.- 8.6.1 Acid rain.- 8.6.2 Ozone depletion.- 8.6.3 Carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect.- References.- 9 Chlor-alkali products.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Uses of chlorine.- 9.3 Uses of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide).- 9.4 Uses of hydrogen.- 9.5 Types of cell.- 9.5.1 Mercury cell process.- 9.5.2 Diaphragm cell process.- 9.5.3 Membrane cell process.- 9.6 Future developments.- 10 Catalysts and catalysis.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Definitions and constraints.- 10.2.1 Essential features.- 10.2.2 Initiators.- 10.2.3 Co-reactants.- 10.2.4 Inhibition.- 10.3 Thermodynamic relationships.- 10.3.1 Application.- 10.3.2 Effect of total pressure.- 10.3.3 Rough calculations.- 10.3.4 Thermodynamic traps.- 10.4 Homogeneous catalysis.- 10.4.1 General features.- 10.4.2 Catalyst life and poisons.- 10.4.3 Limitations.- 10.5 Heterogenization of homogeneous catalytic systems.- 10.6 Heterogeneous catalysis.- 10.6.1 Introduction.- 10.6.2 Major (primary) and minor (secondary) components.- 10.6.3 Operational modes.- 10.6.4 Chemisorption and active sites.- 10.6.5 Physical forms and their preparation.- 10.6.6 Support interactions.- 10.6.7 Catalyst structure.- 10.6.8 General kinetic behaviour.- 10.6.9 Catalyst deactivation and life.- 10.6.10 Studies on surface chemistry.- 10.6.11 Theoretical approaches.- 10.7 Applications and mechanisms.- 10.7.1 Introduction.- 10.7.2 Acid catalysis.- 10.7.3 Hydrogenation.- 10.7.4 Dual-function catalysis.- 10.7.5 Olefin (alkene) polymerization and dismutation on metals.- 10.7.6 Base catalysis.- 10.7.7 Oxidations.- 10.7.8 Carbon monoxide chemistry.- 10.8 The future.- References.- 11 Petrochemicals.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.1.1 Layout.- 11.1.2 The beginnings.- 11.1.3 Into the 70s.- 11.1.4 The present.- 11.1.5 Individual feedstocks and routes.- 11.2 Crude oil, gas and refinery operations.- 11.2.1 Crude oil and natural gas.- 11.2.2 Refinery operations.- 11.2.3 Energy consumption.- 11.3 Lower olefins (alkenes) and acetylene (ethyne).- 11.3.1 Cracking processes.- 11.3.2 Energy balances and economics.- 11.3.3 Lower olefins (alkenes) versus acetylene (ethyne).- 11.3.4 Polyethylene (polyethene) and polypropylene (polypropene).- 11.3.5 Production and use statistics.- 11.4 Synthesis gas, ammonia and methanol.- 11.4.1 Process descriptions.- 11.4.2 Energy balances and economics.- 11.4.3 Urea (carbamide), formaldehyde (methanal), amino resins and polyacetal.- 11.4.4 Production and use statistics.- 11.5 Acetic (ethanoic) acid and anhydride.- 11.5.1 Acetic acid production.- 11.5.2 Acetic anhydride production.- 11.5.3 Production and use statistics.- 11.6 C1 products.- 11.6.1 Formic (methanoic) acid and derivatives.- 11.6.2 Hydrogen cyanide.- 11.6.3 Chloromethanes.- 11.7 C2 products.- 11.7.1 Ethanol.- 11.7.2 Acetaldehyde (ethanal).- 11.7.3 Ethylene oxide (oxirane) and glycol (ethane-1, 2-diol).- 11.7.4 Vinyl acetate (ethenyl ethanoate).- 11.7.5 Choroethylenes (chloroethenes) and choroethanes.- 11.8 C3 products.- 11.8.1 Isopropanol (2-propanol) and acetone (propanone).- 11.8.2 Propylene oxide (1-methyloxirane) and glycol (propane-1, 2-diol).- 11.8.3 Acrylonitrile (propenonitrile).- 11.8.4 Acrylates and acrolein (propenal).- 11.8.5 Allylic (propenyl) derivatives.- 11.8.6 n-Propanol, propionaldehyde (propanal) and propionic (propanoic) acid.- 11.9 C4 products.- 11.9.1 Butenes and butadiene.- 11.9.2 Sec-butanol (2-butanol) and methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone).- 11.9.3 Tert-butanol.- 11.9.4 Maleic anhydride (cis-butanedioic anhydride).- 11.9.5 Chloroprene (2-chlorobuta-l, 3-diene).- 11.9.6 Methacrylates (2-methylpropenoates).- 11.9.7 Butyraldehydes (butanals) and primary butanols.- 11.9.8 C4 diols and related products.- 11.10 C5 aliphatics.- 11.10.1 Isoprene (2-methylbuta-l, 3-diene).- 11.10.2 Plasticizer alcohols.- 11.10.3 Detergent intermediates.- 11.11 Aromatics.- 11.11.1 Hydrocarbons.- 11.11.2 Phenol.- 11.11.3 Benzyls.- 11.11.4 Nitro-compounds and amines.- 11.11.5 Phthalic (benzene-1, 2-dicarboxylic) anhydride.- 11.11.6 Terephthalic (benzene-1, 4-dicarboxylic) acid.- 11.12 Nylon intermediates.- 11.13 The future.- 11.13.1 The products.- 11.13.2 Future raw materials and production routes.- References.- Periodical special issues and supplements.
Responsibility: edited by C.A. Heaton.

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