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Introduction to polymers

Author: Robert J Young; P A Lovell
Publisher: Boca Raton : CRC Press, ©2011.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 3rd edView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
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Includes chapters on polymer composites and functional polymers for electrical, optical, photonic, and biomedical applications. This book features a section on controlled radical polymerizations such  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Textbooks
Ders Kitabı
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Robert J Young; P A Lovell
ISBN: 9780849339295 0849339294
OCLC Number: 744914764
Description: xx, 668 : ill. ; 26 cm.
Contents: Note continued: 9.4.2.5.Synthesis of Block Copolymers by Active-Centre Transformation --
9.4.3.Synthesis of Block Copolymers by Coupling of Polymer Chains --
9.4.3.1.Synthesis of Block Copolymers by Click-Coupling of Homopolymer Chains --
9.4.4.Synthesis of Non-Linear Block Copolymers --
9.5.Graft Copolymer Synthesis --
9.5.1.Synthesis of Graft Copolymers by Polymerization from a Backbone Polymer --
9.5.2.Synthesis of Graft Copolymers by Copolymerization with Macromonomers --
9.5.3.Synthesis of Graft Copolymers by Coupling of Polymer Chains to a Backbone Polymer --
Problems --
Further Reading --
pt. II Characterization of Polymers --
ch. 10 Theoretical Description of Polymers in Solution --
10.1.Introduction --
10.2.Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions --
10.2.1.Thermodynamics of Ideal Solutions --
10.2.2.Flory-Huggins Theory --
10.2.3.Partial Molar Quantities and Chemical Potential --
10.2.4.Dilute Polymer Solutions --
10.2.5.The Solubility Parameter Approach --
10.3.Chain Dimensions --
10.3.1.Freely-Jointed Chains --
10.3.2.Effects of Bond Angle and Short-Range Steric Restrictions --
10.3.3.Effects of Long-Range Steric Interactions: Chains with Excluded Volume --
10.4.Frictional Properties of Polymer Molecules in Dilute Solution --
10.4.1.Frictional Coefficients of Polymer Molecules --
10.4.2.Hydrodynamic Volume and Intrinsic Viscosity in the Non-Draining Limit --
10.4.3.Diffusion of Polymer Molecules in the Non-Draining Limit --
10.4.4.Solution Behaviour of Polyelectrolytes --
Problems --
Further Reading --
ch. 11 Number-Average Molar Mass --
11.1.Introduction to Measurements of Number-Average Molar Mass --
11.2.Membrane Osmometry --
11.2.1.Osmosis and Chemical Potential --
11.2.2.Measurement of Osmotic Pressure --
11.3.Vapour Pressure Osmometry --
11.4.Ebulliometry and Cryoscopy --
11.5.End-Group Analysis --
11.6.Effects of Low Molar Mass Impurities upon --
Problems --
Further Reading --
ch. 12 Scattering Methods --
12.1.Introduction --
12.2.Static Light Scattering --
12.2.1.Light Scattering by Small Molecules --
12.2.2.Light Scattering by Liquids and Solutions of Small Molecules --
12.2.3.Light Scattering by Large Molecules in Solution --
12.2.4.Effect of Molar Mass Dispersity --
12.2.5.Static Light Scattering Measurements --
12.2.6.Light Scattering by Multicomponent Systems --
12.3.Dynamic Light Scattering --
12.4.Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering --
Problems --
Further Reading --
ch. 13 Frictional Properties of Polymers in Solution --
13.1.Introduction --
13.2.Dilute Solution Viscometry --
13.2.1.Intrinsic Viscosity --
13.2.2.Interpretation of Intrinsic Viscosity Data --
13.2.3.Measurement of Solution Viscosity --
13.3.Ultracentrifugation --
Problems --
Further Reading --
ch. 14 Molar Mass Distribution --
14.1.Introduction --
14.2.Fractionation --
14.2.1.Phase-Separation Behaviour of Polymer Solutions --
14.2.2.Theory of Fractionation by Phase Separation of Dilute Polymer Solutions --
14.2.3.Procedures for Fractionation --
14.3.Gel Permeation Chromatography --
14.3.1.Separation by Size Exclusion --
14.3.2.Calibration and Evaluation of Molar Mass Distributions --
14.3.3.Universal Calibration --
14.3.4.Porous Gels and Eluants for GPC --
14.3.5.Practical Aspects of GPC --
14.4.Field-Flow Fractionation --
14.4.1.FFF Techniques --
14.4.2.Theory of Solute Separation by FFF --
14.4.3.Applications of FFF --
14.5.Mass Spectroscopy --
14.5.1.Mass Spectra of Polymers --
14.5.2.Methods of Soft Ionization for Polymers --
14.5.2.1.Electrospray Ionization --
14.5.2.2.Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization --
14.5.3.Time-of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy --
14.5.3.1.Principles of M ALDI Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry --
14.5.3.2.Evaluation of Molar Mass Distribution from Time-of-Flight Mass Spectra --
14.5.4.Molar Mass Distributions Obtained by MALDI Mass Spectroscopy --
Problems --
Further Reading --
General Reading --
Field-Flow Fractionation --
Mass Spectroscopy --
ch. 15 Chemical Composition and Molecular Microstructure --
15.1.Introduction --
15.2.Principles of Spectroscopy --
15.2.1.Uses of Electromagnetic Radiation in Polymer Science --
15.2.2.The Beer-Lambert Law for Absorption of Electromagnetic Radiation --
15.3.Ultraviolet and Visible Light Absorption Spectroscopy --
15.3.1.Applications of UV-vis Spectroscopy in Polymer Science --
15.3.2.Practical Aspects of UV-vis Spectroscopy --
15.4.Infrared Spectroscopy --
15.4.1.Applications of IR Spectroscopy in Polymer Science --
15.4.2.Practical Aspects of IR Spectroscopy --
15.5.Raman Spectroscopy --
15.5.1.Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Polymer Science --
15.5.2.Practical Aspects of Raman Spectroscopy --
15.6.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy --
15.6.1.Analysis of Molecular Structure and Composition by NMR Spectroscopy --
15.6.2.Analysis of End Groups and Branch Points by NMR Spectroscopy --
15.6.3.Determination of Molecular Microstructure by NMR Spectroscopy --
15.6.3.1.Determination of Tacticity --
15.6.3.2.Determination of Repeat Unit Sequence Distributions in Copolymers --
15.6.4.Other Uses of NMR Spectroscopy in Polymer Science --
15.6.5.Practical Aspects of NMR Spectroscopy --
15.7.Mass Spectroscopy --
15.7.1.Elucidation of Structural Features by Mass Spectroscopy --
15.7.2.Other Uses of Mass Spectroscopy in Polymer Science --
Problems --
Further Reading --
General Reading --
Vibrational Spectroscopy --
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy --
Mass Spectroscopy --
pt. III Phase Structure and Morphology of Bulk Polymers --
ch. 16 The Amorphous State --
16.1.Introduction --
16.1.1.Structure in Amorphous Polymers --
16.2.The Glass Transition --
16.2.1.Thermodynamics of the Glass Transition --
16.2.2.Free Volume --
16.3.Factors Controlling the Tg --
16.3.1.Chemical Structure --
16.3.2.Copolymerisation --
16.3.3.Molecular Architecture --
16.3.4.Film Thickness --
16.4.Macromolecular Dynamics --
16.4.1.The Rouse-Bueche Theory --
16.4.2.The de Gennes Reptation Theory --
Problems --
Further Reading --
ch. 17 The Crystalline State --
17.1.Introduction --
17.1.1.Crystallinity in Polymers --
17.1.2.Crystal Structure and Unit Cell --
17.2.Determination of Crystal Structure --
17.2.1.X-Ray Diffraction --
17.2.1.1.Polymer Single Crystals --
17.2.1.2.Semi-Crystalline Polymers --
17.2.2.Polymer Crystal Structures --
17.2.3.Factors Determining Crystal Structure --
17.2.3.1.Polyethylene --
17.2.3.2.Polytetrafluoroethylene --
17.2.3.3.Vinyl Polymers --
17.2.3.4.Polyamides --
17.3.Polymer Single Crystals --
17.3.1.Solution-Grown Single Crystals --
17.3.2.Solid-State Polymerized Single Crystals --
17.4.Semi-Crystalline Polymers --
17.4.1.Spherulitcs --
17.4.2.Degree of Crystallinity --
17.4.3.Crystal Thickness and Chain Extension --
17.4.4.Crystallization with Orientation --
17.4.5.Polymer Fibres --
17.5.Liquid Crystalline Polymers --
17.5.1.Classes of Liquid Crystals --
17.5.2.Polymer Liquid Crystals --
17.5.2.1.Thermotropic Systems --
17.5.2.2.Lyotropic Systems --
17.6.Defects in Crystalline Polymers --
17.6.1.Point Defects --
17.6.2.Dislocations --
17.6.3.Other Defects --
17.7.Crystallization --
17.7.1.General Considerations --
17.7.2.Overall Crystallization Kinetics --
17.7.3.Molecular Mechanisms of Crystallization --
17.8.Melting --
17.8.1.Differential Scanning Calorimetry --
17.8.2.Melting of Polymer Crystals --
17.8.3.Factors Affecting 7 --
17.8.3.1.Chemical Structure --
17.8.3.2.Molar Mass and Branching --
17.8.3.3.Copolymers --
17.8.4.Relationship between Tm and 7S --
Problems --
Further Reading --
ch. 18 Multicomponent Polymer Systems --
18.1.Introduction --
18.2.Polymer Blends --
18.2.1.Thermodynamics of Polymer Blends --
18.2.2.Phase Behaviour --
18.2.3.Glass Transition Behaviour --
18.2.4.Compatibilization of Polymer Blends --
18.3.Block Copolymers --
18.3.1.Thermodynamics of Block Copolymer Phase Behaviour --
18.3.2.Morphology of Block Copolymers --
18.3.2.1.Transmission Electron Microscopy --
18.3.2.2.Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering --
18.3.3.Thermoplastic Elastomers --
Problems --
Further Reading --
pt. IV Properties of Bulk Polymers --
ch. 19 Elastic Deformation --
19.1.Introduction --
19.2.Elastic Deformation --
19.2.1.Stress --
19.2.2.Strain --
19.2.3.Relationship between Stress and Strain --
19.3.Elastic Deformation of Polymers --
19.3.1.Deformation of a Polymer Chain --
19.3.2.Polymer Crystal Moduli --
19.3.3.Elastic Deformation of Semi-Crystalline Polymers --
Problems --
Further Reading --
ch. 20 Viscoelasticity --
20.1.Introduction --
20.2.Viscoelastic Mechanical Models --
20.2.1.Maxwell Model --
20.2.2.Voigt Model --
20.2.3.Standard Linear Solid --
20.3.Boltzmann Superposition Principle --
20.4.Dynamic Mechanical Testing --
20.5.Frequency Dependence of Viscoelastic Behaviour --
20.6.Transitions and Polymer Structure --
20.7.Time-Temperature Superposition --
20.8.Effect of Entanglements --
20.9.Non-Linear Viscoelasticity --
Problems --
Further Reading --
ch. 21 Elastomers --
21.1.Introduction --
21.1.1.General Considerations --
21.1.2.Vulcanization --
21.1.3.Mechanical Behaviour --
21.2.Thermodynamics of Elastomer Deformation --
21.3.Statistical Theory of Elastomer Deformation --
21.3.1.Entropy of an Individual Chain --
21.3.2.Deformation of the Polymer Network --
21.3.3.Limitations and Use of the Theory --
21.3.3.1.Entanglements --
21.3.3.2.Chain Ends --
21.4.Stress-Strain Behaviour of Elastomers --
21.5.Factors Affecting Mechanical Behaviour --
21.5.1.Swelling --
21.5.2.Strain-Induced Crystallization --
Problems --
Further Reading --
ch. 22 Yield and Crazing --
22.1.Introduction --
22.2.Phenomenology of Yield --
22.2.1.Definitions --
22.2.2.Necking and the Considere Construction --
22.2.3.Rate and Temperature Dependence --
22.3.Yield Criteria --
22.3.1.Tresca Yield Criterion --
22.3.2.Von Mises Yield Criterion --
22.3.3.Pressure-Dependent Yield Behaviour --
22.4.Deformation Mechanisms --
22.4.1.Theoretical Shear Stress --
22.4.2.Shear Yielding in Glassy Polymers --
22.4.2.1.Stress-Induced Increase in Free Volume --
Note continued: 22.4.2.2.Application of the Eyring Theory to Yield in Polymers --
22.4.2.3.Molecular Theories of Yield --
22.4.3.Plastic Deformation of Polymer Crystals --
22.4.3.1.Slip --
22.4.3.2.Dislocation Motion --
22.4.3.3.Twinning --
22.4.3.4.Martensitic Transformations --
22.4.4.Plastic Deformation of Semi-Crystalline Polymers --
22.5.Crazing --
22.5.1.Craze Yielding --
22.5.2.Craze Criteria --
22.5.3.Crazing in Glassy Polymers --
Problems --
Further Reading --
ch. 23 Fracture and Toughening --
23.1.Introduction --
23.2.Fundamentals of Fracture --
23.2.1.Theoretical Tensile Strength --
23.2.2.Molecular Failure Processes --
23.2.2.1.Bond Rupture --
23.2.2.2.Effect of Molar Mass --
23.3.Mechanics of Fracture --
23.3.1.Brittle Fracture and Flaws --
23.3.2.Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics --
23.3.2.1.Definitions --
23.3.2.2.Fracture Mechanics Testing --
23.3.2.3.Crack Propagation in Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) --
23.3.3.Tearing of Elastomers --
23.3.4.Ductile Fracture --
23.4.Fracture Phenomena --
23.4.1.Ductile-Brittle Transitions --
23.4.2.Impact --
23.4.3.Fatigue --
23.4.4.Environmental Fracture --
23.5.Toughened Polymers --
23.5.1.Mechanical Behaviour of Rubber-Toughened Polymers --
23.5.2.Mechanisms of Rubber-Toughening --
23.5.2.1.Transmission Electron Microscopy --
23.5.2.2.Volume Change Measurements --
Problems --
Further.Reading --
ch. 24 Polymer Composites --
24.1.Introduction to Composite Materials --
24.2.Matrix Materials --
24.3.Types of Reinforcement --
24.3.1.Particles --
24.3.2.Fibres --
24.3.2.1.Glass Fibres --
24.3.2.2.Carbon Fibres --
24.3.2.3.High-Modulus Polymer Fibres --
24.4.Composite Composition --
24.5.Particulate Reinforcement --
24.5.1.Packing Geometries --
24.5.2.Elastic Deformation --
24.5.3.Fracture --
24.6.Fibre Reinforcement --
24.6.1.Composite Geometry --
24.6.1.1.Fibre Packing --
24.6.1.2.Fibre Arrangements --
24.6.2.Continuous Fibres --
24.6.2.1.Axial Stiffness --
24.6.2.2.Transverse Stiffness --
24.6.3.Discontinuous Fibres --
24.6.3.1.Elastic Stress Transfer --
24.6.3.2.Experimental Determination of Fibre Stress Distributions --
24.6.4.Fracture --
24.6.4.1.Continuous and Aligned Fibres --
24.6.4.2.Discontinuous Fibres --
24.7.Nanocomposites --
24.7.1.Nanoparticles --
24.7.1.1.Carbon Black --
24.7.1.2.Nanosilica --
24.7.2.Nanoplatelets --
24.7.2.1.Clays --
24.7.2.2.Graphene --
24.7.3.Carbon Nanotubes --
Problems --
Further Reading --
ch. 25 Electrical Properties --
25.1.Introduction to Electrical Properties --
25.2.Dielectric Properties --
25.2.1.Molecular Polarizability --
25.2.2.Dielectric Measurements --
25.2.3.Dielectric Relaxations --
25.2.4.Dielectric Breakdown --
25.3.Conduction in Polymers --
25.3.1.Measurement of Conductivity --
25.3.2.Conducting Composites --
25.3.3.Ionic Conduction --
25.3.4.Inherently Conducting Polymers --
25.3.5.Polyacetylene --
25.3.5.1.Structure of Polyacetylene --
25.3.5.2.Preparation of Conducting Polyacetylene --
25.3.5.3.Electronic Structure of Doped Polyacetylene --
25.4.Polymer Electronics --
25.4.1.Polymer-Based Light-Emitting Diodes --
25.4.2.Polymer-Based Solar Cells --
25.4.3.Polymer-Based Transistors --
25.4.4.Polymer-Based Sensors --
Problems --
Further Reading.
Responsibility: Robert J. Young and Peter A. Lovell.
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   schema:description "Note continued: 9.4.2.5.Synthesis of Block Copolymers by Active-Centre Transformation -- 9.4.3.Synthesis of Block Copolymers by Coupling of Polymer Chains -- 9.4.3.1.Synthesis of Block Copolymers by Click-Coupling of Homopolymer Chains -- 9.4.4.Synthesis of Non-Linear Block Copolymers -- 9.5.Graft Copolymer Synthesis -- 9.5.1.Synthesis of Graft Copolymers by Polymerization from a Backbone Polymer -- 9.5.2.Synthesis of Graft Copolymers by Copolymerization with Macromonomers -- 9.5.3.Synthesis of Graft Copolymers by Coupling of Polymer Chains to a Backbone Polymer -- Problems -- Further Reading -- pt. II Characterization of Polymers -- ch. 10 Theoretical Description of Polymers in Solution -- 10.1.Introduction -- 10.2.Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions -- 10.2.1.Thermodynamics of Ideal Solutions -- 10.2.2.Flory-Huggins Theory -- 10.2.3.Partial Molar Quantities and Chemical Potential -- 10.2.4.Dilute Polymer Solutions -- 10.2.5.The Solubility Parameter Approach -- 10.3.Chain Dimensions -- 10.3.1.Freely-Jointed Chains -- 10.3.2.Effects of Bond Angle and Short-Range Steric Restrictions -- 10.3.3.Effects of Long-Range Steric Interactions: Chains with Excluded Volume -- 10.4.Frictional Properties of Polymer Molecules in Dilute Solution -- 10.4.1.Frictional Coefficients of Polymer Molecules -- 10.4.2.Hydrodynamic Volume and Intrinsic Viscosity in the Non-Draining Limit -- 10.4.3.Diffusion of Polymer Molecules in the Non-Draining Limit -- 10.4.4.Solution Behaviour of Polyelectrolytes -- Problems -- Further Reading -- ch. 11 Number-Average Molar Mass -- 11.1.Introduction to Measurements of Number-Average Molar Mass -- 11.2.Membrane Osmometry -- 11.2.1.Osmosis and Chemical Potential -- 11.2.2.Measurement of Osmotic Pressure -- 11.3.Vapour Pressure Osmometry -- 11.4.Ebulliometry and Cryoscopy -- 11.5.End-Group Analysis -- 11.6.Effects of Low Molar Mass Impurities upon -- Problems -- Further Reading -- ch. 12 Scattering Methods -- 12.1.Introduction -- 12.2.Static Light Scattering -- 12.2.1.Light Scattering by Small Molecules -- 12.2.2.Light Scattering by Liquids and Solutions of Small Molecules -- 12.2.3.Light Scattering by Large Molecules in Solution -- 12.2.4.Effect of Molar Mass Dispersity -- 12.2.5.Static Light Scattering Measurements -- 12.2.6.Light Scattering by Multicomponent Systems -- 12.3.Dynamic Light Scattering -- 12.4.Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering -- Problems -- Further Reading -- ch. 13 Frictional Properties of Polymers in Solution -- 13.1.Introduction -- 13.2.Dilute Solution Viscometry -- 13.2.1.Intrinsic Viscosity -- 13.2.2.Interpretation of Intrinsic Viscosity Data -- 13.2.3.Measurement of Solution Viscosity -- 13.3.Ultracentrifugation -- Problems -- Further Reading -- ch. 14 Molar Mass Distribution -- 14.1.Introduction -- 14.2.Fractionation -- 14.2.1.Phase-Separation Behaviour of Polymer Solutions -- 14.2.2.Theory of Fractionation by Phase Separation of Dilute Polymer Solutions -- 14.2.3.Procedures for Fractionation -- 14.3.Gel Permeation Chromatography -- 14.3.1.Separation by Size Exclusion -- 14.3.2.Calibration and Evaluation of Molar Mass Distributions -- 14.3.3.Universal Calibration -- 14.3.4.Porous Gels and Eluants for GPC -- 14.3.5.Practical Aspects of GPC -- 14.4.Field-Flow Fractionation -- 14.4.1.FFF Techniques -- 14.4.2.Theory of Solute Separation by FFF -- 14.4.3.Applications of FFF -- 14.5.Mass Spectroscopy -- 14.5.1.Mass Spectra of Polymers -- 14.5.2.Methods of Soft Ionization for Polymers -- 14.5.2.1.Electrospray Ionization -- 14.5.2.2.Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization -- 14.5.3.Time-of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy -- 14.5.3.1.Principles of M ALDI Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry -- 14.5.3.2.Evaluation of Molar Mass Distribution from Time-of-Flight Mass Spectra -- 14.5.4.Molar Mass Distributions Obtained by MALDI Mass Spectroscopy -- Problems -- Further Reading -- General Reading -- Field-Flow Fractionation -- Mass Spectroscopy -- ch. 15 Chemical Composition and Molecular Microstructure -- 15.1.Introduction -- 15.2.Principles of Spectroscopy -- 15.2.1.Uses of Electromagnetic Radiation in Polymer Science -- 15.2.2.The Beer-Lambert Law for Absorption of Electromagnetic Radiation -- 15.3.Ultraviolet and Visible Light Absorption Spectroscopy -- 15.3.1.Applications of UV-vis Spectroscopy in Polymer Science -- 15.3.2.Practical Aspects of UV-vis Spectroscopy -- 15.4.Infrared Spectroscopy -- 15.4.1.Applications of IR Spectroscopy in Polymer Science -- 15.4.2.Practical Aspects of IR Spectroscopy -- 15.5.Raman Spectroscopy -- 15.5.1.Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Polymer Science -- 15.5.2.Practical Aspects of Raman Spectroscopy -- 15.6.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy -- 15.6.1.Analysis of Molecular Structure and Composition by NMR Spectroscopy -- 15.6.2.Analysis of End Groups and Branch Points by NMR Spectroscopy -- 15.6.3.Determination of Molecular Microstructure by NMR Spectroscopy -- 15.6.3.1.Determination of Tacticity -- 15.6.3.2.Determination of Repeat Unit Sequence Distributions in Copolymers -- 15.6.4.Other Uses of NMR Spectroscopy in Polymer Science -- 15.6.5.Practical Aspects of NMR Spectroscopy -- 15.7.Mass Spectroscopy -- 15.7.1.Elucidation of Structural Features by Mass Spectroscopy -- 15.7.2.Other Uses of Mass Spectroscopy in Polymer Science -- Problems -- Further Reading -- General Reading -- Vibrational Spectroscopy -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy -- Mass Spectroscopy -- pt. III Phase Structure and Morphology of Bulk Polymers -- ch. 16 The Amorphous State -- 16.1.Introduction -- 16.1.1.Structure in Amorphous Polymers -- 16.2.The Glass Transition -- 16.2.1.Thermodynamics of the Glass Transition -- 16.2.2.Free Volume -- 16.3.Factors Controlling the Tg -- 16.3.1.Chemical Structure -- 16.3.2.Copolymerisation -- 16.3.3.Molecular Architecture -- 16.3.4.Film Thickness -- 16.4.Macromolecular Dynamics -- 16.4.1.The Rouse-Bueche Theory -- 16.4.2.The de Gennes Reptation Theory -- Problems -- Further Reading -- ch. 17 The Crystalline State -- 17.1.Introduction -- 17.1.1.Crystallinity in Polymers -- 17.1.2.Crystal Structure and Unit Cell -- 17.2.Determination of Crystal Structure -- 17.2.1.X-Ray Diffraction -- 17.2.1.1.Polymer Single Crystals -- 17.2.1.2.Semi-Crystalline Polymers -- 17.2.2.Polymer Crystal Structures -- 17.2.3.Factors Determining Crystal Structure -- 17.2.3.1.Polyethylene -- 17.2.3.2.Polytetrafluoroethylene -- 17.2.3.3.Vinyl Polymers -- 17.2.3.4.Polyamides -- 17.3.Polymer Single Crystals -- 17.3.1.Solution-Grown Single Crystals -- 17.3.2.Solid-State Polymerized Single Crystals -- 17.4.Semi-Crystalline Polymers -- 17.4.1.Spherulitcs -- 17.4.2.Degree of Crystallinity -- 17.4.3.Crystal Thickness and Chain Extension -- 17.4.4.Crystallization with Orientation -- 17.4.5.Polymer Fibres -- 17.5.Liquid Crystalline Polymers -- 17.5.1.Classes of Liquid Crystals -- 17.5.2.Polymer Liquid Crystals -- 17.5.2.1.Thermotropic Systems -- 17.5.2.2.Lyotropic Systems -- 17.6.Defects in Crystalline Polymers -- 17.6.1.Point Defects -- 17.6.2.Dislocations -- 17.6.3.Other Defects -- 17.7.Crystallization -- 17.7.1.General Considerations -- 17.7.2.Overall Crystallization Kinetics -- 17.7.3.Molecular Mechanisms of Crystallization -- 17.8.Melting -- 17.8.1.Differential Scanning Calorimetry -- 17.8.2.Melting of Polymer Crystals -- 17.8.3.Factors Affecting 7 -- 17.8.3.1.Chemical Structure -- 17.8.3.2.Molar Mass and Branching -- 17.8.3.3.Copolymers -- 17.8.4.Relationship between Tm and 7S -- Problems -- Further Reading -- ch. 18 Multicomponent Polymer Systems -- 18.1.Introduction -- 18.2.Polymer Blends -- 18.2.1.Thermodynamics of Polymer Blends -- 18.2.2.Phase Behaviour -- 18.2.3.Glass Transition Behaviour -- 18.2.4.Compatibilization of Polymer Blends -- 18.3.Block Copolymers -- 18.3.1.Thermodynamics of Block Copolymer Phase Behaviour -- 18.3.2.Morphology of Block Copolymers -- 18.3.2.1.Transmission Electron Microscopy -- 18.3.2.2.Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering -- 18.3.3.Thermoplastic Elastomers -- Problems -- Further Reading -- pt. IV Properties of Bulk Polymers -- ch. 19 Elastic Deformation -- 19.1.Introduction -- 19.2.Elastic Deformation -- 19.2.1.Stress -- 19.2.2.Strain -- 19.2.3.Relationship between Stress and Strain -- 19.3.Elastic Deformation of Polymers -- 19.3.1.Deformation of a Polymer Chain -- 19.3.2.Polymer Crystal Moduli -- 19.3.3.Elastic Deformation of Semi-Crystalline Polymers -- Problems -- Further Reading -- ch. 20 Viscoelasticity -- 20.1.Introduction -- 20.2.Viscoelastic Mechanical Models -- 20.2.1.Maxwell Model -- 20.2.2.Voigt Model -- 20.2.3.Standard Linear Solid -- 20.3.Boltzmann Superposition Principle -- 20.4.Dynamic Mechanical Testing -- 20.5.Frequency Dependence of Viscoelastic Behaviour -- 20.6.Transitions and Polymer Structure -- 20.7.Time-Temperature Superposition -- 20.8.Effect of Entanglements -- 20.9.Non-Linear Viscoelasticity -- Problems -- Further Reading -- ch. 21 Elastomers -- 21.1.Introduction -- 21.1.1.General Considerations -- 21.1.2.Vulcanization -- 21.1.3.Mechanical Behaviour -- 21.2.Thermodynamics of Elastomer Deformation -- 21.3.Statistical Theory of Elastomer Deformation -- 21.3.1.Entropy of an Individual Chain -- 21.3.2.Deformation of the Polymer Network -- 21.3.3.Limitations and Use of the Theory -- 21.3.3.1.Entanglements -- 21.3.3.2.Chain Ends -- 21.4.Stress-Strain Behaviour of Elastomers -- 21.5.Factors Affecting Mechanical Behaviour -- 21.5.1.Swelling -- 21.5.2.Strain-Induced Crystallization -- Problems -- Further Reading -- ch. 22 Yield and Crazing -- 22.1.Introduction -- 22.2.Phenomenology of Yield -- 22.2.1.Definitions -- 22.2.2.Necking and the Considere Construction -- 22.2.3.Rate and Temperature Dependence -- 22.3.Yield Criteria -- 22.3.1.Tresca Yield Criterion -- 22.3.2.Von Mises Yield Criterion -- 22.3.3.Pressure-Dependent Yield Behaviour -- 22.4.Deformation Mechanisms -- 22.4.1.Theoretical Shear Stress -- 22.4.2.Shear Yielding in Glassy Polymers -- 22.4.2.1.Stress-Induced Increase in Free Volume --"@en ;
   schema:description "Note continued: 22.4.2.2.Application of the Eyring Theory to Yield in Polymers -- 22.4.2.3.Molecular Theories of Yield -- 22.4.3.Plastic Deformation of Polymer Crystals -- 22.4.3.1.Slip -- 22.4.3.2.Dislocation Motion -- 22.4.3.3.Twinning -- 22.4.3.4.Martensitic Transformations -- 22.4.4.Plastic Deformation of Semi-Crystalline Polymers -- 22.5.Crazing -- 22.5.1.Craze Yielding -- 22.5.2.Craze Criteria -- 22.5.3.Crazing in Glassy Polymers -- Problems -- Further Reading -- ch. 23 Fracture and Toughening -- 23.1.Introduction -- 23.2.Fundamentals of Fracture -- 23.2.1.Theoretical Tensile Strength -- 23.2.2.Molecular Failure Processes -- 23.2.2.1.Bond Rupture -- 23.2.2.2.Effect of Molar Mass -- 23.3.Mechanics of Fracture -- 23.3.1.Brittle Fracture and Flaws -- 23.3.2.Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics -- 23.3.2.1.Definitions -- 23.3.2.2.Fracture Mechanics Testing -- 23.3.2.3.Crack Propagation in Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) -- 23.3.3.Tearing of Elastomers -- 23.3.4.Ductile Fracture -- 23.4.Fracture Phenomena -- 23.4.1.Ductile-Brittle Transitions -- 23.4.2.Impact -- 23.4.3.Fatigue -- 23.4.4.Environmental Fracture -- 23.5.Toughened Polymers -- 23.5.1.Mechanical Behaviour of Rubber-Toughened Polymers -- 23.5.2.Mechanisms of Rubber-Toughening -- 23.5.2.1.Transmission Electron Microscopy -- 23.5.2.2.Volume Change Measurements -- Problems -- Further.Reading -- ch. 24 Polymer Composites -- 24.1.Introduction to Composite Materials -- 24.2.Matrix Materials -- 24.3.Types of Reinforcement -- 24.3.1.Particles -- 24.3.2.Fibres -- 24.3.2.1.Glass Fibres -- 24.3.2.2.Carbon Fibres -- 24.3.2.3.High-Modulus Polymer Fibres -- 24.4.Composite Composition -- 24.5.Particulate Reinforcement -- 24.5.1.Packing Geometries -- 24.5.2.Elastic Deformation -- 24.5.3.Fracture -- 24.6.Fibre Reinforcement -- 24.6.1.Composite Geometry -- 24.6.1.1.Fibre Packing -- 24.6.1.2.Fibre Arrangements -- 24.6.2.Continuous Fibres -- 24.6.2.1.Axial Stiffness -- 24.6.2.2.Transverse Stiffness -- 24.6.3.Discontinuous Fibres -- 24.6.3.1.Elastic Stress Transfer -- 24.6.3.2.Experimental Determination of Fibre Stress Distributions -- 24.6.4.Fracture -- 24.6.4.1.Continuous and Aligned Fibres -- 24.6.4.2.Discontinuous Fibres -- 24.7.Nanocomposites -- 24.7.1.Nanoparticles -- 24.7.1.1.Carbon Black -- 24.7.1.2.Nanosilica -- 24.7.2.Nanoplatelets -- 24.7.2.1.Clays -- 24.7.2.2.Graphene -- 24.7.3.Carbon Nanotubes -- Problems -- Further Reading -- ch. 25 Electrical Properties -- 25.1.Introduction to Electrical Properties -- 25.2.Dielectric Properties -- 25.2.1.Molecular Polarizability -- 25.2.2.Dielectric Measurements -- 25.2.3.Dielectric Relaxations -- 25.2.4.Dielectric Breakdown -- 25.3.Conduction in Polymers -- 25.3.1.Measurement of Conductivity -- 25.3.2.Conducting Composites -- 25.3.3.Ionic Conduction -- 25.3.4.Inherently Conducting Polymers -- 25.3.5.Polyacetylene -- 25.3.5.1.Structure of Polyacetylene -- 25.3.5.2.Preparation of Conducting Polyacetylene -- 25.3.5.3.Electronic Structure of Doped Polyacetylene -- 25.4.Polymer Electronics -- 25.4.1.Polymer-Based Light-Emitting Diodes -- 25.4.2.Polymer-Based Solar Cells -- 25.4.3.Polymer-Based Transistors -- 25.4.4.Polymer-Based Sensors -- Problems -- Further Reading."@en ;
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