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Kant and Spencer; a critical exposition.

Author: Borden Parker Bowne
Publisher: Port Washington, N.Y., Kennikat Press [1967, ©1912]
Edition/Format:   Book : Biography : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Bowne, Borden Parker, 1847-1910.
Kant and Spencer.
Port Washington, N.Y., Kennikat Press [1967, ©1912]
(OCoLC)610270857
Named Person: Immanuel Kant; Herbert Spencer; Immanuel Kant; Herbert Spencer; Immanuel Kant; Herbert Spencer
Material Type: Biography
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Borden Parker Bowne
OCLC Number: 902107
Description: xi, 439 pages 22 cm
Contents: Part I: The philosophy of Kant --
Introduction --
Aim of the Critique of Pure Reason; The two editions and their relation to each other; State of philosophy in Kant's time --
Chapter I: Kant's Doctrine of Experience --
View held by the earlier empiricists; Constitutive activity of the mind; The two distinct questions involved in the debate between empiricism and rationalism; Subjective and objective conditions of knowledge; Kant's approach to the problem; A priori and empirical elements in knowledge; Distinction between analytical and synthetic judgments; Existence of a priori syntheses; Kant's psychology; His doctrine of space; Transcendental exposition of the idea of space in the second edition; Relation of the a priori conception of space to mathematics; Kant's doctrine of time; Distinction between a space and time world and the world of understanding --
Chapter II: Transcendental Logic --
General logic and transcendental logic; Transcendental analytic; Table of judgments; Metaphysical deduction of the categories; Relation of real categories to the table of judgments; Transcendental deduction of categories; The understanding in its relation to sensations and to the objectivity of phenomena --
Chapter III: Transcendental Deduction of the Categories --
Synthesis of apprehension in intuition; Synthesis of reproduction in imagination; Synthesis of recognition in concepts; The reproductive imagination; Transcendental unity of apperception; What Kant really does in the transcendental deduction; His doctrine that the mind makes nature; Analytic of principles; Schematism of the pure concepts of the understanding; The categories simply abstractions from self-conscious life --
IV. The System of All Principles of the Pure Understanding --
Axioms of intuition; Anticipations of perception; Analogies of experience; Principle of permanence; Principle of production or causality; Principle of community of interaction of substances; Kant's attempt to explain the possibility of science; Postulates of empirical thought in general, or concepts of possibility, reality, and necessity; Kant's refutation of idealism --
Chapter V: Phenomena and Noumena --
Meaning of phenomenon; Phenomena not masks of reality; The causal relation not sensuously perceptible; Objectivity of knowledge; Subjectivity of space; Space a form of experience; Space not an ontological fact; Double meaning of subjectivity; Empirical reality of space; Confusion in Kant's doctrine of phenomena and noumena; True relation of the phenomenal and ontological; Origin of Kant's strange doctrine; Self-destructive character of the doctrine that denies the applicability of the categories to reality; Experience as the field of the application of the categories; Relativity of the categories; Possibility that there may be different systems of reality for different beings; Notion of an absolute static system baseless; The way out of the Kantian agnosticism; Kant's argument for the subjectivity of time; Relation of time to change; Spatial and temporal experience relative to our human limitations --
Chapter VI: The Transcendental Dialectic --
Kant's deduction of the ideas of reason; The three classes of transcendental ideas; Kant's criticism of rational psychology; His argument against the substantiality of the soul; His argument against the simplicity of the self; His refutation of Mendelssohn's proof of the permanence of the soul; Bearing of the Kantian criticism upon life and belief Chapter VII: The Antinomy of Pure Reason --
The four contradictions into which reason falls in the field of cosmology; Both proof and disproof in the first antinomy unsatisfactory; The second antinomy; Kant's argument against freedom arbitrary and fictitious; Causality misunderstood; Solution of the supposed antinomy between freedom and necessity; The fourth antinomy; Kant's arguments for and against an absolutely necessary Being very unsatisfactory; Solution of the fourth antinomy; The Ideal of the pure reason; Demonstration of the divine existence impossible; The ontological argument; The cosmological and design arguments; The practical basis of belief --
Part II, The Philosophy of Spencer --
Introduction --
Reasons for the popularity of Spencer's philosophy; Aim of the present discussion; Spencer's chief works; Mr. Spencer's Agnosticism --
Sources of Spencer's agnosticism; Brief outline of his argument; Ultimate religious ideas; Atheism, Pantheism, and Theism; Lack of precision in Spencer's use of the terms, "unknowable," "inconceivable" and "unthinkable"; His argument against all ideas of the origin of things; Contradictory elements in our conception of the nature of the universe; Mansel's argument; Ultimate scientific ideas; Notion of consciousness declared to be unthinkable; Alleged contradiction in notion of self-consciousness; Relativity of all knowledge; Meaning of this doctrine; Reasons for regarding the absolute as unknowable; Spencer's doctrine of an indefinite consciousness of the Absolute; His affirmations concerning the Unknowable; Emptiness of every doctrine of the Unknowable; Unclear and contradictory elements in Spencer's doctrine of the Unknowable; Doctrine of Religion; How we are to think of God; Worthlessness of a religion of mere mystery; Spencer's native lack of religious interest; His changed attitude toward religion later in life; The advanced thinker and the Unknown Cause; Relation of part I to Part II --
Chapter II: Mr. Spencer's Doctrine of Science --
Bearing of Spencer's agnostic argument on the possibility of science; Restoration of space, time, matter, motion, and force as relative realities; Nature of these relative realities; Modes of the Unknowable; Double difficulty in Spencer's conception of relative realities; Indestructibility of Matter; Basis of this doctrine; Relation of matter and motion to the fundamental reality; Persistence of force; Scientific value of this doctrine; Transformation and equivalence of forces; Bearing of this principle on the conception of life and of mental and social forces; Relation of the conservation of energy to the permanence of the physical system; Uniformity of law; Direction of motion; The line of least resistance in the organic , mental, and social worlds; Spencer's aim; Explanation by classification Chapter III: The Law of Evolution --
Definition of evolution; Its meaning; The formula only a description; Instability of the homogenous; Modification of the definition of evolution in the last edition of First Principles; Multiplication of effects, and segregation; Question of order or direction; Fallacy of the universal in Spencer's doctrine of evolution; The charge of materialism made against him; Truth and error in this charge --
Chapter IV: Doctrine of Life and Mind --
Meaning of matter and motion; Spencer's deduction of the organic from the inorganic; No real distinction between a "complex" molecule and an "organic" molecule; Life deducible from the inorganic only by the illicit introduction of biological terms; Impossibility of interpreting mental facts in terms of matter and motion; Spencer's definition of life and mind as an adjustment of inner to outer relations; Psycho-Physical Parallelism; Notion of a double-faced substance; Application of this notion to psychology; Essential materialism of Spencer's view; Huxley's view of the relation of the physical to the mental series; Uncertainty in Spencer's view; The associational psychology; Spencer's argument for a primordial mental unit: His view of the composition of mind; His conception of the self; His explanation of the association; His physiological account of memory --
Chapter V: Spencer's Empirical Theory of Thought --
Two points of difference between the empiricist and the rational psychologist; General aim of empiricism; Mill's deduction of the idea of space; Spencer's deduction of it; Idea of space not deducible from nor identifiable with, spaceless elements; Spencer's latest utterance on the subject of space; The attempt to deduce belief and conviction from habit; Empiricism and race experience; Ambiguity of the word "sensation"; Spencer's Skepticism; Relation of empiricism and materialism to each other; Generation of the uniformities of thought by the uniformities of things; Spencer's proof of realism; His mistaken conception of idealism; Transfigured realism; Recall of the self in order to escape nihilism; Bearing of Spencer's doctrine if vivid and faint states of consciousness upon the problem of knowledge; The actual object in perception subjective in Spencer's scheme; Fundamental defects in his theory of knowledge; Estimate of his system as a whole.

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