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The Late Third Millennium BCE in the Upper Orontes Valley, Syria : ceramics, chronology and cultural connections

Author: Melissa A Kennedy
Publisher: Leuven : Peeters, 2015.
Series: Ancient Near Eastern studies., Supplement ;, 46.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
This volume is a revised version of a doctoral dissertation undertaken at The University of Sydney. It examines the florescene of urban society during the mid to late Third Millennium BCE in the northern Levant, focusing on the largely unexplored region of the upper Orontes Valley, specifically the site of Tell Nebi Mend, ancient Qadesh (on the Orontes). This work seeks to explore the role and significance of  Read more...
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Melissa A Kennedy
ISBN: 9789042930117 904293011X
OCLC Number: 927292747
Description: xxi, 495 pages : illustrations, maps ; 31 cm.
Contents: Acknowledgments, p.xiii --
List of T ables, p.xv --
List of Figures, p.xix --
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH AIMS --
1.1 Introduction, p.1 --
1.2 The Geography and Environment of Syria and Lebanon, p.2 --
1.3 EBA Nomendature and Chronology, p.4 --
1.3.2 Southem Levantine Terminology, p.4 --
1.3.3 Northerrı Levantine Terminology, p.6 --
1.3.4 "High, Middle or Low": Chronologica! Debates, p.9 --
1.4 Research Aims of the study, p.11 --
CHAPTER 2 LlTERATURE REVIEW: EBA EXPLORATION --
2.1 Introduction, p.13 --
2.2 Contrasr betweerı the Northern and Southerrı Levant, p.13 --
2.3 The 19th Century: The Genesis of Exploratiorı, p.14 --
2.4 Expansion --
Post World War i Exploratiorı, p.17 --
2.4.2 The Coastal Zone, p.17 --
2.4.3 Inland Syria, p.21 --
2.5 The EB IV Period in the North: The 'Discovery' of Hama, p.23 --
2.6 Ebla and the 'Re-discovery' of Westem Syria, p.24 --
2.7 Rescue Archaeology: The Tishrin and T abqa Dams, p.26 --
2.8 Urban Development in the Northerrı Levant, p.28 --
2.8.2 Westem Inland Syria, p.29 --
2.8.3 The Euphrates, p.30 --
2.9 Recent Developments in the West: 1975 to 2012, p.32 --
2.9.2 "Urbanism on the Margins", p.32 --
2.10 The End of the EBA: Collapse or Corıtinuiry?, p.35 --
2.11 Summary and Condusion, p.36 --
CHAPTER 3 TELL NEBI MEND: INTRODUCTION AND STRATIGRAPHY --
3.1 Preamble, p.38 --
3.2 Location, p.38 --
3.3 The Tell Nebi Mend Project: A Short History, p.38 --
3.3.1 The French Excavations, p.38 --
3.3.2 The British Exeavation --
1975 to 1995, p.39 --
3.4 Tell Nebi Mend in the Earlyand Middle Bronze Ages, p.40 --
3.4.1 Trench I: Introduction, p.40 --
3.4.2 Stratigraphy of Trench i: Phasing, p.40 --
Phase K, p.42 --
Phase L, p.44 --
Phase M, p.48 --
Phase N, p.52 --
Phase O, p.54 --
Phase P, p.57 --
Phase Q, p.60 --
Phase R, p.62 --
3.5 Trench I Summary, p.63 --
3.6 Revised Trench I Phasing: The Late Bronze to Early Bronze Age, p.66 --
3.7 Final Stratigraphic Conclusions, p.67 --
CHAPTER 4 THE TELL NEBI MEND CERAMIC TYPE-SERIES --
4.1 Introduction, p.68 --
4.2 Early Bronze Age Ceramic Studies, p.68 --
4.2.2 The Northerrı Levant, p.68 --
4.2.3 Defining the EB III-IV in Westem Syria and the Lebanon, p.69 --
4.3 The Tell Nebi Mend Type-Series, p.73 --
4.3.2 Method, p.74 --
4.3.3 Residualiry and the Tell Nebi Mend Cerarnic Assemblage, p.75 --
4.3.4 Stratigraphic Distribution of Ceramic Materials, p.76 --
4.3.5 Terminology, p.77 --
4.3.6 Fabric Types and Descriptions, p.77 --
4.3.7 Comparison with Mathias' Fabric Descriptiorıs, p.81 --
4.4 The Type-Series, p.83 --
4.4.1 Cooking Pots, p.83 --
4.4.l. ii Discussion of the TNM Cooking Pot Types, p.95 --
4.4.2 Jars, p.100 --
4.4.2. ii Medium to Large Jars, p.100 --
4.4.2. iii Discussion of the TNM Medium to Large Jar Types, p.110 --
4.4.2. iv Smail Jars, p.115 --
4.4.2.v Discussion of the TNM Smail Jar Types, p.124 --
4.4.3 Basins ('Flower-Pots',), p.128 --
4.4.3.ii Discussion of the TNM Basin/'Flower Pot' Types, p.130 --
4.4.4 Bowls, p.132 --
4.4.4.ii Fine, Medium and Deep Bowls, p.132 --
4.4.4.iii Discussion of the TNM Fine, Medium and Deep Bowl Types, p.140 --
4.4.4.iv Trays, p.143 --
4.4.4.v Discussion of the TNM Tray Types, p.144 --
4.4.4.vi Platter Bowls, p.145 --
4.4.4.vii Discussion of the TNM Platter Bowl Types, p.148 --
4.4.5 Goblets, p.150 --
4.4.5.ii Discussion of the TNM Goblet Types, p.158 --
4.4.6 Jugs and Juglets, p.166 --
4.4.6.ii Discussion of the TNM Jug and Juglet Types, p.168 --
4.4.7 Miniature Vessels, p.169 --
4.4.7.ii Discussion of the TNM Miniature Vessels, p.170 --
4.4.8 Bases, p.171 --
4.4.8.ii Discussion of the TNM Base Types, p.175 --
4.4.9 Surface Treatment, p.176 --
4.5 Discussion of the Corpus, p.180 --
4.5.2 Period 1 (Phases R to P): The EB III, p.180 --
4.5.3 Period 2 (Phases O to M): The EB III-IV Transition and the EB IV, p.184 --
4.5.3.ii Defining the EB IVA-EB IVB Ceramic Transition, p.190 --
4.5.4 Period 3 (Phases L to K): The EB-MB Transition, p.191 --
4.6 Summary and Conclusion, p.191 --
CHAPTER 5 ELITE EMULATION AND THE GOBLET CULTURE OF THE EB IV --
5.1 Introduction, p.192 --
5.2 The Archaeology and Anthropology of Drinking, p.192 --
5.3 Early Alcohol Consumption in the Near East: A Brief Overview, p.194 --
5.4 Elite Emulation and the Southerrı Levantine EB IV, p.195 --
5.5 Elite Emulation in the North: The TNM Goblet Corpus in Corıtext, p.198 --
5.6 Summary and Conclusion, p.205 --
CHAPTER 6 COMPARATIVE STRATIGRAPHY: TELL NEBI MEND IN CONTEXT --
6.1 Introduction, p.206 --
6.1.2 Method, p.206 --
6.2 The Lebanon, p.207 --
6.2.2 TelI Arqa, p.207 --
6.2.3 Byblos, p.210 --
6.2.4 Sidon, p.214 --
6.2.5 Tyre, p.216 --
6.3 WesternSyria, p.217 --
6.3.2 TelI Mishrifeh, p.218 --
6.3.3 Hama, p.220 --
6.3.4 al-Rawda, p.225 --
6.3.5 Tell Qarqur, p.226 --
6.3.6 TelI Mardikh, p.229 --
6.3.7 TellAfıs, p.231 --
6.3.8 Ras Shamra, p.233 --
6.3.9 The Plain of Arıtioch: The 'Amuq, p.235 --
6.3.10 Umm el-Marra, p.237 --
6.4 North-easterrı Syria: The Euphrates, Balikh and Khabur, p.240 --
6.4.2 TelI Banat and TelI KabiL, p.240 --
6.4.3 Tell es-Sweyhat, p.242 --
6.4.4 TelI Hadidi, p.245 --
6.5 Selenkahiye, p.247 --
6.4.6 Tell Hariri, p.249 --
6.4.7 Tell Brak, p.251 --
6.5 Southerrı Syria: The 'Black Desert', p.254 --
6.5.2 Khirbet al-'Umbashi, p.255 --
6.6 Relative and Absolute Dating: TelI Nebi Mend in Context, p.257 --
6.6.2 Tell Nebi Mend in the Late Third Millennium BCE Landscape, p.257 --
6.6.2.ii A Relative Chronological Condusion, p.270 --
6.6.3 Radiocarbon: A New Chronological Horizon, p.271 --
6.6.3.ii The TelI Nebi Mend Dates, p.271 --
Excursus A: EB IV Destructions: Human Ageney and/or Natural Disaster, p.273 --
Preamble, p.273 --
Ebla and the Destruction of Palace G, p.273 --
Discussion: The Origin of the Destruction, p.276 --
Later EBA Destruction Horizons in the Lebanon and Western Syria, p.279 --
6.7 Summary and Condusion, p.282 - CHAPTER 7 THE END OF THE EBA: TELL NEBI MEND IN CONTEXT --
7.1 Introduction, p.284 --
7.2 The Archaeology of Collapse and Regeneration, p.285 --
7.3 Theories Bearing on the End of the EBA, p.286 --
7.3.2 Climate Change, p.287 --
7.3.3 Natural Disaster, p.288 --
7.3.4 Invasion, p.290 --
7.4 The EB-MB Transition: The Archaeological Evidence, p.292 --
7.4.2 The Euphrates and Jezireh, p.292 --
7.4.3 Western Inland Syria and the Lebanon, p.297 --
7.5 The EB-MB Transition: The Tell Nebi Mend Perspective p.302 --
7.5.2 The Evidence, p.302 --
7.5.3 Discussion, p.307 --
7.6 The End of the EBA: Climate Change, Natural Disaster or Invasion?, p.310 --
7.7 Summary and Conclusion, p.314 --
CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS --
8.2 Areas for Future Investigation, p.321 --
BIBLIOGRAPHY, p.323 --
FIGURES, p.365 --
APPENDIX A --
Tell Nebi Mend Wall List, p.323.
Series Title: Ancient Near Eastern studies., Supplement ;, 46.
Responsibility: by Melissa A. Kennedy.

Abstract:

This volume is a revised version of a doctoral dissertation undertaken at The University of Sydney. It examines the florescene of urban society during the mid to late Third Millennium BCE in the northern Levant, focusing on the largely unexplored region of the upper Orontes Valley, specifically the site of Tell Nebi Mend, ancient Qadesh (on the Orontes). This work seeks to explore the role and significance of 'small' regional sites during the Early Bronze Age IV, by presenting a detailed stratigraphic and ceramic analysis of the Tell Nebi Mend sequence from the mid Third Millennium (Early Bronze Age III) through the early Second Millennium BCE (Middle Bronze Age I). One of the principal aims of this work is to construct a detailed ceramic typology for Tell Nebi Mend and the upper Orontes during the late Third Millennium BCE. This stratigraphically anchored assemblage was designed as a foil for the more intensively investigated 'mega-site' sequences of the region, such as Ebla and Hama. It was also designed to explore and examine the development and evolution of regional ceramic horizons and the growth of inter-site interaction that occurred during the later Early Bronze Age. Although this work will not be the last word on studies of the EB IV, the ceramic and stratigraphic information presented sheds a new and important light on many of the key research issues that surround the Early Bronze Age IV, such as the nature of the Early Bronze Age III-IV transition and the regional response to the 'collapse' of the Early Bronze Age urban system ca. 2000 BCE.

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