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Edgar V Roberts
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|Contents:||Preface PART I The Process of Reading, Responding to, and Writing About Literature What Is Literature, and Why Do We Study It? Types of Literature: The Genres Reading Literature and Responding to It Actively Alice Walker Everyday Use Reading and Responding in a Computer File or Notebook Sample Notebook Entries on Walker's "Everyday Use" Major Stages in Thinking and Writing about Literary Topics: Discovering Ideas, Preparing to Write, Making an Initial Draft of Your Essay, and Completing the Essay Writing Does Not Come Easily--for Anyone The Goal of Writing: To Show a Process of Thought Discovering Ideas ("Brainstorming") Study the Characters in the Work Determine the Work's Historical Period and Background Analyze the Work's Economic and Social Conditions Explain the Work's Major Ideas Describe the Work's Artistic Qualities Explain Any Other Approaches That Seem Important Preparing to Write Build Ideas from Your Original Notes Trace Patterns of Action and Thought The Need for the Actual Physical Process of Writing Raise and Answer Your Own Questions Put Ideas Together Using a Plus-Minus, Pro-Con, or Either-Or Method Originate and Develop Your Thoughts Through Writing Making an Initial Draft of Your Essay Base Your Essay on a Central Idea, Argument, or Statement The Need for a Sound Argument in Essays About Literature Create a Thesis Sentence as Your Guide to Organization Begin Each Paragraph with a Topic Sentence Select Only One Topic--No More--for Each Paragraph Referring to the Names of Authors Use Your Topic Sentences as the Arguments for Your Paragraph Development The Use of Verb Tenses in the Discussion of Literary Works Develop an Outline as the Means of Organizing Your Essay Basic Writing Types: Paragraphs and Essays Paragraph Assignment Illustrative Student Essay (First Draft): Mrs. Johnson's Overly Self-Assured Daughter, Dee, in Walker's "Everyday Use" Completing the Essay: Developing and Strengthening Your Essay Through Revision Make Your Own Arrangement of Details and Ideas Use Literary Material as Evidence to Support Your Argument Always Keep to Your Point; Stick to It Tenaciously Check Your Development and Organization Try to Be Original Write with Specific Readers as Your Intended Audience Use Exact, Comprehensive, and Forceful Language Illustrative Student Essay (Improved Draft): Mrs. Johnson's Overly Self-Assured Daughter, Dee, in Walker's "Everyday Use" Commentary on the Essay A Summary of Guidelines A Short Guide to the Use of References and Quotations in Essays About Literature Integrate Passages and Ideas into Your Essay Distinguish Your Thoughts from Those of Your Author Integrate Material by Using Quotation Marks Blend Quotations into Your Own Sentences Indent Long Quotations and Set Them in Block Format PART II Reading and Writing About Fiction 1 Fiction: An Overview Modern Fiction The Short Story Elements of Fiction I: Verisimilitude and Donnee Elements of Fiction II: Character, Plot, Structure, and Idea or Theme Elements of Fiction III: The Writer's Tools Stories for Study SANDRA CISNEROS 'Mericans WILLIAM FAULKNER A Rose for Emily LUIGI PIRANDELLO War Plot: The Motivation and Causality of Fiction Writing About the Plot of a Story Illustrative Student Essay: Plot in William Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily" Writing Topics About Plot in Fiction 2 Point of View: The Position or Stance of the Work's Narrator or Speaker An Exercise in Point of View: Reporting an Accident Conditions That Affect Point of View Point of View and Opinions Determining a Work's Point of View Mingling Points of View Point of View and Verb Tense Summary: Guidelines for Points of View Stories for Study SHERMAN ALEXIE This is What it Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona SHIRLEY JACKSON The Lottery LORRIE MOORE How to Become a Writer Writing About Point of View Illustrative Student Essay: Shirley Jackson's Dramatic Point of View in "The Lottery" Writing Topics About Point of View 3 Characters: The People in Fiction Character Traits How Authors Disclose Character in Literature Types of Characters: Round and Flat Reality and Probability: Verisimilitude Stories for Study T. C. BOYLE Greasy Lake SUSAN GLASPELL A Jury of Her Peers KATHERINE MANSFIELD Miss Brill AMY TAN Two Kinds Writing About Character Writing Topics About Character 4 Setting: The Background of Place, Objects, and Culture in Stories What Is Setting? The Literary Uses of Setting Stories for Study JAMES JOYCE Araby CYNTHIA OZICK The Shawl EDGAR A. POE The Cask of Amontillado Writing Topics About Setting 5 Structure: The Organization of Stories Formal Categories of Structure Formal and Actual Structure Stories for Study RALPH ELLISON Battle Royal HA JIN Saboteur EUDORA WELTY A Worn Path TOM WHITECLOUD Blue Winds Dancing Writing Topics About Structure 6 Tone and Style: The Words That Convey Attitudes in Fiction Diction: The Writer's Choice and Control of Words Tone, Irony, and Style Tone, Humor, and Style Stories For Study KATE CHOPIN The Story of an Hour ERNEST HEMINGWAY Hills Like White Elephants FRANK O'CONNOR First Confession JOHN UPDIKE A & P Writing Topics About Tone and Style 7 Symbolism and Allegory: Keys to Extended Meaning Symbolism Allegory Fable, Parable, and Myth Allusion in Symbolism and Allegory Stories For Study AESOP The Fox and the Grapes NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE Young Goodman Brown LUKE The Parable of the Prodigal Son GABRIEL GARCAiA MARQUEZ A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings KATHERINE ANNE PORTER The Jilting of Granny Weatherall Writing About Symbolism Illustrative Student Essay (Symbolism): Symbols of Light and Darkness in Porter's "The Jilting of Granny Weatherall" Writing Topics About Symbolism 8 Idea or Theme: The Meaning and the Message in Fiction Ideas and Assertions Ideas and Issues Ideas and Values The Place of Ideas in Literature How to Find Ideas Stories for Study TONI CADE BAMBARA The Lesson D. H. LAWRENCE The Horse Dealer's Daughter AMeRICO PAREDES The Hammon and the Beans Writing About a Major Idea in Fiction Illustrative Student Essay: D. H. Lawrence's "The Horse Dealer's Daughter" as an Expression of the Idea that Loving Commitment is Essential in Life Writing Topics About Ideas 9 Four Stories for Additional Enjoyment and Study CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN The Yellow Wallpaper JOYCE CAROL OATES Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? FLANNERY O'CONNOR A Good Man Is Hard to Find TOBIAS WOOLF Powder PART III Reading and Writing About Poetry 10 Meeting Poetry: An Overview The Nature of Poetry BILLY COLLINS Schoolsville LISEL MUELLER Hope ROBERT HERRICK Here a Pretty Baby Lies Poetry of the English Language How to Read a Poem Studying Poetry Anonymous Sir Patrick Spens GWENDOLYN BROOKS The Mother WILLIAM COWPER The Poplar Field THOMAS HARDY The Man He Killed JOY HARJO Eagle Poem RANDALL JARRELL The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner DORRIANE LAUX The Life of Trees EMMA LAZARUS The New Colossus EUGENIO MONTALEEnglish Horn JIM NORTHRUP Ogichidag NAOMI SHIHAB NYE Where Children Live OCTAVIO PAZ Two Bodies PHIL RIZZUTO They Own the Wind WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 55: Not Marble, Nor the Gilded Monuments ELAINE TERRANOVA Rush Hour Writing a Paraphrase of a Poem Illustrative Student Paraphrase: A Paraphrase of Thomas Hardy's "The Man He Killed" Writing an Explication of a Poem Illustrative Student Essay: An Explication of Thomas Hardy's " Man He Killed" Writing Topics About the Nature of Poetry 11 Words: The Building Blocks of Poetry Choice of Diction: Specific and Concrete, General and Abstract Levels of Diction Special Types of Diction Syntax Decorum: The Matching of Subject and Word Denotation and Connotation Robert Graves The Naked and the Nude Poems for Study WILLIAM BLAKE The Lamb ROBERT BURNS Green Grow the Rashes LEWIS CARROLL Jabberwocky E. E. CUMMINGS next to of course god america i JOHN DONNE Holy Sonnet 14: Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God RICHARD EBERHART The Fury of Aerial Bombardment BART EDELMAN Chemistry Experiment THOMAS GRAY Sonnet on the Death of Richard West A. E. HOUSMAN Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now DENISE LEVERTOV Of Being JUDITH ORTIZ [COFER] Latin Women Pray EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON Richard Cory KAY RYAN Crib WALLACE STEVENS Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock MARK STRAND Eating Poetry WILLIAM WORDSWORTH Daffodils (I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud) JAMES WRIGHT A Blessing Writing Topics About the Words of Poetry 12 Imagery: The Poem's Link to the Senses Responses and the Writer's Use of Detail The Relationship of Imagery to Ideas and Attitudes Types of Imagery JOHN MASEFIELD Cargoes WILFRED OWEN Anthem for Doomed Youth ELIZABETH BISHOP The Fish POEMS FOR STUDY ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING Sonnets from the Portuguese, Number 14: If Thou Must Love Me SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE Kubla Khan T. S. ELIOT Preludes LOUISE ERDRICH Indian Boarding School: The Runaways SUSAN GRIFFIN Love Should Grow Up Like a Wild Iris in the Fields THOMAS HARDY Channel Firing GEORGE HERBERT The Pulley GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS Spring DENISE LEVERTOV A Time Past EUGENIO MONTALE Buffalo (Buffalo) PABLO NERUDA Every Day You Play OCTAVIO PAZ The Street EZRA POUND In a Station of the Metro MIKLA"S RADNA"TI Forced March WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 13: My Mistress' Eyes Are Nothing Like the Sun Writing About Imagery Illustrative Student Essay: Imagery in T. S. Eliot's "Preludes" Writing Topics About Imagery in Poetry 13 Figures of Speech, or Metaphorical Language: A Source of Depth and Range in Poetry Metaphors and Similes: The Major Figures of Speech Characteristics of Metaphorical Language JOHN KEATS On First Looking into Chapman's Homer Vehicle and Tenor Other Figures of Speech JOHN KEATS Bright Star JOHN GAY Let Us Take the Road POEMS FOR STUDY JACK AGAuEROS Sonnet for You, Familiar Famine WILLIAM BLAKE The Tyger ROBERT BURNS A Red, Red Rose JOHN DONNE A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning ABBIE HUSTON EVANS The Iceberg Seven-Eighths Under JOY HARJO Remember JOHN KEATS To Autumn HENRY KING Sic Vita ROBERT LOWELL Skunk Hour PABLO NERUDA If You Forget Me MARGE PIERCY A Work of Artifice WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day? WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 3: When to the Sessions of Sweet Silent Thought WALT WHITMAN Facing West from California's Shores WILLIAM WORDSWORTH London, 1820 SIR THOMAS WYATT I Find No Peace Writing About Figures of Speech Illustrative Student Paragraph: Wordsworth's Use of Overstatement in "London, 1820" Writing Topics About Figures of Speech in Poetry 14 Tone: The Creation of Attitude in Poetry Tone, Choice, and Response CORNELIUS WHUR The First-Rate Wife Tone and the Need for Control WILFRED OWEN Dulce et Decorum Est Tone and Common Grounds of Assent Tone in Conversation and Poetry Tone and Irony THOMAS HARDY The Workbox Tone and Satire ALEXANDER POPE Epigram from the French ALEXANDER POPE Epigram, Engraved on the Collar of a Dog Which I Gave to His Royal Highness POEMS FOR STUDY WILLIAM BLAKE On Another's Sorrow ROBERT BROWNING My Last Duchess JIMMY CARTER I Wanted to Share My Father's World BILLY COLLINS The Names E. E. CUMMINGS she being Brand /-new MARTIN ESPADA Bully MARI EVANS I Am a Black Woman SEAMUS HEANEY Mid-Term Break DAVID IGNATOW The Bagel YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA Facing It ABRAHAM LINCOLN My Childhood's Home PAT MORA La Migra SHARON OLDS The Planned Child ALEXANDER POPEfrom Epilogue to the Satires Dialogue I ANNE RIDLER Nothing Is Lost THEODORE ROETHKE My Papa's Waltz CATHY SONG Lost Sister JONATHAN SWIFT A Description of the Morning DAVID WAGONER My Physics Teacher WILLIAM WORDSWORTH The Solitary Reaper WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS When You Are Old Writing Topics About Tone in Poetry 15 Form: The Shape of Poems Closed-Form Poetry WILLIAM WORDSWORTH Fragment from The Prelude ALEXANDER POPE Fragment from The Rape of the Locke ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON The Eagle JOHN MILTON Fragment from Lycidas ANONYMOUS Spun in High, Dark Clouds WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 116: Let Me Not to the Marriage of True Minds Open-Form Poetry WALT WHITMAN Reconciliation E. E. CUMMINGS Buffalo Bill's Defunct GEORGE HERBERT Colossians 3:3 (Our Life is Hid With Christ in God) GEORGE HERBERT Easter Wings CHARLES HARPER WEBB The Shape of History JOHN HOLLANDER Swan and Shadow WILLIAM HEYEN Mantle MAY SWENSON Women ROBERT HASS Museum POEMS FOR STUDY ELIZABETH BISHOP One Art BILLY COLLINS Sonnet ROBERT FROST Desert Places GEORGE HERBERT Virtue JOHN HALL INGHAM George Washington JOHN KEATS Ode to a Nightingale YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA Grenade CLAUDE McKAY In Bondage HERMAN MELVILLE Shiloh DUDLEY RANDALL Ballad of Birmingham WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 73 PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY Ozymandias DYLAN THOMAS Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS The Dance Writing Topics About Poetic Form 16. Symbolism and Allusion: Windows to Wide Expanses of Meaning Symbolism and Meanings VIRGINIA SCOTT Snow The Function of Symbolism in Poetry Allusions and Meaning Studying for Symbols and Allusions POEMS FOR STUDY PETER DAVISON Delphi STEPHEN DUNN Hawk RALPH WALDO EMERSON Concord Hymn ISABELLA GARDNER Collage of Echoes THOMAS HARDY In Time of "The Breaking of Nations" GEORGE HERBERT The Collar JOSEPHINE JACOBSEN Tears ROBINSON JEFFERS The Purse-Seine JOHN KEATS La Belle Dame Sans Merci: A Ballad X. J. KENNEDY Old Men Pitching Horseshoes ANDREW MARVELL To His Coy Mistress MARY OLIVER Wild Geese KAY RYAN We're Building the Ship as We Sail It GARY SNYDER Milton by Firelight WALT WHITMAN A Noiseless Patient Spider WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS The Second Coming Writing Topics About Symbolism and Allusion in Poetry 17. Four Major American Poets: Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, Langston Hughes, and Sylvia Plath EMILY DICKINSON'S Life and Work Writing Topics About the Poetry of Emily Dickinson POEMS BY EMILY DICKINSON (ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED) After Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes (J341, F372) Because I Could Not Stop for Death (J712, F479) (Included in Chapter 11, p. ) The Bustle in a House (J178, F118) I Dwell in Possibility (F466, J657) I Heard a Fly Buzz -- When I Died (J465, F491) My Life Closed Twice Before Its Close (J1732, F1773) ROBERT FROST'S Life and Work Writing Topics About the Poetry of Robert Frost POEMS BY ROBERT FROST (CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED) Mending Wall (1914) The Road Not Taken (1915) Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (1923) Misgiving (1923) Desert Places (1936) Take Something Like a Star (1943) LANGSTON HUGHES' Life and Work Writing Topics About the Poetry of Langston Hughes POEMS OF LANGSTON HUGHES (ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED) Harlem Negro The Negro Speaks of Rivers Silhouette Theme for English B The Weary Blues SYLVIA PLATH'S Life and Work Writing Topics About the Poetry of Sylvia Plath POEMS OF SYLVIA PLATH (ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED) Daddy Lady Lazarus Metaphors Mirror Song for a Summer's Day Tulips 18. Sixty Two Poems for Additional Enjoyment and Study AI Conversation ANNA AKHMATOVA Willow MAYA ANGELOU Still I Rise Still ANONYMOUS (NAVAJO) Healing Prayer from the Beautyway Chant MATTHEW ARNOLD Dover Beach W.H. AUDEN Musee des Beaux Arts LOUISE BOGAN Women ARNA BONTEMPS A Black Man Talks of Reaping EMILY BRONTE Love and Friendship GWENDOLYN BROOKS We Real Cool ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING Sonnets from the Portuguese: Number 43, How Do I Love Thee BILLY COLLINS Days STEPHEN CRANE Do Not Weep, Maiden, for War Is Kind E. E. CUMMINGS if there are any heavens CARL DENNIS The God Who Loves You JOHN DONNE Holy Sonnet 1: Death Be Not Proud PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR Sympathy [I Know What the Caged Bird Feels] JAMES EMANUEL The Negro CHIEF DAN GEORGE The Beauty of the Trees NIKKI GIOVANNI Poetry FRANCES E. W. HARPER She's Free! ROBERT HAYDEN Those Winter Sundays A. D. HOPE Advice to Young Ladies CAROLINA HOSPITAL Dear Tia ROBINSON JEFFERS The Answer JOHN KEATS Ode on a Grecian Urn YAHIA LABABIDI What Do Animals Dream? KATHERINE LARSON Statuary IRVING LAYTON Rhine Boat Trip PHILIP LEVINE Islands AUDRE LORDE Every Traveler Has One Vermont Poem AMY LOWELL Patterns CLAUDE McKAY The White City N. SCOTT MOMADAY The Bear HOWARD NEMEROV Life Cycle of Common Man JIM NORTHRUP wahbegan MARY OLIVER Ghosts DOROTHY PARKER Resume LINDA PASTAN Marks MARGE PIERCY The Secretary Chant EDGAR ALLAN POE Annabel Lee ALBERTO RAiOS The Vietnam Wall CARL SANDBURG Chicago SIEGFRIED SASSOON Dreamers ALAN SEEGER I Have a Rendezvous with Death BRENDA SEROTTE My Mother's Face WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 29: When in Disgrace with Fortune and Men's Eyes WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Sonnet 146: Poor Soul, the Center of My Sinful Earth KARL SHAPIRO Auto Wreck STEVIE SMITH Not Waving But Drowning GARY SOTO Oranges WILLIAM STAFFORD Traveling Through the Dark GERALD STERN Burying an Animal on the Way to New York WALLACE STEVENS The Emperor of Ice-Cream JOHN UPDIKE Perfection Wasted TINO VILLANUEVA Day-Long Day JUDITH VIORST True Love SHELLY WAGNER The Boxes EDMUND WALLER Go, Lovely Rose WALT WHITMAN Full of Life Now WALT WHITMAN I Hear America Singing JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER The Bartholdi Statue PAUL ZIMMER The Day Zimmer Lost Religion PART IV Reading and Writing About Drama 19. The Dramatic Vision: An Overview Drama as Literature Performance: The Unique Aspect of Drama Drama from Ancient Times to Our Own: Tragedy, Comedy, and Additional Forms ANONYMOUS The Visit to the Sepulcher (Visitatio Sepulchri) PLAYS FOR STUDY SUSAN GLASPELL Trifles EUGENE O'NEILL Before Breakfast Writing About the Elements of Drama Referring to Plays and Parts of Plays Illustrative Student Essay: Eugene O'Neill's Use of Negative Descriptions and Stage Directions in Before Breakfast as a Means of Revealing Character Writing Topics About the Elements of Drama 20. Tragedy Plays for Study SOPHOCLES Oedipus the King WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark Writing Topics About Tragedy 21. Comedy, Satire, and Farce Plays for Study ANTON CHEKHOV The Bear, A Joke in One Act JANE MARTIN Beauty LUIS VALDEZ Los Vendidos Writing Topics About Comedy 22. Problem Drama: Two Major Plays for Additional Enjoyment and Study HENRIK IBSEN A Dollhouse (Et Dukkehjem) AUGUST WILSON Fences Appendix I. Writing a Research Essay on Literature Selecting a Topic Setting Up a Working Bibliography Locating Sources Searching the Internet Evaluating Sources (box) Searching Library Resources Important Considerations About Computer-Aided Research (box) Review the Bibliographies in Major Critical Studies on your Topic Consult Bibliographical Guides Gaining Access to Books and Articles Through Databases Taking Notes and Paraphrasing Material Plagiarism: An Embarrassing but Vital Subject--and a Danger to be Overcome (box) Being Creative and Original While Doing Research Documenting Your Work Strategies for Organizing Ideas in Your Research Essay Illustrative Student Essay Using Research: The Structure of Katherine Mansfield's "Miss Brill" Writing Topics About How to Undertake a Research Essay II. MLA Recommendations for Documenting Sources Credits Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines|
|Responsibility:||by Edgar V. Roberts.|