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Living with Earth : an introduction to environmental geology

Author: Travis Hudson
Publisher: Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson Prentice Hall, ©2011.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Textbooks
0 Gesamtdarstellung
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Travis Hudson
ISBN: 0131424475 9780131424470
OCLC Number: 456551205
Notes: Includes index.
Description: xxi, 491, [27] pages : illustrations (chiefly color), color maps ; 28 cm
Contents: Chapter 1. What Does "Living with Earth" Mean?1.1 Environmental Geology and You1.2 How People and Earth InteractHuman PopulationResource ConsumptionThe Technology FactorEarth's Impact on PeopleIn the News: The Increasing Costs of U.S. Natural Disasters1.3 How Earth Systems InteractEnergy and SystemsMatter and SystemsTwo Types of Systems1.4 How Science HelpsThe Scientific Method Science in Your FutureAvailability of WaterTransition from Oil to Other Energy SourcesThe Effects of Global Climate Change1.5 How to Achieve Sustainability in the FutureSustaining BiodiversityCarrying CapacityEaster Island1.6 Understanding Your RoleChapter 2. Earth Systems2.1 Earth's GeosphereThe Geosphere's OriginThe Compositional Structure of the Geosphere The CoreThe MantleThe CrustThe Physical Structure of the Geosphere The Inner and Outer CoreThe Lower MantleThe Mantle Transition ZoneThe Upper MantleThe AsthenosphereThe Lithosphere2.2 Earth's AtmosphereThe Atmosphere's OriginThe Second Atmosphere The Third Atmosphere The Compositional Structure of the AtmosphereThe HomosphereThe Heterosphere The Temperature Structure of the AtmosphereThe TroposphereThe StratosphereThe MesosphereThe Thermosphere2.3 Earth's HydrosphereOrigin of Earth's WaterIn the News: Deep Impact-Investigating Water's OriginReservoirs in the Hydrosphere The World OceanGlaciers, Ice Caps, and Ice SheetsThe Water CycleYou Make the Call: Whose Water Is It?2.4 Earth's BiosphereLife's BeginningsEvolutionEstablishing the FoundationDarwin and WallaceNatural SelectionExtinctionsMass ExtinctionsThe Passenger PigeonWhat You Can Do: Investigate Mass Extinctions2.5 Understanding Geologic Time and Earth HistoryRelative Geologic AgesSedimentary RocksFossil SuccessionThe Geologic Time ScaleAbsolute Geologic AgesNatural ClocksRadiometric DatingRates of Earth-System ProcessesPeople's Place in Earth HistoryChapter 3. The Dynamic Geosphere and Plate Tectonics3.1 Early Thoughts About Moving ContinentsSetting the Stage Alfred Wegener and Continental Drift3.2 Explaining Moving Continents-Plate TectonicsWandering Magnetic PolesExploring the Ocean BasinsSeafloor SpreadingMagnetic StripesEarthquakes Provide Another TestPlate Tectonics Today3.3 Plate Boundaries-Where the Action IsIn the News: Watching Earth MoveDivergent Plate BoundariesConvergent Plate BoundariesTransform Plate BoundariesYou Make the Call: Living on a Plate Boundary3.4 Plate Tectonics-The Big PicturePlate Tectonics and EarthquakesWhat You Can Do: Keep Track of EarthquakesPlate Tectonics and VolcanoesPlate Tectonics and Mountain BuildingAccretion along the Continental MarginCompression at Convergent Plate BoundariesCollision of Continents at Convergent Plate BoundariesThe Role of MagmaPlate Tectonics and Mineral ResourcesChapter 4. Geosphere Materials4.1 The Geosphere's Chemical CompositionThe Composition of the Geosphere The Composition of the Crust4.2 Minerals-Where Elements ResideMaking MineralsQuartz-the Silicon and Oxygen MineralPhysical Properties and OccurrenceSilicosisThe FeldsparsPhysical Properties and OccurrenceChanging FeldsparsThe Ferromagnesium MineralsOlivine and PyroxeneChanging Olivine and Pyroxene to SerpentineIn the News: 9/11 DustBiotite and AmphiboleLiving (and Dying) with Fibrous AmphiboleOther Minerals-the Sulfides, Oxides, and CarbonatesSulfidesOxidesCarbonatesWhat You Can Do: Investigate Mineral Use4.3 Rocks-Where Minerals ResideMaking Oceanic CrustMaking Continental CrustChanging Rocks in the Rock CycleIgneous Rocks and Crustal Melting Weathering and ErosionSedimentation and LithificationMetamorphism4.4 Using RocksWhat You Can Do: Investigate Rock UseAggregateAggregate Mining and the Environment Physical DisturbancesDust and NoiseCongestion and SafetyYou Make the Call: Aggregate Mining in Your NeighborhoodChapter 5 Earthquakes5.1 Earthquake BasicsWhat Earthquakes AreWhere Earthquakes Occur Transform Plate BoundariesConvergent Plate BoundariesDivergent Plate BoundariesIntraplate EarthquakesEarthquakes and FaultsThe Elastic Rebound Theory of EarthquakesCreepy FaultsEarthquake WavesBody WavesSurface Waves5.2 Investigating EarthquakesMeasuring EarthquakesStrong-Motion SeismometersExperiencing What Seismometers MeasureEarthquake MagnitudeEarthquake IntensityWhat You Can Do: Map Earthquake IntensityLocating EarthquakesLocating the EpicenterDetermining Earthquake Depth5.3 Earthquake HazardsGround ShakingMagnitudeDistance from the FocusSite GeologyGround Displacement and FailureLiquefactionSlope FailureSurface RupturesCrustal DeformationTsunamisFiresConstruction DesignIn the News: The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake5.4 Earthquake PredictionShort-Term PredictionsForecastsSeismic GapsRecurrence IntervalsMaking Forecasts5.5 Mitigating Earthquake HazardsEarthquake Hazards MappingWhat You Can Do: Investigate Earthquake HazardsEngineering for EarthquakesEmergency ResponseEarthquake Early Warning SystemsPublic Education and Preparedness In the News: Tsunami Education Saves LivesTsunami Warning SystemsYou Make the Call: Who Is Responsible for Tsunami Warning Systems?Chapter 6. Volcanoes6.1 Volcano BasicsWhat Volcanoes AreDefining and Counting VolcanoesTypes of MagmasTypes of VolcanoesShield VolcanoesFlood BasaltsCinder ConesStratovolcanoesLarge CalderasEruption MagnitudeThe Benefits of Volcanoes6.2 Volcanoes: Where and WhyVolcanoes at Divergent Plate BoundariesVolcanoes at Convergent Plate Boundaries Volcanoes Within PlatesThe Coast Might Be Toast (Someday)What You Can Do: Investigate Volcanism in Your State6.3 Volcanic HazardsHazards of StratovolcanoesAsh Hazards on the GroundAsh Hazards in the AtmospherePyroclastic FlowsLaharsA Stratovolcano in Action: Mount St. HelensHazards of Shield VolcanoesLava Flows Shield Volcanoes in Action: KilaueaVolcanic GasesHazards to PeopleHazards to Plant LifeClimate ChangesIn the News: Getting Your Own Weekly Volcano Report6.4 Living with VolcanoesGoing to War with PeleHow Science HelpsVolcanology-a Hazardous ProfessionHazard AssessmentsMonitoring Volcanic ActivityMonitoring Eruption PrecursorsVolcanic Crisis ResponsePinatubo: A Successful Crisis ResponseWhat Made the Difference?How Communities Respond to Volcanic HazardsYou Make the Call: Living in the Shadow of Mount RainierChapter 7 Rivers and Flooding7.1 River BasicsWatershedsWhat You Can Do: Investigate Your WatershedFlow, Discharge, and ChannelsBase LevelLongitudinal Profiles and GradientErosionSediment TransportSediment DepositionFloodplains7.2 FloodsWhat Floods Are Precipitation and FloodingIntensity DurationTimingFailing Dams and FloodingFailure of Landslide DamsFailure of Ice DamsFailure of Constructed DamsLand Use and FloodingEffect of CultivationLoss of WetlandsUrbanizationIn the News: The Eastern Deluge of 2006Man-Made Floods Types of River FloodsFlash FloodsRiverine Floods7.3 Measuring and Forecasting FloodsHydrographsWhat You Can Do: Investigate Real-Time Stream Gage DataFlood Recurrence IntervalsThe 100-Year FloodFlood ProbabilityLimitations of Historical Data7.4 Living with FloodsFlood HazardsMitigating Floods: The Structural ApproachChannel AlterationFlood-Control DamsYou Make the Call: Would You Build the Three Gorges Dam?Diversion Channels/FloodwaysDetention PondsThe Mississippi River Flood-Control System Pros and Cons of the Structural ApproachMitigating Floods: The Nonstructural ApproachThe U.S. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)Relocations and Voluntary BuyoutsSustainable Floodplain ManagementChapter 8. Unstable Land8.1 Slope Stability BasicsThe Driving Force-GravityResisting GravitySlope MaterialsSlope Steepness Water ContentVegetation8.2 Types of Unstable LandSlope FailuresFallsSlidesFlowsWhat You Can Do: Tour an EarthflowCreepComplex Mass MovementsSubsidenceRegional SubsidenceKarst-Related SubsidenceMining-Related Subsidence8.3 Causes of Land FailureWeatherHurricanesEl NinoIn the News: Landslide WeatherYou Make the Call: What Would You Do with La Conchita?EarthquakesWildfiresSlope SteepeningPeople and Slope FailurePeople and SubsidenceSubsidence in California's San Joaquin ValleyRegional Subsidence and CitiesGroundwater Pumping and SinkholesUrbanization and Sinkholes8.4 Living with Unstable LandLiving with Unstable SlopesAssessing Slope HazardsActing on Hazard InformationWhat You Can Do: Investigate Unstable Slopes in Your CommunityEngineering Stronger SlopesWhat You Can Do: Monitor the U.S. Highway 50 LandslideLiving with SubsidenceRegional SubsidenceKarst-Related SubsidenceMine-Related SubsidenceChapter 9. Changing Coasts9.1 Coastal BasicsWavesMeasuring WavesWaves in Deep WaterWaves in Shallow WaterWave RefractionNearshore CurrentsLongshore DriftRip CurrentsTidesWhat You Can Do: Keep Track of TidesSea Level ChangeGlobal Sea Level ChangeLocal Sea Level Changes9.2 Coastal FeaturesThe Atlantic CoastFlorida's Living CoastThe Gulf of Mexico CoastThe Pacific CoastThe Alaska CoastA Closer Look at BeachesBeach AnatomyBeach MaterialsSediment SupplyThe Beach in Action9.3 Coastal Erosion and SedimentationCoastal ErosionBeach ErosionSea Cliff ErosionCoastal SedimentationWhere Sediment Is DepositedThe Mississippi River DeltaIn the News: Sustaining the Mississippi Delta9.4 Coasts and StormsHurricanesWinter StormsCoastal Storm HazardsHurricane Katrina and New OrleansYou Make the Call: What Do We Do with New Orleans?9.5 Living with Changing CoastsHard StabilizationSeawalls, Bulkheads, and RevetmentsBreakwaters Groins and JettiesSoft StabilizationBeach NourishmentSaving Miami BeachDune RestorationManaging SedimentsDredgingSediment ContaminationMitigating Coastal Storm HazardsCoastal Zone ManagementYou Make the Call: Dealing with Falmouth's Changing CoastChapter 10. Water Resources10.1 Water ResourcesSurface-Water ResourcesThe Colorado RiverIn the News: Great Lakes Water WarsGroundwater ResourcesThe High Plains AquiferYou Make the Call: Who Wins in Las Vegas?Surface and Groundwater ConnectionsMaking Fresh Water-Desalination10.2 How People Use WaterWater Use in the United StatesFreshwater UsePublic Water SuppliesIrrigationElectric Power Generation Other Water Uses10.3 Water Withdrawal and the EnvironmentDamsGroundwater MiningLand SubsidenceGroundwater Pumping and Surface WaterSaltwater Intrusion10.4 Water Quality and PollutionDr. John Snow and Water-Borne DiseaseNatural Water QualityPure Rainwater?Arsenic in Natural WaterParasites in Natural WaterPollution and Water QualityMicrobesInorganic ContaminantsHuman-Made ChemicalsSedimentSources of PollutantsPoint SourcesNonpoint SourcesGroundwater Pollution-A Special ProblemWhat You Can Do: Investigate Your Water Quality10.5 Sustaining Water ResourcesWater TreatmentRecycling WastewaterConservation-Using Less WaterHousehold Water ConservationCommunity Water ConservationWater-Saving AgricultureResults of Water ConservationResource Management-Making Better Use of Water ResourcesGroundwater Management Comprehensive Water ManagementChapter 11. Soil Resources11.1 What Soil Resources AreSoil DefinitionsSoil FunctionsFood and FiberWater Storage and CleaningWaste RecyclingSoil as HabitatEarth Systems Interactions11.2 How Soils FormSoil-Forming ProcessesThe Soil ProfileSoil Variations11.3 Soil PropertiesPhysical PropertiesCompositional PropertiesBiological PropertiesSoil Quality11.4 Soil Degradation and LossErosionSoil Contamination SalinationFertilizersIn the News: Pathogens in Your ProducePesticidesBiodiversity DepletionNutrient DepletionYou Make the Call: Is Ethanol a Sustainable Energy Resource?Urbanization and Soil11.5 Sustaining Soil ResourcesSoil ConservationWhat You Can Do: Use Your Local Soil Conservation DistrictSoil RemediationBioremediationPhytoremediationDesalination of SoilSoil ProtectionChapter 12. Mineral Resources12.1 What Mineral Resources AreWhat You Can Do: Investigate Mineral Resource EconomicsMaking Mineral DepositsThe Shapes of Mineral Deposits12.2 Finding, Mining, and Processing Mineral ResourcesFinding Mineral ResourcesTrenchingDrillingInfrastructureIn the News: Donlin Creek Gold DepositMining Mineral ResourcesOpen-Pit miningUnderground MiningThe West's Legacy-Abandoned Mine Lands Processing Mineral ResourcesMillingFlotationTailingsLeaching Recovering Metals from Ore Concentrate12.3 Environmental ConcernsPhysical DisturbancesSurface Water QualitySpillsErosion Discharge of Acid Rock DrainageGroundwater QualitySoil QualityAir QualityDustSmelter Emissions12.4 Mineral Resources in the FutureFuture Mineral Resource NeedsRecyclingSustainability and Mineral Resource UseYou Make the Call: Where Should Mining Occur?Chapter 13. Energy Resources13.1 Energy Basics13.2 Oil, Natural Gas, and the EnvironmentOil and Natural Gas ExplorationSeismic SurveysDrillingOil and Natural Gas ProductionPhysical DisturbancesProduced WaterOil and Natural Gas TransportationMarine Tanker TransportOil in the Sea and YouWhat You Can Do: Recycle Used Motor OilOil RefiningRefining SafetyRefinery DisturbancesRefinery WastesOil and Natural Gas ConsumptionIn the News: It Wasn't Just Dust from ChinaTransportation fuelsCoal combustionGreenhouse gases13.3 Coal and the EnvironmentCoal ProductionCoal ProcessingCoal CombustionPollutant EmissionsGreenhouse Gas EmissionsCoal's Future13.4 Nuclear Energy and the EnvironmentNuclear EnergyNuclear Reactor SafetyRadioactive Waste DisposalYou Make the Call: Where Do We Put Nuclear Waste?13.5 Renewable Energy and the Environment Biomass Geothermal EnergyWhat You Can Do: Use a Geothermal Heat Pump Hydropower Wind Power Solar Power13.6 The Energy Challenges AheadThe Cost of OilEnergy TransitionsOil Sands and Oil ShalesIn the News: Mining OilA Natural Gas Age?A Hydrogen Age?An Energy Wild Card?The Significance of EmissionsSustainabilityWhat You Can Do: Save EnergyChapter 14. Atmosphere Resources and Climate Change14.1 What Atmosphere Resources AreCompositional CharacteristicsPhysical CharacteristicsWhat You Can Do: Monitor the Weather14.2 Air PollutionPollutantsVolatile Organic CompoundsIn the News: Why Do We Like "New Car Smell"?Nitrogen OxidesSulfur DioxideCarbon MonoxideCarbon DioxideSmogAcid RainWhat You Can Do: Investigate Acid Rain Damage in Washington, DCAir Pollution and the Ozone Layer14.3 The Atmosphere and Climate ChangeAtmosphere Composition and Climate; Greenhouse GasesSolar Radiation and ClimateBrightnessAxis TiltOrbital EccentricityEarth's PrecessionMilankovitch CyclesTectonic Processes and ClimateContinent Size and DistributionMountain RangesVolcanoes14.4 History of Climate ChangePaleoclimatology-Studying Past ClimatesSedimentary RecordsFossilsOxygen Isotopes Atmosphere Samples in Ice CoresSea Level HistoryPrecambrian Atmosphere Composition and ClimatePhanerozoic Atmosphere and ClimatesWhat You Can Do: Investigate Plate Tectonics and Climate ChangeThe Last Few Million Years14.5 People and Climate ChangePeople and Greenhouse GasesAssessing Climate ChangeThe IPCCClimate ModelsThe IPCC 2007 AssessmentA Closer Look-Climate Change and Sea LevelIPCC Story Lines and ScenariosPopular Portrayals of Sea Level Rise Due to Global WarmingThe IPCC ProjectionsSea Level Change after 2100Rapid Climate Change-Another Wild Card14.6 Dealing with Climate ChangeThe Kyoto ProtocolCarbon Sequestration: A Key TechnologyWhat You Can Do: Calculate Your Contribution to Greenhouse GasesControlling ClimateYou Make the Call: What's the Optimum Global Climate for Earth?Chapter 15. Managing People's Environmental Impact15.1 Environmental PolicyWhat You Can Do: Investigate Corporate Environmental PolicyNational Environmental PolicyNational Environmental Policy Act In the News: The Alaska Natural Gas PipelineClean Water Act Clean Air Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability ActWhat You Can Do: Investigate Superfund Sites Near YouLand-Use DesignationsState Environmental PoliciesSpecial Interest Group PoliciesPublic Awareness and Environmental Policy15.2 Environmental RegulationEnvironmental StandardsAir Quality StandardsWater Quality StandardsSoil Quality StandardsPermittingEnforcement15.3 Third-Party LitigationIn the News: Protecting the Spotted Owl15.4 Economics and Environmental ManagementBusiness OpportunitiesIn Situ Uranium LeachingRecycling Consumer ElectronicsLandfill EnergyEcotourism Economic Influences on People's ChoicesYou Make the Call: Raise Gasoline Prices?Using Markets to Achieve Environmental ObjectivesFunding Incentives15.5 Decision MakingThe Stillwater Mine ExampleOur System's Strengths
Responsibility: Travis Hudson.

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