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|Beschreibung:||xxi, 491,  p. : ill. (chiefly col.), col. maps ; 28 cm.|
|Inhalt:||Chapter 1. What Does "Living with Earth" Mean? 1.1 Environmental Geology and You 1.2 How People and Earth Interact Human Population Resource Consumption The Technology Factor Earth's Impact on People In the News: The Increasing Costs of U.S. Natural Disasters1.3 How Earth Systems Interact Energy and Systems Matter and Systems Two Types of Systems1.4 How Science Helps The Scientific Method Science in Your Future Availability of Water Transition from Oil to Other Energy Sources The Effects of Global Climate Change1.5 How to Achieve Sustainability in the Future Sustaining Biodiversity Carrying Capacity Easter Island1.6 Understanding Your Role Chapter 2. Earth Systems 2.1 Earth's Geosphere The Geosphere's Origin The Compositional Structure of the Geosphere The Core The Mantle The Crust The Physical Structure of the Geosphere The Inner and Outer Core The Lower Mantle The Mantle Transition Zone The Upper Mantle The Asthenosphere The Lithosphere 2.2 Earth's Atmosphere The Atmosphere's Origin The Second Atmosphere The Third Atmosphere The Compositional Structure of the Atmosphere The Homosphere The Heterosphere The Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere The Troposphere The Stratosphere The Mesosphere The Thermosphere2.3 Earth's Hydrosphere Origin of Earth's Water In the News: Deep Impact-Investigating Water's Origin Reservoirs in the Hydrosphere The World Ocean Glaciers, Ice Caps, and Ice Sheets The Water Cycle You Make the Call: Whose Water Is It?2.4 Earth's Biosphere Life's Beginnings Evolution Establishing the Foundation Darwin and Wallace Natural Selection Extinctions Mass Extinctions The Passenger Pigeon What You Can Do: Investigate Mass Extinctions2.5 Understanding Geologic Time and Earth History Relative Geologic Ages Sedimentary Rocks Fossil Succession The Geologic Time Scale Absolute Geologic Ages Natural Clocks Radiometric Dating Rates of Earth-System Processes People's Place in Earth History Chapter 3. The Dynamic Geosphere and Plate Tectonics 3.1 Early Thoughts About Moving Continents Setting the Stage Alfred Wegener and Continental Drift3.2 Explaining Moving Continents-Plate Tectonics Wandering Magnetic Poles Exploring the Ocean Basins Seafloor Spreading Magnetic Stripes Earthquakes Provide Another Test Plate Tectonics Today3.3 Plate Boundaries-Where the Action Is In the News: Watching Earth Move Divergent Plate Boundaries Convergent Plate Boundaries Transform Plate Boundaries You Make the Call: Living on a Plate Boundary3.4 Plate Tectonics-The Big Picture Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes What You Can Do: Keep Track of Earthquakes Plate Tectonics and Volcanoes Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building Accretion along the Continental Margin Compression at Convergent Plate Boundaries Collision of Continents at Convergent Plate Boundaries The Role of Magma Plate Tectonics and Mineral Resources Chapter 4. Geosphere Materials 4.1 The Geosphere's Chemical Composition The Composition of the Geosphere The Composition of the Crust4.2 Minerals-Where Elements Reside Making Minerals Quartz-the Silicon and Oxygen Mineral Physical Properties and Occurrence Silicosis The Feldspars Physical Properties and Occurrence Changing Feldspars The Ferromagnesium Minerals Olivine and Pyroxene Changing Olivine and Pyroxene to Serpentine In the News: 9/11 Dust Biotite and Amphibole Living (and Dying) with Fibrous Amphibole Other Minerals-the Sulfides, Oxides, and Carbonates Sulfides Oxides Carbonates What You Can Do: Investigate Mineral Use 4.3 Rocks-Where Minerals Reside Making Oceanic Crust Making Continental Crust Changing Rocks in the Rock Cycle Igneous Rocks and Crustal Melting Weathering and Erosion Sedimentation and Lithification Metamorphism 4.4 Using Rocks What You Can Do: Investigate Rock Use Aggregate Aggregate Mining and the Environment Physical Disturbances Dust and Noise Congestion and Safety You Make the Call: Aggregate Mining in Your Neighborhood Chapter 5 Earthquakes 5.1 Earthquake Basics What Earthquakes Are Where Earthquakes Occur Transform Plate Boundaries Convergent Plate Boundaries Divergent Plate Boundaries Intraplate Earthquakes Earthquakes and Faults The Elastic Rebound Theory of Earthquakes Creepy Faults Earthquake Waves Body Waves Surface Waves5.2 Investigating Earthquakes Measuring Earthquakes Strong-Motion Seismometers Experiencing What Seismometers Measure Earthquake Magnitude Earthquake Intensity What You Can Do: Map Earthquake Intensity Locating Earthquakes Locating the Epicenter Determining Earthquake Depth5.3 Earthquake Hazards Ground Shaking Magnitude Distance from the Focus Site Geology Ground Displacement and Failure Liquefaction Slope Failure Surface Ruptures Crustal Deformation Tsunamis Fires Construction Design In the News: The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake 5.4 Earthquake Prediction Short-Term Predictions Forecasts Seismic Gaps Recurrence Intervals Making Forecasts5.5 Mitigating Earthquake Hazards Earthquake Hazards Mapping What You Can Do: Investigate Earthquake Hazards Engineering for Earthquakes Emergency Response Earthquake Early Warning Systems Public Education and Preparedness In the News: Tsunami Education Saves Lives Tsunami Warning Systems You Make the Call: Who Is Responsible for Tsunami Warning Systems? Chapter 6. Volcanoes 6.1 Volcano Basics What Volcanoes Are Defining and Counting Volcanoes Types of Magmas Types of Volcanoes Shield Volcanoes Flood Basalts Cinder Cones Stratovolcanoes Large Calderas Eruption Magnitude The Benefits of Volcanoes6.2 Volcanoes: Where and Why Volcanoes at Divergent Plate Boundaries Volcanoes at Convergent Plate Boundaries Volcanoes Within Plates The Coast Might Be Toast (Someday) What You Can Do: Investigate Volcanism in Your State6.3 Volcanic Hazards Hazards of Stratovolcanoes Ash Hazards on the Ground Ash Hazards in the Atmosphere Pyroclastic Flows Lahars A Stratovolcano in Action: Mount St. Helens Hazards of Shield Volcanoes Lava Flows Shield Volcanoes in Action: Kilauea Volcanic Gases Hazards to People Hazards to Plant Life Climate Changes In the News: Getting Your Own Weekly Volcano Report6.4 Living with Volcanoes Going to War with Pele How Science Helps Volcanology-a Hazardous Profession Hazard Assessments Monitoring Volcanic Activity Monitoring Eruption Precursors Volcanic Crisis Response Pinatubo: A Successful Crisis Response What Made the Difference? How Communities Respond to Volcanic Hazards You Make the Call: Living in the Shadow of Mount Rainier Chapter 7 Rivers and Flooding 7.1 River Basics Watersheds What You Can Do: Investigate Your Watershed Flow, Discharge, and Channels Base Level Longitudinal Profiles and Gradient Erosion Sediment Transport Sediment Deposition Floodplains7.2 Floods What Floods Are Precipitation and Flooding Intensity Duration Timing Failing Dams and Flooding Failure of Landslide Dams Failure of Ice Dams Failure of Constructed Dams Land Use and Flooding Effect of Cultivation Loss of Wetlands Urbanization In the News: The Eastern Deluge of 2006 Man-Made Floods Types of River Floods Flash Floods Riverine Floods7.3 Measuring and Forecasting Floods Hydrographs What You Can Do: Investigate Real-Time Stream Gage Data Flood Recurrence Intervals The 100-Year Flood Flood Probability Limitations of Historical Data7.4 Living with Floods Flood Hazards Mitigating Floods: The Structural Approach Channel Alteration Flood-Control Dams You Make the Call: Would You Build the Three Gorges Dam? Diversion Channels/Floodways Detention Ponds The Mississippi River Flood-Control System Pros and Cons of the Structural Approach Mitigating Floods: The Nonstructural Approach The U.S. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Relocations and Voluntary Buyouts Sustainable Floodplain Management Chapter 8. Unstable Land 8.1 Slope Stability Basics The Driving Force-Gravity Resisting Gravity Slope Materials Slope Steepness Water Content Vegetation8.2 Types of Unstable Land Slope Failures Falls Slides Flows What You Can Do: Tour an Earthflow Creep Complex Mass Movements Subsidence Regional Subsidence Karst-Related Subsidence Mining-Related Subsidence 8.3 Causes of Land Failure Weather Hurricanes El Nino In the News: Landslide Weather You Make the Call: What Would You Do with La Conchita? Earthquakes Wildfires Slope Steepening People and Slope Failure People and Subsidence Subsidence in California's San Joaquin Valley Regional Subsidence and Cities Groundwater Pumping and Sinkholes Urbanization and Sinkholes8.4 Living with Unstable Land Living with Unstable Slopes Assessing Slope Hazards Acting on Hazard Information What You Can Do: Investigate Unstable Slopes in Your Community Engineering Stronger Slopes What You Can Do: Monitor the U.S. Highway 50 Landslide Living with Subsidence Regional Subsidence Karst-Related Subsidence Mine-Related Subsidence Chapter 9. Changing Coasts 9.1 Coastal Basics Waves Measuring Waves Waves in Deep Water Waves in Shallow Water Wave Refraction Nearshore Currents Longshore Drift Rip Currents Tides What You Can Do: Keep Track of Tides Sea Level Change Global Sea Level Change Local Sea Level Changes9.2 Coastal Features The Atlantic Coast Florida's Living Coast The Gulf of Mexico Coast The Pacific Coast The Alaska Coast A Closer Look at Beaches Beach Anatomy Beach Materials Sediment Supply The Beach in Action9.3 Coastal Erosion and Sedimentation Coastal Erosion Beach Erosion Sea Cliff Erosion Coastal Sedimentation Where Sediment Is Deposited The Mississippi River Delta In the News: Sustaining the Mississippi Delta9.4 Coasts and Storms Hurricanes Winter Storms Coastal Storm Hazards Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans You Make the Call: What Do We Do with New Orleans?9.5 Living with Changing Coasts Hard Stabilization Seawalls, Bulkheads, and Revetments Breakwaters Groins and Jetties Soft Stabilization Beach Nourishment Saving Miami Beach Dune Restoration Managing Sediments Dredging Sediment Contamination Mitigating Coastal Storm Hazards Coastal Zone Management You Make the Call: Dealing with Falmouth's Changing Coast Chapter 10. Water Resources 10.1 Water Resources Surface-Water Resources The Colorado River In the News: Great Lakes Water Wars Groundwater Resources The High Plains Aquifer You Make the Call: Who Wins in Las Vegas? Surface and Groundwater Connections Making Fresh Water-Desalination 10.2 How People Use Water Water Use in the United States Freshwater Use Public Water Supplies Irrigation Electric Power Generation Other Water Uses10.3 Water Withdrawal and the Environment Dams Groundwater Mining Land Subsidence Groundwater Pumping and Surface Water Saltwater Intrusion10.4 Water Quality and Pollution Dr. John Snow and Water-Borne Disease Natural Water Quality Pure Rainwater? Arsenic in Natural Water Parasites in Natural Water Pollution and Water Quality Microbes Inorganic Contaminants Human-Made Chemicals Sediment Sources of Pollutants Point Sources Nonpoint Sources Groundwater Pollution-A Special Problem What You Can Do: Investigate Your Water Quality10.5 Sustaining Water Resources Water Treatment Recycling Wastewater Conservation-Using Less Water Household Water Conservation Community Water Conservation Water-Saving Agriculture Results of Water Conservation Resource Management-Making Better Use of Water Resources Groundwater Management Comprehensive Water Management Chapter 11. Soil Resources 11.1 What Soil Resources Are Soil Definitions Soil Functions Food and Fiber Water Storage and Cleaning Waste Recycling Soil as Habitat Earth Systems Interactions11.2 How Soils Form Soil-Forming Processes The Soil Profile Soil Variations11.3 Soil Properties Physical Properties Compositional Properties Biological Properties Soil Quality11.4 Soil Degradation and Loss Erosion Soil Contamination Salination Fertilizers In the News: Pathogens in Your Produce Pesticides Biodiversity Depletion Nutrient Depletion You Make the Call: Is Ethanol a Sustainable Energy Resource? Urbanization and Soil 11.5 Sustaining Soil Resources Soil Conservation What You Can Do: Use Your Local Soil Conservation District Soil Remediation Bioremediation Phytoremediation Desalination of Soil Soil Protection Chapter 12. Mineral Resources 12.1 What Mineral Resources Are What You Can Do: Investigate Mineral Resource Economics Making Mineral Deposits The Shapes of Mineral Deposits12.2 Finding, Mining, and Processing Mineral Resources Finding Mineral Resources Trenching Drilling Infrastructure In the News: Donlin Creek Gold Deposit Mining Mineral Resources Open-Pit mining Underground Mining The West's Legacy-Abandoned Mine Lands Processing Mineral Resources Milling Flotation Tailings Leaching Recovering Metals from Ore Concentrate12.3 Environmental Concerns Physical Disturbances Surface Water Quality Spills Erosion Discharge of Acid Rock Drainage Groundwater Quality Soil Quality Air Quality Dust Smelter Emissions12.4 Mineral Resources in the Future Future Mineral Resource Needs Recycling Sustainability and Mineral Resource Use You Make the Call: Where Should Mining Occur? Chapter 13. Energy Resources 13.1 Energy Basics 13.2 Oil, Natural Gas, and the Environment Oil and Natural Gas Exploration Seismic Surveys Drilling Oil and Natural Gas Production Physical Disturbances Produced Water Oil and Natural Gas Transportation Marine Tanker Transport Oil in the Sea and You What You Can Do: Recycle Used Motor Oil Oil Refining Refining Safety Refinery Disturbances Refinery Wastes Oil and Natural Gas Consumption In the News: It Wasn't Just Dust from China Transportation fuels Coal combustion Greenhouse gases 13.3 Coal and the Environment Coal Production Coal Processing Coal Combustion Pollutant Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions Coal's Future13.4 Nuclear Energy and the Environment Nuclear Energy Nuclear Reactor Safety Radioactive Waste Disposal You Make the Call: Where Do We Put Nuclear Waste?13.5 Renewable Energy and the Environment Biomass Geothermal Energy What You Can Do: Use a Geothermal Heat Pump Hydropower Wind Power Solar Power13.6 The Energy Challenges Ahead The Cost of Oil Energy Transitions Oil Sands and Oil Shales In the News: Mining Oil A Natural Gas Age? A Hydrogen Age? An Energy Wild Card? The Significance of Emissions Sustainability What You Can Do: Save Energy Chapter 14. Atmosphere Resources and Climate Change 14.1 What Atmosphere Resources Are Compositional Characteristics Physical Characteristics What You Can Do: Monitor the Weather14.2 Air Pollution Pollutants Volatile Organic Compounds In the News: Why Do We Like "New Car Smell"? Nitrogen Oxides Sulfur Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Smog Acid Rain What You Can Do: Investigate Acid Rain Damage in Washington, DC Air Pollution and the Ozone Layer14.3 The Atmosphere and Climate Change Atmosphere Composition and Climate; Greenhouse Gases Solar Radiation and Climate Brightness Axis Tilt Orbital Eccentricity Earth's Precession Milankovitch Cycles Tectonic Processes and Climate Continent Size and Distribution Mountain Ranges Volcanoes 14.4 History of Climate Change Paleoclimatology-Studying Past Climates Sedimentary Records Fossils Oxygen Isotopes Atmosphere Samples in Ice Cores Sea Level History Precambrian Atmosphere Composition and Climate Phanerozoic Atmosphere and Climates What You Can Do: Investigate Plate Tectonics and Climate Change The Last Few Million Years14.5 People and Climate Change People and Greenhouse Gases Assessing Climate Change The IPCC Climate Models The IPCC 2007 Assessment A Closer Look-Climate Change and Sea Level IPCC Story Lines and Scenarios Popular Portrayals of Sea Level Rise Due to Global Warming The IPCC Projections Sea Level Change after 2100 Rapid Climate Change-Another Wild Card14.6 Dealing with Climate Change The Kyoto Protocol Carbon Sequestration: A Key Technology What You Can Do: Calculate Your Contribution to Greenhouse Gases Controlling Climate You Make the Call: What's the Optimum Global Climate for Earth? Chapter 15. Managing People's Environmental Impact 15.1 Environmental Policy What You Can Do: Investigate Corporate Environmental Policy National Environmental Policy National Environmental Policy Act In the News: The Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline Clean Water Act Clean Air Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act What You Can Do: Investigate Superfund Sites Near You Land-Use Designations State Environmental Policies Special Interest Group Policies Public Awareness and Environmental Policy15.2 Environmental Regulation Environmental Standards Air Quality Standards Water Quality Standards Soil Quality Standards Permitting Enforcement15.3 Third-Party Litigation In the News: Protecting the Spotted Owl15.4 Economics and Environmental Management Business Opportunities In Situ Uranium Leaching Recycling Consumer Electronics Landfill Energy Ecotourism Economic Influences on People's Choices You Make the Call: Raise Gasoline Prices? Using Markets to Achieve Environmental Objectives Funding Incentives 15.5 Decision Making The Stillwater Mine Example Our System's Strengths|