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LMF lexical markup framework

Author: Gil Francopoulo
Publisher: London : ISTE Ltd ; Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, ©2013.
Series: Computer engineering and IT series.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
The community responsible for developing lexicons for Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Readable Dictionaries (MRDs) started their ISO standardization activities in 2003. These activities resulted in the ISO standard - Lexical Markup Framework (LMF). After selecting and defining a common terminology, the LMF team had to identify the common notions shared by all lexicons in order to specify a common  Read more...
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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Gil Francopoulo
ISBN: 1848214308 9781848214309
OCLC Number: 812570948
Description: xiv, 266 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Contents: Preface xiii Chapter 1. LMF Historical Context and Perspectives 1 Nicoletta CALZOLARI, Monica MONACHINI and Claudia SORIA 1.1. Introduction 1 1.2. The context 2 1.3. The foundations: the Grosseto Workshop and the X-Lex projects 4 1.4. EAGLES and ISLE . 5 1.5. Setting up methodologies and principles for standards 6 1.6. EAGLES/ISLE legacy 10 1.7. Interoperability: the keystone of the field 14 1.8. Bibliography 15 Chapter 2. Model Description 19 Gil FRANCOPOULO and Monte GEORGE 2.1. Objectives 19 2.2. The ISO specification 19 2.3. Means of description 20 2.4. Core model 21 2.5. Core model and extension packages 22 2.6. Morphology extension 23 2.7. Machine-Readable Dictionary extension 26 2.8. NLP syntax extension 27 2.9. NLP semantic extension 29 2.10. Multilingual notation extension 31 2.11. NLP morphological pattern extension 33 2.12. NLP multiword expression pattern extension 36 2.13. Constraint expression extension 38 2.14. Conclusion 39 2.15. Bibliography 40 Chapter 3. LMF and the Data Category Registry: Principles and Application 41 Menzo WINDHOUWER and Sue Ellen WRIGHT 3.1. Introduction 41 3.2. Data category specifications 42 3.3. The ISOcat Data Category Registry 44 3.3.1. A web user interface 44 3.4. LMF and data categories 45 3.5. Conclusions and future work 49 3.6. Bibliography 49 Chapter 4. Wordnet-LMF: A Standard Representation for Multilingual Wordnets 51 Piek VOSSEN, Claudia SORIA and Monica MONACHINI 4.1. Introduction 51 4.2. The KYOTO project 52 4.3. LMF and Wordnet representation 54 4.4. Wordnet-LMF 56 4.5. Conclusions 62 4.6. Bibliography 65 Chapter 5. Prolmf: A Multilingual Dictionary of Proper Names and their Relations 67 Denis MAUREL, Beatrice BOUCHOU-MARKHOFF 5.1. Motivation 67 5.2. Prolmf basis 69 5.3. More on lexica and relations in Prolmf 73 5.4. Conclusion 77 5.5. Bibliography 79 5.6. Appendix 80 Chapter 6. LMF for Arabic 83 Aida KHEMAKHEM, Bilel GARGOURI, Kais HADDAR and Abdelmajid BEN HAMADOU 6.1. Introduction 83 6.2. Modeling of the basic properties 85 6.3. Modeling of the morphologic extension 86 6.4. Modeling of the morphologic pattern extension 88 6.5. Modeling of the syntactic extension 90 6.6. Modeling of the semantic extension 92 6.7. Arabic LMF applications 94 6.8. Implementation 95 6.9. Conclusion 96 6.10. Bibliography 96 Chapter 7. LMF for a Selection of African Languages 99 Chantal ENGUEHARD and Mathieu MANGEOT 7.1. Introduction 99 7.2. Less-resourced languages 99 7.3. From published dictionaries to LMF 102 7.4. Illustrations 104 7.5. Difficulties and proposals 113 7.6. Conclusion 117 7.7. Acknowledgments 117 7.8. Bibliography 117 Chapter 8. LMF and its Implementation in Some Asian Languages 119 Takenobu TOKUNAGA, Sophia Y.M. LEE, Virach SORNLERTLAMVANICH,Kiyoaki SHIRAI, Shu-Kai HSIEH and Chu-Ren HUANG 8.1. Introduction 119 8.2. Lexical specification and data categories 120 8.3. Upper-layer ontology 125 8.4. Evaluation platform 126 8.5. Discussion 128 8.6. Conclusion 129 8.7. Acknowledgments 130 8.8. Bibliography 131 Chapter 9. DUELME: Dutch Electronic Lexicon of Multiword Expressions 133 Jan ODIJK 9.1. Introduction 133 9.2. DUELME 134 9.3. LMF 135 9.4. The DUELME class model 135 9.5. Comparison with the LMF Core Package 137 9.6. Comparison with the LMF NLP multiword expression patterns extension 139 9.7. Conclusions 142 9.8. Acknowledgments 143 9.9. Bibliography 143 Chapter 10. UBY-LMF Exploring the Boundaries of Language-Independent Lexicon Models 145 Judith ECKLE-KOHLER, Iryna GUREVYCH, Silvana HARTMANN, Michael MATUSCHEK and Christian M. MEYER 10.1. Introduction 145 10.2. Architecture of UBY-LMF 147 10.3. Language independence of UBY-LMF 148 10.4. FrameNet in UBY-LMF 151 10.5. Conclusion 153 10.6. Acknowledgments 154 10.7. Bibliography 154 Chapter 11. Conversion of Lexicon-Grammar Tables to LMF: Application to French 157 Eric LAPORTE, Elsa TOLONE and Matthieu CONSTANT 11.1. Motivation 157 11.2. The Lexicon-Grammar 157 11.3. Lexical entries 160 11.4. Subcategorization frames 163 11.5. Results 170 11.6. Conclusion 171 11.7. Bibliography 172 Chapter 12. Collaborative Tools: From Wiktionary to LMF, for Synchronic and Diachronic Language Data 175 Thierry DECLERCK, Pirsoka LENDVAI and Karlheinz MORTH 12.1. Introduction 175 12.2. Wiktionary 175 12.3. Related work 177 12.4. Additional challenges: how to encode the diversity of Wiktionary lexicon in LMF? 179 12.5. Conclusion 183 12.6. Bibliography 184 Chapter 13. LMF Experiments on Format Conversions for Resource Merging: Converters and Problems 187 Marta VILLEGAS, Muntsa PADRO and Nuria BEL 13.1. Introduction 187 13.2. Automatic merging of resources 188 13.3. Moving from PAROLE Genelex to LMF 191 13.4. Conclusion 197 13.5. Availability of resources 198 13.6. Bibliography 198 Chapter 14. LMF as a Foundation for Servicized Lexical Resources 201 Yoshihiko HAYASHI, Monica MONACHINI, Bora SAVAS, Claudia SORIA and Nicoletta CALZOLARI 14.1. Introduction 201 14.2. Lexical resources as lexical Web services 201 14.3. LMF-aware Web services in the RESTful style 202 14.4. Implementation showcases 203 14.5. Summary 212 14.6. Bibliography 212 Chapter 15. Creating a Serialization of LMF: The Experience of the RELISH Project 215 Menzo WINDHOUWER, Justin PETRO, Irina NEVSKAYA, Sebastian DRUDE, Helen ARISTAR-DRY and Jost GIPPERT 15.1. Introduction . . 215 15.2. Overview of the RELISH interchange format 216 15.3. Mapping of equivalent elements 217 15.4. Complex mappings 219 15.5. Harmonization of linguistic concepts 223 15.6. Conclusions and future work 224 15.7. Bibliography 225 Chapter 16. Global Atlas: Proper Nouns, From Wikipedia to LMF 227 Gil FRANCOPOULO, Frederic MARCOUL, David CAUSSE and Gregory PIPARO 16.1. Motivation 227 16.2. Preparing recognition 227 16.3. Context of usage 230 16.4. Ontology of types 231 16.5. Main source: Wikipedia 232 16.6. Extraction 233 16.7. Auxiliary machine learning 234 16.8. LMF structures 234 16.9. Example 235 16.10. Results 237 16.11. Current limitations and planned improvements 237 16.12. LMF limitations 238 16.13. Related work 238 16.14. Conclusion 239 16.15. Bibliography 239 Chapter 17. LMF in U.S. Government Language Resource Management 243 Monte GEORGE 17.1. Introduction 243 17.2. Wordscape overview 244 17.3. The goal 245 17.4. The importance of data standards 245 17.5. Language base exchange 246 17.6. Managing multilingual representations 249 17.7. Managing grammatical information 251 17.8. Grammatical information, an MRD example 255 17.9. Managing LBX schema and document instances 258 17.10. Data exchange using LBX 259 17.11. Summary 260 List of Authors 263 Index 267
Series Title: Computer engineering and IT series.
Responsibility: edited by Gil Francopoulo.
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Abstract:

The community responsible for developing lexicons for Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Readable Dictionaries (MRDs) started their ISO standardization activities in 2003. These activities  Read more...

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