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Additional Physical Format: | Online version: Hibben, John Grier, 1861-1933. Logic, deductive and inductive. New York : C. Scribner's, 1923 (OCoLC)614683161 |
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Document Type: | Book |

All Authors / Contributors: |
John Grier Hibben |

OCLC Number: | 3522310 |

Notes: | The author's Inductive logic, published in 1896, is revised and incorporated in this volume. |

Description: | xvi, 439 pages : illustrations ; 19 cm |

Contents: | 1. The nature of thought : Definition and nature of logic ; Thought as reflection ; The four functions of thought ; Concept, judgment, inference ; Logic as a normative science. -- 2. The concept : Relation of identity to diversity in concepts ; The natural history of the concept ; Logical and empirical concepts ; Genetic concepts ; Thought and language . -- 3. The judgment : The essential nature of judgment ; Universal and singular judgments ; Relation of judgment to reality ; The element of necessity in judgment ; The universal element in judgment ; Judgment and language ; Subject, predicate, and copula. -- 4. The universal judgment : The categories of Aristotle ; Heads of predicables ; Various types of judgment ; Extension and intension, denotation and connotation. -- 5. Definition : Nature of definition ; Real and nominal definition ; Rules of definition ; Definition by description ; Definition for purpose of identification ; Genetic definition. -- 6. Division and classification : Nature of division ; Rules of division ; Dichotomy ; Contrary and contradictory ; Trichotomy ; Empirical and logical divisions ; Nature of classification ; Artificial and natural classification ; Serial classification ; Effect of the doctrine of evolution and theory of classification ; Classification of the sciences ; Classifications of Bacon, Comte, and Spencer. -- 7. The singular judgment : Its relation to the universal judgment ; Impersonal, perceptive, and demonstrative judgments ; Determinate reference ; Indeterminate reference ; Judgment concerning a proper name. -- 8. The negative judgment : Nature of the negative judgment ; Its function of exact determination ; Its positive ground ; Significant negation ; Implication in negation ; Infinite negation. -- 9. The categorical, hypothetical, and disjunctive judgments : The nature of each ; Their relation to universal and singular judgments ; Their relation to the progressive stages of knowledge ; Modality of judgments. -- 10. The nature of inference : Logical and psychological elements in inference ; Objective and subjective necessity ; Data of perception ; System as ground of inference ; The implicit and explicit ; Inference mediated through the universal ; Conceptual processes ; Explanation ; Relation of inference to judgment. 11. The laws of thought : The law of identity ; The law of contradiction ; The law of excluded middle ; The law of sufficient reason. -- 12. Immediate inference : Immediate inference, a misnomer ; The processes of implication and transformation ; The square of opposition ; Practical suggestions based on opposition. -- 13. On transformations of judgment forms : Conversion ; Content and form in conversion ; Obversion ; Contraposition. -- 14. A generalization of immediate inferences : Summary of possible transformations ; The A square ; The E square ; The I square ; The O square. -- 15. Mediate inference: the syllogism : Structure and functions of the syllogism ; Distribution of terms ; Rules for criticism of validity of syllogisms ; Modification of these rules in special cases ; Enthymeme ; Prosyllogism, episyllogism, and the sorites. -- 16. Mood and figure : The valid moods ; Figure ; Mnemonic lines ; Reduction. -- 17. The hypothetical and disjunctive syllogisms : Hypothetical syllogism ; Disjunctive syllogism ; Dilemma ; Trilemma. -- 18. Extra-syllogistic reasoning : Reasoning from particulars ; The typical case a disguised universal ; Inference based upon given relations ; Its relation to the underlying system ; The logic of relatives. -- 19. Fallacies : Formal fallacies ; Material fallacies ; Equivocation ; Amphiboly ; Composition ; Division ; Accent ; Figure of speech ; Accident ; Converse accident ; Ignoratio Elenchi ; Non sequitur ; Petitio Principii ; Non causa pro causa ; Many questions. 1. Induction and deduction : Various opinions concerning their relative importance ; Regarded as different phases of one and same process ; Their relation to the ground of inference as system ; Their relation to the universal ; Truth and fact ; Mutual dependence of deduction and induction. -- 2. The essentials of induction : The inductive hazard ; Basal postulate of induction ; Its epistemological nature ; Reduction ; Law and rule ; Law as hypothetical universal ; Induction in practical affairs of life ; Scientific spirit. -- 3. Types of inductive inference : Method of enunciation : Perfect induction ; Incomplete induction ; Probability. Method of analogy ; Method of scientific analysis ; The causal element in these various methods. -- 4. Causation : Phenomenal significance of causal concept ; Philosophical significance ; Logical significance ; Origin of belief in uniformity of nature ; Popular and scientific idea of cause ; Causal analysis ; Limitations of knowledge. -- 5. The method of causal analysis and determination : Sequence ; Concurrence ; Coexistence ; Collocations ; Transfer of energy ; Quantitative determination ; Observation and experiment ; Negative determination ; Pseudo-causal connections. -- 6. Mill's inductive methods: the method of agreement : The five methods ; Agreement ; Symbolical representation ; Variation of instances ; Observation ; Simple enumeration ; Sequence and coexistence ; Criticism of this method ; Agreement as a method of suggestion ; Illustrations. -- 7. The method of difference : Its relation to agreement ; Its characteristic features ; Symbolical representation ; Relation to negative determination ; Difference and combinations ; Criticism of the method ; Practical difficulties ; Illustrations ; Blind experiments. -- 8. The joint method of agreement and difference : Relation to method of difference ; Its characteristics and symbolical representation ; Illustrations ; Advantages of this method. -- 9. The method of concomitant variations : Characteristics and symbolical representation ; Quantitative determination ; Graphical representation ; Advantages in its psychological impressions ; Illustrations ; Comprehension of unknown forces by this method ; Precautions in using this method. 10. The method of residues : Characteristics and symbolical representation ; A deductive method ; Its function suggestive ; Illustrations ; Its practical value. -- 11. Prediction and verification : The inducto-deductive method ; Illustrations ; Bacon's anticipations of nature ; Scientific thought ; Indirect method of prediction ; Exceptional phenomena ; Generalization ; Mathematical method. -- 12. Hypothesis : Its relation to induction ; Illustrations ; Function of the imagination in hypothesis ; Analysis and synthesis ; Requirements of logical hypothesis ; Consilience of inductions ; Experimentum Crucis ; Mill and Whewell controversy. -- 13. Analogy : Analogy and induction ; Natural kinds ; Analogy and classification ; Teleological analogy ; Suggestion the chief function of analogy ; Requirements of true analogy ; Analogy and probability. -- 14. Probability : Probability and causal determination ; Relation to enumerative induction ; Various kinds of inference in sphere of probability ; Coincidence and cause ; Circumstantial evidence ; Probability and method of residues. -- 15. Empirical laws : Various degrees of probability in inference ; Various kinds of empirical laws ; Empirical uniformity resulting from the method of agreement ; Empirical laws and laws of an ultimate nature . -- 16. Inductive fallacies : Errors of perception ; Errors of judgment ; Errors of imagination; Errors of the conceptual processes ; The psychological nature of these fallacies. -- 17. The inductive methods as applied to the various sciences : Method varies with different kinds of phenomena ; Difficulties in method due to complexity of phenomena ; Phenomena of one science interpreted in the light of others ; Deductive method of some sciences replaced by the inductive . -- 18. Historical sketch of induction : Socrates ; Plato ; Aristotle ; Roger Bacon ; Leonardo da Vinci ; Telesius ; Campanella ; The experimental investigators ; Francis Bacon ; Locke ; Newton ; Herschel ; Whewell ; Mill. |

Responsibility: | by John Grier Hibben. |

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