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Lubricants : introduction to properties and performance

Author: Marika Torbacke; Asa Kassman Rudolphi; Elisabet Kassfeldt
Publisher: Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom ; Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2014.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
"Concise, accessible introduction to lubricants for engineers, technicians and researchers who are not experts in lubricant chemistry or tribology. Lubricants: Properties and Performance provides an easy to understand overview of tribology and lubricant chemistry, and bridges the gap between the two areas. The first part of the book is theoretical and provides an introduction to tribological contact, friction, wear
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Torbacke, Marika.
Lubricants.
Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom ; Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2014
(DLC) 2014011498
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Marika Torbacke; Asa Kassman Rudolphi; Elisabet Kassfeldt
ISBN: 9781118799741 1118799747
OCLC Number: 871335531
Notes: Machine generated contents note: Preface xi List of Symbols xiii List of Tables xvii Part One LUBRICANT PROPERTIES 1 Introduction to Tribology 3 1.1 Tribological Contacts 5 1.1.1 Macroscale Contacts 6 1.1.2 Microscale Contacts 8 1.2 Friction 8 1.2.1 The Coefficient of Friction 8 1.2.2 Lubrication Regimes 10 1.3 Wear 12 1.3.1 Wear Rate 13 1.4 Lubrication of the Tribological System 14 1.4.1 The Purposes of Lubricants 14 1.4.2 Reducing Friction and Protecting against Wear 15 1.4.3 Semi-Solid Lubricants 16 1.4.4 Solid Lubricants and Dry Lubricants 16 References 17 2 Lubricant Properties 19 2.1 Performance Properties 20 2.1.1 Viscosity 20 2.1.2 Low and High Temperature Properties of Lubricants 27 2.1.3 Air and Water Entrainment Properties 29 2.1.4 Thermal Properties 32 2.2 Long Life Properties 33 2.2.1 Total Acid Number (TAN) 34 2.2.2 Total Base Number (TBN) 35 2.2.3 Oxidation Stability 35 2.2.4 Hydrolytic Stability 37 2.2.5 Corrosion Inhibition Properties 37 2.3 Environmental Properties 40 2.3.1 Environmentally Adapted Lubricants 40 2.3.2 Market Products with a Reduced Environmental Impact 41 2.4 Summary of Analyses 42 References 44 3 Base Fluids 45 3.1 General Hydrocarbon Chemistry 45 3.2 Base Fluid Categorization 48 3.3 The Refining Process of Crude Oils 50 3.3.1 The Refining Process 51 3.3.2 Influence of the Refining Process on the Oil Properties 52 3.4 Base Fluids Originating from Crude Oil 53 3.4.1 Paraffinic Base Oils 53 3.4.2 Naphthenic Base Oils 53 3.4.3 White Oils 54 3.4.4 Very High Viscosity Index Base Oils 54 3.4.5 Polyalphaolefins 54 3.4.6 Gas-to-Liquid Base Fluids 55 3.4.7 Re-Refined Base Oils 56 3.5 Base Fluids Originating from Renewable Raw Materials 56 3.5.1 Vegetable Oils (Natural Esters) 57 3.5.2 Synthetic Esters 57 3.6 Nonconventional Synthetic Base Fluids 59 3.7 Properties of Base Fluids 59 References 61 4 Additives 63 4.1 Fundamental Concepts and Processes 63 4.1.1 Atoms and Reactions 63 4.1.2 Intermolecular Forces 64 4.1.3 Chemical Potential 66 4.1.4 Surfaces 66 4.1.5 Mass Transfer 67 4.1.6 Adsorption 68 4.1.7 Chemical Characteristics of Surface Active Additives 70 4.2 Additive Exploration 71 4.3 Surface Active Adsorbing Additives 73 4.3.1 Corrosion Inhibitors 73 4.3.2 Friction Modifiers 75 4.3.3 Antiwear Additives 75 4.3.4 Extreme Pressure Additives 76 4.3.5 Activation of Antiwear and Extreme Pressure Additives 77 4.3.6 Competition for Surface Sites by Surface Active Additives 78 4.4 Interfacial Surface Active Additives 79 4.4.1 Defoamers 79 4.4.2 Emulsifiers and Demulsifiers 80 4.5 Physically Bulk Active Additives 81 4.5.1 Viscosity Modifiers 81 4.5.2 Pour Point Depressants 82 4.5.3 Dispersants 84 4.6 Chemically Bulk Active Additives 85 4.6.1 Detergents 85 4.6.2 Antioxidants 87 4.7 Additive Summary 88 References 89 Part Two LUBRICANT PERFORMANCE 5 Formulating Lubricants 93 5.1 General Aspects of Development 93 5.1.1 Formulations 93 5.1.2 Development Work 96 5.1.3 Material Compatibility 96 5.1.4 Miscibility 97 5.1.5 Interactions in a Lubricated Contact 97 5.2 Quality of the Lubricated Tribological Contact 98 5.2.1 Lubricant Film Regime 99 5.2.2 Maintaining a High Quality Contact 101 5.3 Hydraulics 101 5.3.1 Description of a Hydraulic System 101 5.3.2 Formulating Hydraulic Oils 102 5.4 Gears 104 5.4.1 Description of Gears 104 5.4.2 Formulating Gear Oils 105 5.5 Combustion Engines 107 5.5.1 Description of Combustion Engines 107 5.5.2 Formulating Combustion Engine Oils 108 References 110 6 Tribological Test Methods 113 6.1 Field, Bench and Component Tests 113 6.2 Model Tests 115 6.2.1 Strategy for Selecting and Planning a Model Test 115 6.3 Lubricant Film Thickness Measurements 117 6.3.1 Electrical Methods 117 6.3.2 Optical Interferometry Method 118 6.4 Tribological Evaluation in Mixed and Boundary Lubrication 121 6.4.1 The Pin-on-Disc Tribotest 121 6.4.2 The Reciprocating Tribotest 123 6.4.3 The Twin Disc Tribotest 124 6.4.4 The Rotary Tribotest 128 6.5 Selection of Model Tests to Simulate Real Contacts 128 6.5.1 Hydraulics 129 6.5.2 Gears 129 6.5.3 Combustion Engines 131 6.6 Summary of Tribotest Methods 131 References 132 7 Lubricant Characterization 133 7.1 General Characterization Concepts 133 7.1.1 Planning 133 7.1.2 Basic Mixing Theory 134 7.1.3 Sampling 135 7.1.4 Diluting the Sample 136 7.1.5 Collecting Analysis Data 137 7.1.6 Calculations and Evaluation 138 7.2 Condition Analyses of Lubricants 138 7.3 Nonused Oil Characterization 140 7.3.1 Development 140 7.3.2 Production 141 7.3.3 Application Examples 142 7.4 Used Oil Characterization 142 7.4.1 Selection of Analyses 143 7.4.2 Analysis Examples of Selected Applications 144 7.5 Summary of Used Oil Analyses 146 References 148 8 Surface Characterization 149 8.1 Surface Characterization of Real Components 151 8.1.1 Examination of Nonused Surfaces 151 8.1.2 Examination of Used Surfaces 151 8.1.3 Characteristics of Application Examples 152 8.2 Microscopy Techniques 153 8.2.1 Visual Inspection 153 8.2.2 Light Optical Microscopy (LOM) 154 8.2.3 Optical Interference Microscopy 154 8.2.4 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 154 8.2.5 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 155 8.2.6 Focused Ion Beam (FIB) 158 8.2.7 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 159 8.3 Surface Measurement 159 8.3.1 Statistical Surface Parameters 161 8.3.2 Contacting Stylus Profiler 162 8.3.3 Microscopy Techniques 163 8.4 Hardness Measurement 163 8.4.1 Macro and Micro Hardness 163 8.4.2 Nanoindentation 163 8.5 Surface Analysis Techniques 163 8.5.1 Selected Methods 164 8.5.2 Analysis Performance Parameters and Terminology 165 8.5.3 Depth Profiling and Chemical Mapping 167 8.5.4 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) 169 8.5.5 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 170 8.5.6 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 173 8.5.7 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) 176 8.5.8 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy 178 8.6 Summary of Surface Characterization Methods 179 8.6.1 Microscopy and Surface Measurement 179 8.6.2 Surface Analysis 179 References 182 Index 185.
Description: xvii, 191 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: Preface --
List of Symbols --
List of Tables --
Part One LUBRICANT PROPERTIES --
1 Introduction to Tribology --
1.1 Tribological Contacts --
1.1.1 Macroscale Contacts --
1.1.2 Microscale Contacts --
1.2 Friction --
1.2.1 The Coefficient of Friction --
1.2.2 Lubrication Regimes --
1.3 Wear --
1.3.1 Wear Rate --
1.4 Lubrication of the Tribological System --
1.4.1 The Purposes of Lubricants --
1.4.2 Reducing Friction and Protecting against Wear --
1.4.3 Semi-Solid Lubricants --
1.4.4 Solid Lubricants and Dry Lubricants --
References --
2 Lubricant Properties --
2.1 Performance Properties --
2.1.1 Viscosity --
2.1.2 Low and High Temperature Properties of Lubricants --
2.1.3 Air and Water Entrainment Properties --
2.1.4 Thermal Properties --
2.2 Long Life Properties --
2.2.1 Total Acid Number (TAN) --
2.2.2 Total Base Number (TBN) --
2.2.3 Oxidation Stability --
2.2.4 Hydrolytic Stability --
2.2.5 Corrosion Inhibition Properties --
2.3 Environmental Properties --
2.3.1 Environmentally Adapted Lubricants --
2.3.2 Market Products with a Reduced Environmental Impact --
2.4 Summary of Analyses --
References --
3 Base Fluids --
3.1 General Hydrocarbon Chemistry --
3.2 Base Fluid Categorization --
3.3 The Refining Process of Crude Oils --
3.3.1 The Refining Process --
3.3.2 Influence of the Refining Process on the Oil Properties --
3.4 Base Fluids Originating from Crude Oil --
3.4.1 Paraffinic Base Oils --
3.4.2 Naphthenic Base Oils --
3.4.3 White Oils --
3.4.4 Very High Viscosity Index Base Oils --
3.4.5 Polyalphaolefins --
3.4.6 Gas-to-Liquid Base Fluids --
3.4.7 Re-Refined Base Oils --
3.5 Base Fluids Originating from Renewable Raw Materials --
3.5.1 Vegetable Oils (Natural Esters) --
3.5.2 Synthetic Esters --
3.6 Nonconventional Synthetic Base Fluids --
3.7 Properties of Base Fluids --
References --
4 Additives --
4.1 Fundamental Concepts and Processes --
4.1.1 Atoms and Reactions --
4.1.2 Intermolecular Forces --
4.1.3 Chemical Potential --
4.1.4 Surfaces --
4.1.5 Mass Transfer --
4.1.6 Adsorption --
4.1.7 Chemical Characteristics of Surface Active Additives --
4.2 Additive Exploration --
4.3 Surface Active Adsorbing Additives --
4.3.1 Corrosion Inhibitors --
4.3.2 Friction Modifiers --
4.3.3 Antiwear Additives --
4.3.4 Extreme Pressure Additives --
4.3.5 Activation of Antiwear and Extreme Pressure Additives --
4.3.6 Competition for Surface Sites by Surface Active Additives --
4.4 Interfacial Surface Active Additives --
4.4.1 Defoamers --
4.4.2 Emulsifiers and Demulsifiers --
4.5 Physically Bulk Active Additives --
4.5.1 Viscosity Modifiers --
4.5.2 Pour Point Depressants --
4.5.3 Dispersants --
4.6 Chemically Bulk Active Additives --
4.6.1 Detergents --
4.6.2 Antioxidants --
4.7 Additive Summary --
References --
Part Two LUBRICANT PERFORMANCE --
5 Formulating Lubricants --
5.1 General Aspects of Development --
5.1.1 Formulations --
5.1.2 Development Work --
5.1.3 Material Compatibility --
5.1.4 Miscibility --
5.1.5 Interactions in a Lubricated Contact --
5.2 Quality of the Lubricated Tribological Contact --
5.2.1 Lubricant Film Regime --
5.2.2 Maintaining a High Quality Contact --
5.3 Hydraulics --
5.3.1 Description of a Hydraulic System --
5.3.2 Formulating Hydraulic Oils --
5.4 Gears --
5.4.1 Description of Gears --
5.4.2 Formulating Gear Oils --
5.5 Combustion Engines --
5.5.1 Description of Combustion Engines --
5.5.2 Formulating Combustion Engine Oils --
References --
6 Tribological Test Methods --
6.1 Field, Bench and Component Tests --
6.2 Model Tests --
6.2.1 Strategy for Selecting and Planning a Model Test --
6.3 Lubricant Film Thickness Measurements --
6.3.1 Electrical Methods --
6.3.2 Optical Interferometry Method --
6.4 Tribological Evaluation in Mixed and Boundary Lubrication --
6.4.1 The Pin-on-Disc Tribotest --
6.4.2 The Reciprocating Tribotest --
6.4.3 The Twin Disc Tribotest --
6.4.4 The Rotary Tribotest --
6.5 Selection of Model Tests to Simulate Real Contacts --
6.5.1 Hydraulics --
6.5.2 Gears --
6.5.3 Combustion Engines --
6.6 Summary of Tribotest Methods --
References --
7 Lubricant Characterization --
7.1 General Characterization Concepts --
7.1.1 Planning --
7.1.2 Basic Mixing Theory --
7.1.3 Sampling --
7.1.4 Diluting the Sample --
7.1.5 Collecting Analysis Data --
7.1.6 Calculations and Evaluation --
7.2 Condition Analyses of Lubricants --
7.3 Nonused Oil Characterization --
7.3.1 Development --
7.3.2 Production --
7.3.3 Application Examples --
7.4 Used Oil Characterization --
7.4.1 Selection of Analyses --
7.4.2 Analysis Examples of Selected Applications --
7.5 Summary of Used Oil Analyses --
References --
8 Surface Characterization --
8.1 Surface Characterization of Real Components --
8.1.1 Examination of Nonused Surfaces --
8.1.2 Examination of Used Surfaces --
8.1.3 Characteristics of Application Examples --
8.2 Microscopy Techniques --
8.2.1 Visual Inspection --
8.2.2 Light Optical Microscopy (LOM) --
8.2.3 Optical Interference Microscopy --
8.2.4 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) --
8.2.5 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) --
8.2.6 Focused Ion Beam (FIB) --
8.2.7 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) --
8.3 Surface Measurement --
8.3.1 Statistical Surface Parameters --
8.3.2 Contacting Stylus Profiler --
8.3.3 Microscopy Techniques --
8.4 Hardness Measurement --
8.4.1 Macro and Micro Hardness --
8.4.2 Nanoindentation --
8.5 Surface Analysis Techniques --
8.5.1 Selected Methods --
8.5.2 Analysis Performance Parameters and Terminology --
8.5.3 Depth Profiling and Chemical Mapping --
8.5.4 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) --
8.5.5 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) --
8.5.6 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) --
8.5.7 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) --
8.5.8 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy --
8.6 Summary of Surface Characterization Methods --
8.6.1 Microscopy and Surface Measurement --
8.6.2 Surface Analysis --
References --
Index.
Responsibility: Marika Torbacke, Åsa Kassman Rudolphi, Elisabet Kassfeldt.
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Abstract:

Those working with tribology often have a background in mechanical engineering, while people working with lubricant development have a chemistry/chemical engineering background. This means they have  Read more...

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   schema:description "Machine generated contents note: Preface -- List of Symbols -- List of Tables -- Part One LUBRICANT PROPERTIES -- 1 Introduction to Tribology -- 1.1 Tribological Contacts -- 1.1.1 Macroscale Contacts -- 1.1.2 Microscale Contacts -- 1.2 Friction -- 1.2.1 The Coefficient of Friction -- 1.2.2 Lubrication Regimes -- 1.3 Wear -- 1.3.1 Wear Rate -- 1.4 Lubrication of the Tribological System -- 1.4.1 The Purposes of Lubricants -- 1.4.2 Reducing Friction and Protecting against Wear -- 1.4.3 Semi-Solid Lubricants -- 1.4.4 Solid Lubricants and Dry Lubricants -- References -- 2 Lubricant Properties -- 2.1 Performance Properties -- 2.1.1 Viscosity -- 2.1.2 Low and High Temperature Properties of Lubricants -- 2.1.3 Air and Water Entrainment Properties -- 2.1.4 Thermal Properties -- 2.2 Long Life Properties -- 2.2.1 Total Acid Number (TAN) -- 2.2.2 Total Base Number (TBN) -- 2.2.3 Oxidation Stability -- 2.2.4 Hydrolytic Stability -- 2.2.5 Corrosion Inhibition Properties -- 2.3 Environmental Properties -- 2.3.1 Environmentally Adapted Lubricants -- 2.3.2 Market Products with a Reduced Environmental Impact -- 2.4 Summary of Analyses -- References -- 3 Base Fluids -- 3.1 General Hydrocarbon Chemistry -- 3.2 Base Fluid Categorization -- 3.3 The Refining Process of Crude Oils -- 3.3.1 The Refining Process -- 3.3.2 Influence of the Refining Process on the Oil Properties -- 3.4 Base Fluids Originating from Crude Oil -- 3.4.1 Paraffinic Base Oils -- 3.4.2 Naphthenic Base Oils -- 3.4.3 White Oils -- 3.4.4 Very High Viscosity Index Base Oils -- 3.4.5 Polyalphaolefins -- 3.4.6 Gas-to-Liquid Base Fluids -- 3.4.7 Re-Refined Base Oils -- 3.5 Base Fluids Originating from Renewable Raw Materials -- 3.5.1 Vegetable Oils (Natural Esters) -- 3.5.2 Synthetic Esters -- 3.6 Nonconventional Synthetic Base Fluids -- 3.7 Properties of Base Fluids -- References -- 4 Additives -- 4.1 Fundamental Concepts and Processes -- 4.1.1 Atoms and Reactions -- 4.1.2 Intermolecular Forces -- 4.1.3 Chemical Potential -- 4.1.4 Surfaces -- 4.1.5 Mass Transfer -- 4.1.6 Adsorption -- 4.1.7 Chemical Characteristics of Surface Active Additives -- 4.2 Additive Exploration -- 4.3 Surface Active Adsorbing Additives -- 4.3.1 Corrosion Inhibitors -- 4.3.2 Friction Modifiers -- 4.3.3 Antiwear Additives -- 4.3.4 Extreme Pressure Additives -- 4.3.5 Activation of Antiwear and Extreme Pressure Additives -- 4.3.6 Competition for Surface Sites by Surface Active Additives -- 4.4 Interfacial Surface Active Additives -- 4.4.1 Defoamers -- 4.4.2 Emulsifiers and Demulsifiers -- 4.5 Physically Bulk Active Additives -- 4.5.1 Viscosity Modifiers -- 4.5.2 Pour Point Depressants -- 4.5.3 Dispersants -- 4.6 Chemically Bulk Active Additives -- 4.6.1 Detergents -- 4.6.2 Antioxidants -- 4.7 Additive Summary -- References -- Part Two LUBRICANT PERFORMANCE -- 5 Formulating Lubricants -- 5.1 General Aspects of Development -- 5.1.1 Formulations -- 5.1.2 Development Work -- 5.1.3 Material Compatibility -- 5.1.4 Miscibility -- 5.1.5 Interactions in a Lubricated Contact -- 5.2 Quality of the Lubricated Tribological Contact -- 5.2.1 Lubricant Film Regime -- 5.2.2 Maintaining a High Quality Contact -- 5.3 Hydraulics -- 5.3.1 Description of a Hydraulic System -- 5.3.2 Formulating Hydraulic Oils -- 5.4 Gears -- 5.4.1 Description of Gears -- 5.4.2 Formulating Gear Oils -- 5.5 Combustion Engines -- 5.5.1 Description of Combustion Engines -- 5.5.2 Formulating Combustion Engine Oils -- References -- 6 Tribological Test Methods -- 6.1 Field, Bench and Component Tests -- 6.2 Model Tests -- 6.2.1 Strategy for Selecting and Planning a Model Test -- 6.3 Lubricant Film Thickness Measurements -- 6.3.1 Electrical Methods -- 6.3.2 Optical Interferometry Method -- 6.4 Tribological Evaluation in Mixed and Boundary Lubrication -- 6.4.1 The Pin-on-Disc Tribotest -- 6.4.2 The Reciprocating Tribotest -- 6.4.3 The Twin Disc Tribotest -- 6.4.4 The Rotary Tribotest -- 6.5 Selection of Model Tests to Simulate Real Contacts -- 6.5.1 Hydraulics -- 6.5.2 Gears -- 6.5.3 Combustion Engines -- 6.6 Summary of Tribotest Methods -- References -- 7 Lubricant Characterization -- 7.1 General Characterization Concepts -- 7.1.1 Planning -- 7.1.2 Basic Mixing Theory -- 7.1.3 Sampling -- 7.1.4 Diluting the Sample -- 7.1.5 Collecting Analysis Data -- 7.1.6 Calculations and Evaluation -- 7.2 Condition Analyses of Lubricants -- 7.3 Nonused Oil Characterization -- 7.3.1 Development -- 7.3.2 Production -- 7.3.3 Application Examples -- 7.4 Used Oil Characterization -- 7.4.1 Selection of Analyses -- 7.4.2 Analysis Examples of Selected Applications -- 7.5 Summary of Used Oil Analyses -- References -- 8 Surface Characterization -- 8.1 Surface Characterization of Real Components -- 8.1.1 Examination of Nonused Surfaces -- 8.1.2 Examination of Used Surfaces -- 8.1.3 Characteristics of Application Examples -- 8.2 Microscopy Techniques -- 8.2.1 Visual Inspection -- 8.2.2 Light Optical Microscopy (LOM) -- 8.2.3 Optical Interference Microscopy -- 8.2.4 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) -- 8.2.5 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) -- 8.2.6 Focused Ion Beam (FIB) -- 8.2.7 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) -- 8.3 Surface Measurement -- 8.3.1 Statistical Surface Parameters -- 8.3.2 Contacting Stylus Profiler -- 8.3.3 Microscopy Techniques -- 8.4 Hardness Measurement -- 8.4.1 Macro and Micro Hardness -- 8.4.2 Nanoindentation -- 8.5 Surface Analysis Techniques -- 8.5.1 Selected Methods -- 8.5.2 Analysis Performance Parameters and Terminology -- 8.5.3 Depth Profiling and Chemical Mapping -- 8.5.4 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) -- 8.5.5 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) -- 8.5.6 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) -- 8.5.7 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) -- 8.5.8 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy -- 8.6 Summary of Surface Characterization Methods -- 8.6.1 Microscopy and Surface Measurement -- 8.6.2 Surface Analysis -- References -- Index."@en ;
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   schema:description ""Concise, accessible introduction to lubricants for engineers, technicians and researchers who are not experts in lubricant chemistry or tribology. Lubricants: Properties and Performance provides an easy to understand overview of tribology and lubricant chemistry, and bridges the gap between the two areas. The first part of the book is theoretical and provides an introduction to tribological contact, friction, wear and lubrication, as well as the basic concepts regarding properties and the most commonly made analyses on lubricants. Base fluids and their properties and common additives used in lubricants are also covered. The second part of the book is hands-on and introduces the reader to the actual formulations and the evaluation of their performance. Different applications and their corresponding lubricant formulations are considered and tribological test methods are discussed. Finally used oil characterisation and surface characterisation are covered which give the reader an introduction to different methods of characterising used oils and surfaces, respectively. Easy to understand overview of the properties and performance of lubricants Combines chemistry and tribology of lubricants into one unified approach Covers the fundamental theory, describing lubricant properties as well as base fluids and additives Contains practical information on the formulations of lubricants and evaluates their performance Considers applications of lubricants in hydraulics, gears and combustion engines"--"@en ;
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