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Machine design : an integrated approach

Author: Robert L Norton
Publisher: Boston, Mass. ; London : Pearson, ©2011.
Edition/Format:   Print book : CD for computer : Document   Computer File : English : 4th ed., [International ed.]View all editions and formats

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Material Type: Document
Document Type: Book, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Robert L Norton
ISBN: 9780131384385 0131384384 9780132118873 0132118874
OCLC Number: 640070669
Notes: Includes 1 CD-ROM in pocket at front of book.
Previous edition: 2006.
Description: 1055 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm + 1 CD-ROM (4 3/4 in.)
Contents: PART I FUNDAMENTALS 1CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN1.1 Design Machine Design Introduction to Design Machine Iteration 1.2 A Design Process 1.3 Problem Formulation and CalculationDefinition Stage Preliminary Design Stage Detailed Design Stage Documentation Stage 1.4 The Engineering Model Estimation and First-Order Analysis The Engineering Sketch 1.5 Computer-Aided Design and EngineeringComputer-Aided Design (CAD) Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) Computational Accuracy 1.6 The Engineering Report1.7 Factors of Safety and Design Codes Factor of Safety Choosing a Safety Factor Design and Safety Codes 1.8 Statistical Considerations 1.9 Units 1.10 Summary 1.11 References1.12 Web References 1.13 Bibliography 1.14 Problems CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND PROCESSES 2.0 Introduction 2.1 Material-Property Definitions The Tensile Test Ductility and Brittleness The Compression Test The Bending Test The Torsion Test Fatigue Strength and Endurance Limit Impact Resistance Fracture Toughness Creep and Temperature Effects 2.2 The Statistical Nature of Material Properties 2.3 Homogeneity and Isotropy 2.4 Hardness Heat Treatment Surface (Case) HardeningHeat Treating Nonferrous Materials Mechanical Forming and Hardening 2.5 Coatings and Surface Treatments Galvanic Action Electroplating Electroless Plating Anodizing Plasma-Sprayed Coatings Chemical Coatings 2.6 General Properties of Metals Cast Iron Cast Steels Wrought Steels Steel Numbering Systems Aluminum Titanium Magnesium Copper Alloys 2.7 General Properties of Nonmetals Polymers Ceramics Composites 2.8 Selecting Materials 2.9 Summary2.10 References2.11 Web References2.12 Bibliography2.13 Problems CHAPTER 3 LOAD DETERMINATION 3.0 Introduction 3.1 Loading Classes3.2 Free-body Diagrams 3.3 Load AnalysisThree-Dimensional Analysis Two-Dimensional Analysis Static Load Analysis 3.4 Two-Dimensional, Static Loading Case StudiesCase Study 1A Bicycle Brake Lever Loading AnalysisCase Study 2A Hand-Operated Crimping-Tool Loading Analysis Case Study 3A Automobile Scissors-Jack Loading Analysis 3.5 Three-Dimensional, Static Loading Case StudyCase Study 4A Bicycle Brake Arm Loading Analysis 943.6 Dynamic Loading Case Study Case Study 5A Fourbar Linkage Loading Analysis 3.7 Vibration LoadingNatural Frequency Dynamic Forces Case Study 5B Fourbar Linkage Dynamic Loading Measurement 3.8 Impact Loading Energy Method 1073.9 Beam Loading Shear and Moment Singularity Functions Superposition 3.10 Summary 3.11 References3.12 Web References 3.13 Bibliography 3.14 Problems CHAPTER 4 STRESS, STRAIN, AND DEFLECTION4.0 Introduction4.1 Stress 4.2 Strain 4.3 Principal Stresses 4.4 Plane Stress and Plane StrainPlane Stress Plane Strain 4.5 Mohr's Circles4.6 Applied Versus Principal Stresses4.7 Axial Tension x MACHINE DESIGN - An Integrated Approach4.8 Direct Shear Stress, Bearing Stress, and Tearout Direct Shear Direct Bearing Tearout Failure 4.9 Beams and Bending StressesBeams in Pure Bending Shear Due to Transverse Loading 4.10 Deflection in BeamsDeflection by Singularity Functions Statically Indeterminate Beams 4.11 Castigliano's Method Deflection by Castigliano's Method Finding Redundant Reactions with Castigliano's Method 4.12 Torsion 4.13 Combined Stresses4.14 Spring Rates 4.15 Stress ConcentrationStress Concentration Under Static LoadingStress Concentration Under Dynamic Loading Determining Geometric Stress-Concentration Factors Designing to Avoid Stress Concentrations 4.16 Axial Compression - ColumnsSlenderness Ratio Short Columns Long Columns End Conditions Intermediate Columns Eccentric Columns 4.17 Stresses in CylindersThick-Walled Cylinders Thin-Walled Cylinders 4.18 Case Studies in Static Stress and Deflection Analysis Case Study 1B Bicycle Brake Lever Stress and Deflection Analysis Case Study 2B Crimping-Tool Stress and Deflection Analysis Case Study 3B Automobile Scissors-Jack Stress and Deflection Analysis Case Study 4B Bicycle Brake Arm Stress Analysis 4.19 Summary 4.20 References4.21 Bibliography4.22 Problems CHAPTER 5 STATIC FAILURE THEORIES 5.0 Introduction 5.1 Failure of Ductile Materials Under Static Loading The von Mises-Hencky or Distortion-Energy Theory The Maximum Shear-Stress Theory The Maximum Normal-Stress Theory Comparison of Experimental Data with Failure Theories 5.2 Failure of Brittle Materials Under Static LoadingEven and Uneven Materials The Coulomb-Mohr Theory The Modified-Mohr Theory 5.3 Fracture Mechanics Fracture-Mechanics Theory Fracture Toughness Kc 5.4 Using The Static Loading Failure Theories 5.5 Case Studies in Static Failure AnalysisCase Study 1C Bicycle Brake Lever Failure Analysis Case Study 2C Crimping Tool Failure Analysis Case Study 3C Automobile Scissors-Jack Failure Analysis Case Study 4C Bicycle Brake Arm Factors of Safety 5.6 Summary 5.7 References5.8 Bibliography5.9 Problems CHAPTER 6 FATIGUE FAILURE THEORIES 6.0 IntroductionHistory of Fatigue Failure 6.1 Mechanism of Fatigue FailureCrack Initiation Stage Crack Propagation Stage Fracture 6.2 Fatigue-Failure Models Fatigue Regimes The Stress-Life Approach The Strain-Life Approach The LEFM Approach 6.3 Machine-Design Considerations6.4 Fatigue Loads Rotating Machinery Loading Service Equipment Loading 6.5 Measuring Fatigue Failure Criteria Fully Reversed Stresses Combined Mean and Alternating Stress Fracture-Mechanics Criteria Testing Actual Assemblies 6.6 Estimating Fatigue Failure Criteria Estimating the Theoretical Fatigue Strength Sf' or Endurance Limit Se' Correction Factors to the Theoretical Fatigue Strength Calculating the Corrected Fatigue Strength Sf Creating Estimated S-N Diagrams 6.7 Notches and Stress Concentrations Notch Sensitivity 6.8 Residual Stresses6.9 Designing for High-Cycle Fatigue6.10 Designing for Fully Reversed Uniaxial StressesDesign Steps for Fully Reversed Stresses with Uniaxial Loading: 6.11 Designing for Fluctuating Uniaxial StressesCreating the Modified-Goodman Diagram Applying Stress-Concentration Effects with Fluctuating Stresses Determining the Safety Factor with Fluctuating Stresses Design Steps for Fluctuating Stresses 6.12 Designing for Multiaxial Stresses in Fatigue Frequency and Phase Relationships Fully Reversed Simple Multiaxial Stresses Fluctuating Simple Multiaxial Stresses Complex Multiaxial Stresses 6.13 A General Approach to High-Cycle Fatigue Design 6.14 A Case Study in Fatigue DesignCase Study 6 Redesign of a Failed Laybar for a Water-Jet Power Loom 6.15 Summary 6.16 References6.17 Bibliography 6.18 Problems CHAPTER 7 SURFACE FAILURE7.0 Introduction7.1 Surface Geometry 7.2 Mating Surfaces 7.3 Friction Effect of Roughness on Friction Effect of Velocity on Friction Rolling Friction Effect of Lubricant on Friction 7.4 Adhesive Wear The Adhesive-Wear Coefficient 7.5 Abrasive Wear Abrasive Materials Abrasion-Resistant Materials 7.6 Corrosion WearCorrosion Fatigue Fretting Corrosion 7.7 Surface Fatigue7.8 Spherical Contact Contact Pressure and Contact Patch in Spherical Contact 438Static Stress Distributions in Spherical Contact 440Ch 00 4ed Final 12 7/26/09, 5:23 PM7.9 Cylindrical Contact Contact Pressure and Contact Patch in Parallel Cylindrical Contact Static Stress Distributions in Parallel Cylindrical Contact7.10 General Contact Contact Pressure and Contact Patch in General Contact Stress Distributions in General Contact 7.11 Dynamic Contact StressesEffect of a Sliding Component on Contact Stresses 7.12 Surface Fatigue Failure Models-Dynamic Contact7.13 Surface Fatigue Strength 7.14 Summary Designing to Avoid Surface Failure7.15 References7.16 Problems CHAPTER 8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8.0 Introduction Stress and Strain Computation 8.1 Finite Element Method8.2 Element Types Element Dimension and Degree of Freedom (DOF) Element Order H-Elements Versus P-Elements Element Aspect Ratio 8.3 Meshing Mesh Density Mesh Refinement Convergence 8.4 Boundary Conditions 8.5 Applying Loads8.6 Testing the Model 8.7 Modal Analysis8.8 Case Studies Case Study 1D FEA Analysis of a Bicycle Brake Lever Case Study 2D FEA Analysis of a Crimping Tool Case Study 4D FEA Analysis of a Bicycle Brake Arm Case Study 7 FEA Analysis of a Trailer Hitch 8.9 Summary 8.10 References 8.11 Bibliography 8.12 Web Resources8.13 Problems PART II MACHINE DESIGN CHAPTER 9 DESIGN CASE STUDIES9.0 Introduction9.1 Case Study 8a Preliminary Design of a Compressor Drive Train 9.2 Case Study 9a Preliminary Design of a Winch Lift 9.3 Case Study 10a Preliminary Design of a Cam Dynamic Test Fixture9.4 Summary 9.5 References 9.6 Design Projects CHAPTER 10 SHAFTS, KEYS, AND COUPLINGS 10.0 Introduction10.1 Shaft Loads 10.2 Attachments and Stress Concentrations 10.3 Shaft Materials 10.4 Shaft Power10.5 Shaft Loads10.6 Shaft Stresses 10.7 Shaft Failure in Combined Loading10.8 Shaft Design General Considerations Design for Fully Reversed Bending and Steady Torsion Design for Fluctuating Bending and Fluctuating Torsion 10.9 Shaft Deflection Shafts as BeamsShafts as Torsion Bars 10.10 Keys and KeywaysParallel Keys Tapered Keys Woodruff Keys Stresses in Keys Key Materials Key Design Stress Concentrations in Keyways 10.11 Splines 10.12 Interference FitsStresses in Interference Fits Stress Concentration in Interference Fits Fretting Corrosion 10.13 Flywheel DesignEnergy Variation in a Rotating System Determining the Flywheel Inertia Stresses in Flywheels Failure Criteria 10.14 Critical Speeds of Shafts Lateral Vibration of Shafts and Beams-Rayleigh's Method Shaft Whirl Torsional Vibration Two Disks on a Common Shaft Multiple Disks on a Common Shaft Controlling Torsional Vibrations 10.15 CouplingsRigid Couplings 605Compliant Couplings 60610.16 Case StudyCase Study 8B Preliminary Design of Shafts for a Compressor Drive Train 10.17 Summary10.18 References 10.19 Problems CHAPTER 11 BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION11.0 Introduction11.1 Lubricants 11.2 Viscosity11.3 Types of Lubrication Full-Film Lubrication Boundary Lubrication 11.4 Material Combinations in Sliding Bearings 11.5 Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Petroff's Equation for No-Load Torque Reynolds' Equation for Eccentric Journal Bearings Torque and Power Losses in Journal Bearings 11.6 Design of Hydrodynamic Bearings Design Load Factor-The Ocvirk Number Design Procedures 11.7 Nonconforming Contacts 11.8 Rolling-element bearings Comparison of Rolling and Sliding Bearings Types of Rolling-Element Bearings 11.9 Failure of Rolling-element bearings11.10 Selection of Rolling-element bearings Basic Dynamic Load Rating C Modified Bearing Life Rating Basic Static Load Rating C0 Combined Radial and Thrust Loads Calculation Procedures 11.11 Bearing Mounting Details 11.12 Special Bearings 11.13 Case Study Case Study 10b Design of Hydrodynamic Bearings for a Cam Test Fixture 11.14 Summary 11.15 References11.16 Problems CHAPTER 12 SPUR GEARS12.0 Introduction 12.1 Gear Tooth Theory The Fundamental Law of Gearing The Involute Tooth Form Pressure Angle Gear Mesh Geometry Rack and Pinion Changing Center Distance Backlash Relative Tooth Motion 12.2 Gear Tooth Nomenclature 12.3 Interference and UndercuttingUnequal-Addendum Tooth Forms 12.4 Contact Ratio 12.5 Gear TrainsSimple Gear Trains Compound Gear Trains Reverted Compound Trains Epicyclic or Planetary Gear Trains 12.6 Gear Manufacturing Forming Gear Teeth Machining Roughing Processes Finishing Processes Gear Quality 12.7 Loading on Spur Gears 12.8 Stresses in Spur Gears Bending Stresses Surface Stresses 12.9 Gear Materials Material Strengths AGMA Bending-Fatigue Strengths for Gear Materials AGMA Surface-Fatigue Strengths for Gear Materials 12.10 Lubrication of Gearing 12.11 Design of Spur Gears12.12 Case Study Case Study 8C Design of Spur Gears for a Compressor Drive Train 12.13 Summary 12.14 References12.15 Problems CHAPTER 13 HELICAL, BEVEL, AND WORM GEARS 13.0 Introduction 13.1 Helical Gears Helical Gear Geometry Helical-Gear Forces Virtual Number of Teeth Contact Ratios Stresses in Helical Gears 13.2 Bevel GearsBevel-Gear Geometry and Nomenclature Bevel-Gear Mounting Forces on Bevel Gears Stresses in Bevel Gears 13.3 WormsetsMaterials for Wormsets Lubrication in Wormsets Forces in Wormsets Wormset Geometry Rating Methods A Design Procedure for Wormsets 13.4 Case Study Case Study 9B Design of a Wormset Speed Reducer for a Winch Lift 13.5 Summary 13.6 References13.7 Problems CHAPTER 14 SPRING DESIGN 14.0 Introduction 14.1 Spring Rate 14.2 Spring Configurations 14.3 Spring MaterialsSpring Wire Flat Spring Stock 14.4 Helical Compression Springs Spring Lengths End Details Active Coils Spring Index Spring Deflection Spring Rate Stresses in Helical Compression Spring Coils Helical Coil Springs of Nonround Wire Residual Stresses Buckling of Compression Springs Compression-Spring Surge Allowable Strengths for Compression Springs The Torsional-Shear S-N Diagram for Spring Wire The Modified-Goodman Diagram for Spring Wire 14.5 Designing Helical Compression Springs for Static Loading 14.6 Designing Helical Compression Springs for Fatigue Loading 14.7 Helical Extension SpringsActive Coils in Extension Springs Spring Rate of Extension Springs Spring Index of Extension Springs Coil Preload in Extension Springs Deflection of Extension Springs Coil Stresses in Extension Springs End Stresses in Extension Springs Surging in Extension Springs Material Strengths for Extension Springs Design of Helical Extension Springs 14.8 Helical Torsion SpringsTerminology for Torsion Springs Number of Coils in Torsion Springs Deflection of Torsion Springs Spring Rate of Torsion Springs Coil Closure Coil Stresses in Torsion SpringsMaterial Parameters for Torsion Springs Safety Factors for Torsion Springs Designing Helical Torsion Springs 14.9 Belleville Spring Washers Load-Deflection Function for Belleville Washers Stresses in Belleville Washers Static Loading of Belleville Washers Dynamic Loading Stacking Springs Designing Belleville Springs 14.10 Case Studies Case Study 10C Design of a Return Spring for a Cam-Follower Arm 84614.11 Summary 14.12 References 14.13 Problems CHAPTER 15 SCREWS AND FASTENERS 15.0 Introduction 15.1 Standard Thread Forms Tensile Stress Area Standard Thread Dimensions 15.2 Power Screws Square, Acme, and Buttress Threads Power Screw Application Power Screw Force and Torque Analysis Friction Coefficients Self-Locking and Back-Driving of Power Screws Screw Efficiency Ball Screws 15.3 Stresses in Threads Axial Stress Shear Stress Torsional Stress 15.4 Types of Screw FastenersClassification by Intended Use Classification by Thread Type Classification by Head Style Nuts and Washers 15.5 Manufacturing Fasteners 15.6 Strengths of Standard Bolts and Machine Screws 15.7 Preloaded Fasteners in Tension Preloaded Bolts Under Static Loading Preloaded Bolts Under Dynamic Loading 15.8 Determining the Joint Stiffness FactorJoints With Two Plates of the Same Material Joints With Two Plates of Different Materials Gasketed Joints 15.9 Controlling PreloadThe Turn-of-the-Nut Method Torque-Limited Fasteners Load-Indicating Washers Torsional Stress Due to Torquing of Bolts 15.10 Fasteners in Shear Dowel PinsCentroids of Fastener Groups Determining Shear Loads on Fasteners 15.11 Case Study Designing Headbolts for an Air CompressorCase Study 8D Design of the Headbolts for an Air Compressor 15.12 Summary 15.13 References 15.14 Bibliography 15.15 Problems CHAPTER 16 WELDMENTS16.1 Welding Processes Types of Welding in Common Use Why Should a Designer Be Concerned with the Welding Process? 16.2 Weld Joints and Weld Types Joint Preparation Weld Specification 16.3 Principles of Weldment Design 16.4 Static Loading of Welds 16.5 Static Strength of Welds Residual Stresses in Welds Direction of Loading Allowable Shear Stress for Statically Loaded Fillet and PJP Welds 16.6 Dynamic Loading of Welds Effect of Mean Stress on Weldment Fatigue Strength Are Correction Factors Needed For Weldment Fatigue Strength? Effect of Weldment Configuration on Fatigue Strength Is There an Endurance Limit for Weldments? Fatigue Failure in Compression Loading? 16.7 Treating a Weld as a Line16.8 Eccentrically Loaded Weld Patterns16.9 Design Considerations for Weldments in Machines 16.10 Summary 16.11 References16.12 Problems CHAPTER 17 CLUTCHES AND BRAKES17.0 Introduction 17.1 Types of Brakes and Clutches 17.2 Clutch/Brake Selection and Specification17.3 Clutch and Brake Materials 17.4 Disk ClutchesUniform Pressure Uniform Wear 17.5 Disk Brakes17.6 Drum Brakes Short-Shoe External Drum Brakes Long-Shoe External Drum Brakes Long-Shoe Internal Drum Brakes 17.7 Summary 17.8 References 17.9 Bibliography 17.10 Problems APPENDIX A MATERIAL PROPERTIESAPPENDIX B BEAM TABLES APPENDIX C STRESS- CONCENTRATION FACTORS APPENDIX D ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS INDEX
Responsibility: Robert L. Norton.


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"The book's pedagogy is the best and most unique of the available mechanical engineering design texts. In each of the chapters covering a machine design component (Part II sections), there is a Read more...

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