The various aspects of the physical problem - the fire, smoke spread and the effects of fire have been explained. Due to the developments in computer technology, the past decade has seen a steady increase in the engineering research efforts in the development and application of fire models to provide solutions to the analysis of fire and its effects. The various research aspects and the engineering response to fire protection has been analysed by examining the research process associated with the development and application of mathematical modelling and analytical techniques dealing with fire safety engineering. The general research approach of fire models in dealing with ignition, fire and smoke spread have been analysed. The engineering research involved in the deterministic zone and field models have been examined for the various components of fire dynamics and smoke spread. The direction of engineering research in the use of powerful numerical techniques such as finite difference and finite element methods of analyses in fire safety engineering has been brought out. The engineering research involved in the analysis of temperature distribution and structural integrity using the above techniques have been examined.