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Matter and methods at low temperatures

Author: Frank Pobell
Publisher: Berlin ; New York : Springer, ©2007.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : 3rd rev. and expanded edView all editions and formats
Summary:

This textbook contains information essential for successful experiments at low temperatures. It uniquely integrates physics and applications. Low-temperature scientists will find it of great value  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Pobell, Frank, 1937-
Matter and methods at low temperatures.
Berlin ; New York : Springer, ©2007
(DLC) 2006934863
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Frank Pobell
ISBN: 9783540463566 3540463569 9783540463603 3540463607 9786611351403 661135140X
OCLC Number: 122268227
Description: 1 online resource (xv, 461 pages) : illustrations
Contents: Cover --
Contents --
1 Introduction --
2 Properties of Cryoliquids --
2.1 Liquid Air, Liquid Oxygen, Liquid Nitrogen --
2.2 Liquid Hydrogen --
2.3 Liquid Helium --
2.3.1 Some Properties of the Helium Isotopes --
2.3.2 Latent Heat of Evaporation and Vapour Pressure --
2.3.3 Specific Heat --
2.3.4 Transport Properties of Liquid 4 He: Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity --
2.3.5 Superfluid Film Flow --
2.3.6 Liquid 3 He and 3 He -4 He Mixtures at Millikelvin Temperatures --
Problems --
3 Solid Matter at Low Temperatures --
3.1 Specific Heat --
3.1.1 Insulators --
3.1.2 Metals --
3.1.3 Superconducting Metals --
3.1.4 Non-Crystalline Solids --
3.1.5 Magnetic Specific Heat --
3.1.6 The Low-Temperature Specific Heat of Copper and Platinum --
3.1.7 Specific Heat of Some Selected Materials --
3.1.8 Calorimetry or How to Measure Heat Capacities --
3.2 Thermal Expansion --
3.2.1 Thermal Expansion of Solids --
3.2.2 Dilatometers or How to Measure Thermal Expansions --
3.3 Thermal Conductivity --
3.3.1 Lattice Conductivity: Phonons --
3.3.2 Electronic Thermal Conductivity --
3.3.3 Thermal Conductivity at Low Temperatures --
3.3.4 Superconducting Metals --
3.3.5 Relation Between Thermal and Electrical Conductivity: The Wiedemann -Franz Law --
3.3.6 Influence of Impurities on Conductivity --
3.3.7 Thermal Conductivities of Copper, Silver and Aluminum at Low Temperatures --
3.3.8 How to Measure Thermal Conductivities --
3.4 Magnetic Susceptibilities --
3.4.1 Magnetic Susceptibilities of Some Selected Materials --
3.4.2 How to Measure Susceptibilities and Magnetizations --
Problems --
4 Thermal Contact and Thermal Isolation --
4.1 Selection of the Material with the Appropriate Cryogenic Thermal Conductivity --
4.2 Heat Switches --
4.2.1 Gaseous and Mechanical Heat Switches --
4.2.2 Superconducting Heat Switches --
4.3 Thermal Boundary Resistance --
4.3.1 Boundary Resistance Between Metals --
4.3.2 Boundary Resistance Between Liquid Helium and Solids --
Problems --
5 Helium-4 Cryostats and Closed-Cycle Refrigerators --
5.1 Use of Liquid 4 He in Low-Temperature Equipment --
5.1.1 Cool-Down Period --
5.1.2 Running Phase of the Experiment --
5.2 Helium-4 Cryostats --
5.2.1 Double-Walled Glass Dewars --
5.2.2 Metal Dewars --
5.2.3 Cryostats for T>5K --
5.2.4 Cryostats with Variable Temperature for 1 .3K T 4 .2K --
5.2.5 Auxiliary Equipment --
5.3 Closed-Cycle Refrigerators --
5.4 Temperature Control --
Problems --
6 Helium-3 Cryostats --
6.1 Helium-3 Cryostats with External Pumps --
6.2 Helium-3 Cryostats with Internal Adsorption Pumps --
Problems --
7 The 3 He -4 He Dilution Refrigerator --
7.1 Properties of Liquid 3 He -4 HeMixtures --
7.1.1 Phase Diagram and Solubility --
7.1.2 3 He -4 He Mixturesas Fermi Liquids --
7.1.3 Finite Solubility of 3 He in 4 He --
7.1.4 Cooling Power of the Dilution Process --
7.1.5 Osmotic Pressure --
7.2 Realization of a 3 He -4 He Dilution Refrigerator --
7.3 Properties of the Main Components of a 3 He -4 He Dilution Refrigerator --
7.3.1 Mixing Chamber --
7.3.2 Still --
7.3.3 Heat Exchangers --
7.4 Examples of 3 He -4 He Dilution Refrigerators --
Problems --
8 Refrigeration by Solidification of Liquid 3 He: Pomeranchuck Cooling --
8.1 Phase and Entropy Diagrams of 3 H.
Responsibility: Frank Pobell.
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