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Mechanical measurements

Author: T G Beckwith; Roy D Marangoni; John H Lienhard
Publisher: Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, ©1993.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : 5th edView all editions and formats

With an emphasis on precision and clarity, this fifth edition covers fundamental issues common to all areas of measurement in Part One, followed by individual chapters on applied areas of measurement  Read more...


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Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Beckwith, T.G. (Thomas G.).
Mechanical measurements.
Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, ©1993
(DLC) 92023515
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: T G Beckwith; Roy D Marangoni; John H Lienhard
OCLC Number: 623331530
Reproduction Notes: Electronic reproduction. [S.l.] : HathiTrust Digital Library, 2010. MiAaHDL
Description: 1 online resource (xix, 876 pages) : illustrations
Details: Master and use copy. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Digital Library Federation, December 2002.
Contents: (NOTE: Most chapters begin with an Introduction and end with a Summary, Final Remarks, Suggested Readings, Problems, and References).I. FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICAL MEASUREMENT. 1. The Process of Measurement: An Overview. The significance of mechanical measurement. Fundamental methods of measurement. The generalized measuring system. Types of input quantities. Measurement standards. Calibration. Uncertainty: accuracy of results. Reporting results.2. Standards and Dimensional Units of Measurement. Establishment of dimensional standards. Historical background of measurement standards in the United States. The SI system. The standard of length. The standard of mass. Time and frequency standards. Temperature standards. Electrical standards. Conversion between systems of units. Significant digits, rounding, and truncation.3. Assessing and Presenting Experimental Data. Common types of error. Introduction to uncertainty. Estimation of precision uncertainty. Theory based on the population. Theory based on the sample. Goodness of fit. Statistical analysis by computer. Bias and single-sample uncertainty. Propagation of uncertainty. Examples of uncertainty analysis. Minimizing error in designing experiments. The Chi-Squared (x2) distribution. Graphical presentation of data. Line fitting and the method of least squares.4. The Analog Measurand: Time-Dependent Characteristics. Simple harmonic relations. Circular and cyclic frequency. Complex relations. Frequency spectrum. Harmonic, or Fourier, Analysis. Amplitudes of waveforms.5. The Response of Measuring Systems. Amplitude response. Frequency response. Phase response. Predicting performance for complex waveforms. Delay, rise time, and slew rate. Response of experimental system elements. Simplified physical systems. Mechanical elements. An example of a simple mechanical system. The importance of damping. Dynamic characteristics of simplified mechanical systems. Single-degree-of-freedom spring-mass damper systems. The zero-order system. Characteristics of first-order systems. Characteristics of second-order systems. Electrical elements. First-order electrical system. Simple second-order electrical system. Calibration of system response.6. Sensors. Loading of the signal source. The secondary transducer. Classification of first-stage devices. Variable-resistance transducer elements. Sliding-contact devices. The resistance strain gage. Thermistors. The termocouple. Variable-inductance transducer elements. The differential transformer. Variable-reluctance transducers. Capacitive transducers. Piezoelectric sensors. Semiconductor sensors. Light-detecting transducers. Hall-effect sensors. Some design-related problems.7. Signal Conditioning. Advantages of electrical signal conditioning. Modulated and unmodulated signals. Input circuitry. The simple current-sensitive circuit. The ballast circuit. Voltage-dividing circuits. Small changes in transducer resistance. Resistance bridges. Reactance or impedance bridges. Resonant circuits. Electronic amplification or gain. Electronic amplifiers. Vacuum-tube amplifiers. Solid-state amplifiers. Integrated circuits. Operational amplifiers. Special amplifier circuits. Shielding and grounding. Filters. Some filter theory. Active filters. Differentiators and integrators. Component coupling methods.8. Digital Techniques in Mechanical Measurements. Why use digital methods? Digitizing mechanical inputs. Fundamental digital circuit elements. Number systems. Binary codes. Some simple digital circuitry. The digital computer as a measurement system tool. Data processors, computers, microcomputers: the computer hierarchy. The microprocessor. The microcomputer. Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion. Buses. Getting it all together.9. Readout and Data Processing. The electronic counter. Analog electric meter indicators. Meters with electronic amplification. Digital-readout multimeters. The cathode-ray oscilloscope (CRO). Additional CRO features. CRO recording techniques. Oscillographs. XY plotters. Digital waveform recorders. The spectrum analyzer.II. APPLIED MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS. 10. Determination of Count, Events per Unit Time, and Time Interval. Use of counters. The stroboscope. Frequency standards. Direct application of frequency standards by comparative methods. Use of Lissajous diagrams for determination of frequency and phase relations. Calibration of frequency sources. The Heterodyne method of frequency measurement. Measurement of angular motion.11. Displacement and Dimensional Measurement. A problem in dimensional measurement. Gage blocks. Assembling gage blocks stacks. Surface plates. Temperature problems. Use of gage blocks with special accessories. Use of comparators. Optical methods. Monochromatic light. Optical flats. Applications of monochromatic light and optical flats. Use of optical flats and monochromatic light for dimensional comparison. The interferometer. Measuring microscopes. Optical tooling and long-path interferometry. Whole-field displacement measurement. Displacement transducers. The differential transformer. Surface roughness.12. Strain and Stress: Measurement and Analysis. Strain measurement. The electrical resistance strain gage. The metallic resistance strain gage. Selection and installation factors for bonded metallic strain gages. Circuitry for the metallic strain gage. The strain-gage ballast circuit. The strain-gage bridge circuit. The simple constant-current strain-gage circuit. Temperature compensation. Calibration. Commercially available strain-measuring systems. Strain-gage switching. Use of strain gages on rotating shafts. Stress-strain relationships. Gage orientation and interpretation of results. Special problems. Whole-field methods.13. Measurement of Force and Torque. Measuring methods. Mechanical weighing systems. Elastic transducers. Strain-gage load cells. Piezoelectric load cells. Ballistic weighing. Hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Torque measurement. Transmission dynamometers.14. Measurement of Pressure. Static and dynamic pressures. Pressure-measuring systems. Pressure-measuring transducers. Gravitational-type transducers. Elastic-type transducers. Elastic diaphragms. Secondary transducers used with diaphragms. Strain-gage pressure cells. Measurement of high pressure. Measurement of low pressure. Dynamic characteristics of pressure-measuring systems. Calibration methods.15. Measurement of Fluid Flow. Flow characteristics. Obstruction meters. Obstruction meters for compressible fluids. Predictability of obstruction meter performance. The variable-area meter. Additional flowmeters. Measurements of fluid velocities. Pressure probes. Thermal anemometry. Scattering measurements. Calibration of flow-measuring devices. Flow visualization.16. Temperature Measurements. Use of bimaterials. Pressure thermometers. Thermoresistive elements. Thermocouples. Semiconductor-junction temperature sensors. The linear-quartz thermometer. Pyrometry. Other methods of temperature indication. Special problems. Measurement of heat flux. Calibration of temperature-measuring devices.17. Measurement of Motion. Vibrometers and accelerometers. Elementary vibrometers and vibration detectors. Elementary accelerometers. The seismic instrument. General theory of the seismic instrument. The seismic accelerometer. Practical accelerometers. Calibration. Calibration of vibrometers. Calibration of accelerometers. Determination of natural frequency and damping ratio in a seismic instrument Response of the seismic instrument transients. Measurement of velocity by the laser velocity transducer. Vibration and shock testing. Vibrational exciter systems. Vibration test methods. Shock testing. Shock rigs. Practical shock testing. Elementary shock-testing theory.18. Acoustical Measurements. Characterization of sound (noise). Basic acoustical parameters. Psychoacoustic relationships. Sound-measuring apparatus and techniques. Applied spectrum analysis. Measurement and interpretation of industrial and environmental noise. Notes on some practical aspects of sound measurements. Calibration methods.Appendix A: Standards and Conversion Equations. Appendix B: Theoretical Basis for Fourier Analysis. Appendix C: Number Systems. Appendix D: Some Useful Data. Appendix E: Stress and Strain Relationships. Appendix F: Pseudorandom Normally Distributed Numbers. Appendix G: Statistical Tests of Least-Squares Fits. References. Answers to Selected Problems. Index.
Responsibility: Thomas G. Beckwith, Roy D. Marangoni, John H. Lienhard V.


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