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Media and the American child

Author: George Comstock; Erica Scharrer; George A Comstock
Publisher: Amsterdam ; Boston : Elsevier, ©2007.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : [Rev. ed.]View all editions and formats
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Summarizes the research on the various forms of media on children. This title looks at how much time they spend with media everyday, television programming and its impact on children, and how  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: George Comstock; Erica Scharrer; George A Comstock
ISBN: 0123725429 9780123725424
OCLC Number: 123527385
Notes: "Revised ed. of the first author's Television and the American child (Academic Press, 1991)"--Page xii.
Description: xiv, 373 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: ch. I. Demographics and preferences in media use, with special attention to the very young --
I. Media exposure : print --
A. Use of print media --
B. Demographic variables that impact use of print media --
C. Print preferences among children and teenagers --
D. Print use and preferences of the very young --
II. Media exposure : audio --
A. Use of audio media --
B. Demographic differences in audio use --
C. Audio preferences of children and teenagers --
D. Audio use and preferences of the very young --
III. Media exposure : screen --
A. Television exposure --
B. Demographic differences in television use --
C. Viewing preferences among children and teenagers --
D. Television viewing by the very young --
IV. Media exposure : interactive media --
A. Use of interactive media by young people --
B. Interactive media use and demographics --
C. Preferences in interactive media by children and teens --
D. Interactive media use by the very young --
V. Putting it all together --
A. Total time spent with each type of media --
B. How time spent using media is divided --
C. Prevalence of media in the home --
1. The media environment --
2. Media use in the bedroom --
D. Orientation toward media --
1. Rules and norms of media use in the home --
2. Typology of media behavior among young people. ch. II. The extraordinary appeal of screen media --
I. Purpose and motives of television viewing --
A. Ritualistic versus instrumental viewing --
B. Gratifications for viewing --
II. Modes of response --
A. Content indifference --
B. Low involvement --
C. Monitoring less versus viewing --
D. Equilibrium : understanding versus inattention --
III. Development factors that influence viewing --
A. Viewing preferences of children and teenagers --
1. Three-phase model --
2. Cognitive stages and media use --
3. Gender, race, and socioeconomic status --
4. Perceptual filters --
B. Reactions to the screen --
1. Fright --
2. Maturity of the viewer --
IV. The influence of viewing on other activities --
A. Introduction of television --
B. contemporary use of television viewing --
1. Realities of television viewing --
2. The effect of viewing on leisure activities --
3. Suppression of viewing --
4. Recent data regarding viewing trends --
V. Social circumstances of television viewing. ch. III. The world as portrayed by media --
I. Media content --
II. Studying the attributes of television characters --
A. gender representation --
1. Gender disparity in television and film --
2. Gender bias in video and computer games --
B. Race and ethnicity in media --
C. Age distribution in primetime programming --
D. Characters with disabilities --
E. Depiction of sexual orientation --
F. Beauty and body images in media --
III. Behavior of media characters --
A. Violence and aggression --
1. Presence of violence in general audience television --
2. Violence in commercials --
3. Violence in children's television --
4. Violence in children's films --
5. Violence in video and computer games --
B. Prosocial behavior in media --
C. Prevalence of alcohol and tobacco in media --
D. Influence of food and beverages in media --
E. Exposure to sex and profane language in media --
IV. Two worlds of content : for the very young versus the general audience. ch. IV. Effects of media on scholastic performance and the developing intellect --
I. Effects of television viewing on scholastic performance --
A. The studies --
B. Explanations of television's impact on academic performance --
1. The effects of television on homework --
2. The effects of television on reading and mental effort --
3. The effects of television on attention and arousal --
4. The learning hypothesis --
C. Caveats and corollaries --
1. Caveats --
2. Corollaries --
II. Exposure to educational television --
A. Setting the stage --
B. Sesame Street : a pioneer in children's programming --
1. Academic effects of Sesame Street --
2. Prosocial effects of Sesame Street --
C. Other educational television programs --
1. Mister Roger's Neighborhood --
2. Blues' Clues --
3. Barney and Friends --
D. Concepts, models, and theory of television viewing --
1. Attention and comprehension --
2. Properties of attention --
3. Very young children and the impact of television --
4. The capacity model --
5. Our interpretation of the studies --
III. Television's influence on the developing intellect of the child --
A. Fantasy play and daydreaming --
1. Fantasy play --
2. Daydreaming --
B. Television's effect on creativity and imaginative thinking --
C. Television's effect on language acquisition --
IV. The effect of media on cognitive and social development. ch. V. Young customers : creating the modern consumer through advertising and marketing --
I. Evolution of the issue of television advertising --
A. Public displeasure of advertising in primetime programming --
B. NSF and FTC --
II. The evidentiary record --
A. Points of contention --
1. Recognition and comprehension of advertising --
2. Harmfulness of advertising to young viewers --
3. The effect of advertising on parent-child relations --
4. Should advertising drive programming? --
5. Does advertising take advantage of program content? --
B. Evidence of the effects of television advertising --
1. Recognizing, comprehending, and evaluating commercials --
2. Accepting the message of a commercial --
3. Exchanges between parent and child --
III. The buying machine --
A. The influence of other media --
B. The latent role of children as consumers --
C. The nag factor --
IV. Consideration of cognitive development in advertising --
A. The boundary of comprehension --
B. The child and teenage marketplace --
C. The scholarly view of the influence of advertising. ch. VI. Television violence, aggression, and other behavioral effects --
I. Evidence of increased aggressiveness caused by television violence --
A. Experiments with young children --
B. Experiments with teenagers and young adults --
C. Using surveys for causal inference --
D. Meta-analyses --
E. The role of mediating factors --
1. Developmental pattern --
2. Predisposition to aggressive or violent behavior --
3. Does gender play a role? --
4. Seriousness of aggressive or violent acts --
5. Effect size --
II. Reverse hypothesis : do aggressive personalities seek out violent entertainment? --
III. Explanation of the influence of violence in television and film --
A. Social cognition --
B. Neoassociationism and neural circuitry --
E. Excitation transfer --
D. General aggression model --
IV. The effects of violence in video games --
V. Other hypotheses regarding media influence --
A. Fear --
B. Desensitization --
C. Cultivation --
D. Sexual activity --
VI. Generalizability from experimental designs. ch. VII. Learning rules and norms : further evidence of media effects --
I. Roles and norms as influenced by media --
A. Politics --
1. Autonomy in the development of political dispositions --
2. School --
3. Participation in the political process --
B. The impact of gender differences --
1. Gender differences in politics --
2. Gender-biased roles --
3. Gender bias in occupational roles --
C. Media's influence on physical presence --
1. The importance of appearance in early and middle childhood --
2. The importance of appearance in adolescence --
II. Theoretical explanations for how and why media contribute to socialization --
A. The role of social comparison --
1. Case study --
B. The role of social identity --
1. Case study --
C. The role of social cognition --
1. Case study --
D. The role of cultivation --
1. Case study. ch. VIII. Knowledge for what? --
I. Using the social and behavioral sciences --
II. The actors that influence the role of media --
A. The role of federal regulation --
B. The role of industries --
C. The role of parents --
III. Where the data point --
A. Media use --
1. Early media use --
2. Media use in isolation --
3. Media in use apart from family --
4. Preference for screen media --
B. Data on television viewing --
C. Messages disseminated by media --
D. Converting young people to customers --
E. The effect of viewing on academic achievement --
F. Influence of screen media on behavior --
G. Socialization --
IV. The three M's : strategies to encourage a critical stance.
Responsibility: George Comstock and Erica Scharrer.

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