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Methods for environmental trace analysis

Author: John R Dean
Publisher: Chichester, West Sussex, England ; Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, ©2003.
Series: Analytical techniques in the sciences.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
'Provides the basic skills and information required to prepare an environmental sample for analysis. Divided into two sections, i.e. Inorganic Analysis and Organic Analysis, this book covers selected techniques, principally atomic spectroscopy and chromatography. Using flow diagrams to augment the experimental information, it highlights the most appropriate methods and the likely results. · Detailed experimental  Read more...
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Dean, John R.
Methods for environmental trace analysis.
Chichester, West Sussex, England ; Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, ©2003
(OCoLC)606936239
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: John R Dean
ISBN: 0470844213 9780470844212 0470844221 9780470844229
OCLC Number: 50403704
Description: xxii, 259 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm.
Contents: 1 Basic Laboratory Skills 1 --
1.2 Safety Aspects 1 --
1.3 Recording of Practical Results 3 --
1.4 Units 3 --
1.5 Sample Handling: Liquids 5 --
1.6 Sample Handling: Solids 5 --
1.7 Preparing Solutions for Quantitative Work 6 --
1.8 Presentation of Data: Tables 6 --
1.9 Presentation of Data: Graphs 7 --
1.10 Calculations: Dilution Factors 9 --
2 Investigative Approach for Sample Preparation 13 --
2.2 Quality Assurance 14 --
3 Sampling 27 --
3.2 Sampling Methods 29 --
3.3 Number of Samples 30 --
3.4 Sampling Soil and Sediment 31 --
3.5 Sampling Water 34 --
3.6 Sampling Air 37 --
4 Storage of Samples 39 --
4.2 Methods 40 --
Sample Preparation for Inorganic Analysis 47 --
5 Solids 49 --
5.2 Decomposition Techniques 50 --
5.3 Dry Ashing 50 --
5.4 Acid Digestion (including the Use of Microwaves) 51 --
5.4.1 Microwave Digestion 55 --
5.4.2 Microwave Digestion Procedure 61 --
5.4.3 Fusion 64 --
5.5 Speciation Studies 65 --
5.6 Selected Examples of Metal Speciation 66 --
5.6.1 Mercury 66 --
5.6.2 Tin 69 --
5.6.3 Arsenic 70 --
5.6.4 Chromium 75 --
5.7 Selective Extraction Methods 76 --
5.7.1 Plant Uptake Studies 76 --
5.7.2 Soil Pollution Studies 76 --
5.7.3 Single Extraction Procedures 78 --
5.7.4 Sequential Extraction Procedure 83 --
5.7.5 Food Studies 88 --
5.8 Case Studies on Total and Selective Methods of Metal Analysis 92 --
5.8.1 Example 5.1: Total Metal Analysis of Soil, followed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 92 --
5.8.2 Example 5.2: Total Metal Analysis of Soil Using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy --
Comparison with Acid Digestion (Method 3050B), followed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 93 --
5.8.3 Example 5.3: Sequential Metal Analysis of Soils, followed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 94 --
6 Liquids --
Natural and Waste Waters 99 --
6.2 Liquid-Liquid Extraction 100 --
6.3 Ion-Exchange 103 --
6.4 Co-Precipitation 104 --
Sample Preparation for Organic Analysis 107 --
7 Solids 109 --
7.2 Soxhlet Extraction 110 --
7.2.1 Example 7.1: Soxhlet Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soil 113 --
7.3 Shake-Flask Extraction 114 --
7.3.1 Example 7.2: Shake-Flask Extraction of Phenols from Contaminated Soil 115 --
7.4 Ultrasonic Extraction 116 --
7.5 Supercritical Fluid Extraction 118 --
7.5.1 Instrumentation 120 --
7.5.2 Example 7.3: Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides from Contaminated Soil and 'Celite' 122 --
7.6 Microwave-Assisted Extraction 124 --
7.6.1 Instrumentation 124 --
7.6.2 Example 7.4: Atmospheric Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soil 126 --
7.6.3 Example 7.5: Pressurized Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soil 128 --
7.7 Pressurized Fluid Extraction 129 --
7.7.1 Instrumentation 130 --
7.7.2 Example 7.6: Pressurized Fluid Extraction of DDT, DDD and DDE from Contaminated Soil 133 --
7.8 Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion 135 --
7.8.1 Example 7.7: Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion of an Alcohol Ethoxylate (Lutensol, C13 and C15, with an Average Ethoxy Chain of EO7), Spiked onto an Homogenized Fish Tissue 135 --
8 Liquids 141 --
8.1 Liquid-Liquid Extraction 141 --
8.2 Solvent Extraction 142 --
8.2.1 Example 8.1: Liquid-Liquid Extraction of various Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Water 145 --
8.3 Solid-Phase Extraction 147 --
8.3.1 Types of SPE Media 148 --
8.3.2 Cartridge or Disc Format 149 --
8.3.3 Method of SPE Operation 152 --
8.3.4 Solvent Selection 154 --
8.3.5 Factors Affecting SPE 155 --
8.3.6 Example 8.2: Solid-Phase Extraction of various Phenols from Water 156 --
8.4 Solid-Phase Microextraction 158 --
8.4.1 Experimental 159 --
8.4.2 Example 8.3: Solid-Phase Microextraction of BTEX from Water 160 --
9 Volatile Compounds 165 --
9.2 Thermal Desorption 165 --
9.3 Purge-and-Trap 168 --
9.3.1 Example 9.1: Purge-and-Trap Extraction of BTEX from Water 169 --
10 Pre-Concentration Using Solvent Evaporation 173 --
10.2 Rotary Evaporation 174 --
10.3 Kuderna-Danish Evaporative Concentration 175 --
10.4 Automated Evaporative Concentration System 176 --
10.5 Gas 'Blow-Down' 176 --
11 Instrumental Techniques for Trace Analysis 183 --
11.2 Environmental Organic Analysis 185 --
11.2.1 Chromatographic Techniques 185 --
11.2.2 Other Techniques 191 --
11.3 Environmental Inorganic Analysis 192 --
11.3.1 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 192 --
11.3.2 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy 198 --
11.3.3 Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry 201 --
11.3.4 Other Techniques 203 --
12 Recording of Information in the Laboratory and Selected Resources 207 --
12.1 Recording of Information 207 --
12.1.2 Examples of Data Sheets 209 --
SI Units and Physical Constants 251.
Series Title: Analytical techniques in the sciences.
Responsibility: John R. Dean.
More information:

Abstract:

Provides the basic skills and information required to prepare an environmental sample for analysis. Divided into two sections, Inorganic Analysis and Organic Analysis, this book covers techniques  Read more...

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"...covers one of the most neglected areas in environmental trace analysis, namely that of sample preparation." (Environment Times , January 2003) "...covers one of the most neglected areas in Read more...

 
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