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The Migration Period, Pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia

Publisher: University of Tartu Press 2012
Series: Estonian archaeology, 4.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
This book analyses the society, economy, settlement, and culture of the territory of present-day Estonia in the period of ca AD 450-1050. This period is known in the Estonian archaeological chronology as the Migration Period, the Pre-Viking Age, and the Viking Age. This was an era of rapid change, by the end of which traditional Estonian peasant culture as it is known until the 19th century had developed. Whereas in  Read more...
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Additional Physical Format: Also issued in Print:
Tvauri, Andres (1970- ).
migration period, pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia.
Tartu : Tartu University Press, cop. 2012
(OCoLC)804767598
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
ISBN: 9789949199365 9949199360
OCLC Number: 821538785
Language Note: English
Description: 1 electronic resource (384 pages) illustrations, maps.
Contents: 1: Historical and Natural Background --
Early medieval Europe --
Written references to Estonian territory --
Icelandic sagas --
Scandinavian rune stones --
Latin and East Slavonic chronicles --
Summary --
Changes in natural conditions --
Climate change --
Neotectonic uplift --
3: Settlements and Households --
Forts and settlement sites --
The distribution and typology of forts --
Migration Period forts --
Pre-Viking Age and Viking Age forts --
The fortifications of forts --
Fort-and-settlement centres --
The fort and settlement of Jur'ev in Tartu --
Valgjärv lake settlement --
Other settlements --
Buildings --
Household tools and everyday items --
Grinding stones --
Pottery --
Iru-type pottery --
Rõuge-type pottery --
Rare handmade pottery --
Slavic-type wheel-thrown earthenware --
Metal vessels --
Vessels made of wood or bark --
Lid of a small antler box --
Wooden hook --
Fire-making devices --
Knives --
Whetstones --
Combs --
Tweezers --
Locks and keys --
Nails --
3: Main Sources of Sustenance --
Land cultivation --
Remains of fields --
Agricultural tools --
Hoe blades --
Ard-shares --
Scythe-knives and scythes --
Sickles --
Palaeobotanical data --
Cattle raising --
Hunting, fishing, and forest produce --
Hunting and fishing tools --
Bones of wild animals and fish --
Forest produce --
4: Handicrafts and Early Industry --
Production sites --
Iron production sites --
Smelting sites for non-ferrous metals --
Production sites for clay pottery --
Residues and unfinished pieces of bone working --
Tools for handicrafts --
Smithing tools --
Equipment for non-ferrous metal working --
Leatherworking tools --
Axes and other woodworking tools --
Textile tools --
Other handicraft tools --
Jewellery and clothing --
Jewellery --
Brooches --
Pins --
Small bronze pins --
Breast chains and components thereof --
Beads --
Pendants --
Neck rings --
Bracelets --
Finger rings --
Belts and components thereof --
Buckles --
Belt distributors, loops, ends, and fastening plates --
Mounts --
Chatelaine chains --
Knife sheaths --
Agraffes --
Textile finds and clothing --
Development and regional features in jewellery fashion --
Weapons and riding gear --
Weapons --
Swords and sword components --
Seaxes --
Scabbard fittings --
Spearheads --
Arrowheads --
Shield parts --
Riding gear --
Bridle parts --
Stirrups --
Spurs --
Development of weaponry --
Production volumes and organization --
5: Trade and Exchange --
Trade space of northern Europe --
Economic hoards --
Concept of 'hoard' and its varieties --
Economic hoards consisting of jewellery or jewellery and weapons --
Distribution and find context of coin hoards --
Composition of coin hoards --
Use of silver as currency --
Goods --
Domestic trade --
Imported goods --
Exported goods --
Trading --
Traders --
Trade relations --
Places and times of trading --
Means of transport and roads --
Boat and ship remains --
Harbours and landing places --
Roads and traffic on inland bodies of water --
Draught animals and implements --
6: Burial Practices and Religion --
Graves --
Re-use of tarand and stone-cist graves --
Cairn graves and stone grave-fields --
Cremation burials surrounded with a stone circle --
Underground cremation burials --
Cremation barrows --
Cremation sites --
Boat burials --
Mortuary houses --
Underground inhumation burials --
Number and distribution of graves --
Animal bones in graves --
Grave goods and other objects in graves --
Votive deposits --
Votive deposits of weapons and tools --
Votive deposits of jewellery --
Motives of depositing and sacrifice --
Religious objects --
Religious beliefs --
7: Land and People --
Population size --
Settlement units --
Social stratification --
Lifestyle of the elite --
Centres and regions of power --
Regional differences within Estonia --
Summary --
General Conclusions.
Series Title: Estonian archaeology, 4.

Abstract:

This book analyses the society, economy, settlement, and culture of the territory of present-day Estonia in the period of ca AD 450-1050. This period is known in the Estonian archaeological chronology as the Migration Period, the Pre-Viking Age, and the Viking Age. This was an era of rapid change, by the end of which traditional Estonian peasant culture as it is known until the 19th century had developed. Whereas in Western Europe written sources from the second half of the first millennium AD herald the arrival of the Middle Ages, there is an almost complete absence of written information about the prevailing conditions and events that took place in the area of present-day Estonia. There are only remains of the farms and fortresses of that time beneath the earth, as well as cemeteries, overgrown field baulks and clearance cairns, and the large amount of excavated ancient objects or fragments thereof. Many aspects of prehistoric life cannot be researched because the source material is not extant and there is no hope of finding it. Moreover, many phenomena of human life do not generate archaeological source material. Thus our overall understanding of the Estonian Middle Iron Age and the Viking Age is inevitably fragmentary and superficial.

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