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The mismeasure of man

Auteur : Stephen Jay Gould
Éditeur : New York : Norton, ©1996.
Édition/format :   Livre : Anglais : Rev. and expandedVoir toutes les éditions et les formats
Base de données :WorldCat
Résumé :
This book was immediately hailed as a masterwork when first published in 1981, the answer to those who would rank people according to their supposed genetic gifts and limits. And yet the idea of innate limits--of biology as destiny--dies hard, as witness the attention devoted to "The Bell Curve," whose arguments are here so effectively anticipated and thoroughly undermined by biologist Gould. In this revised  Lire la suite...
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Genre/forme : History
Format : Livre
Tous les auteurs / collaborateurs : Stephen Jay Gould
ISBN : 0393039722 9780393039726 0393314251 9780393314250
Numéro OCLC : 33276490
Description : 444 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Contenu : Introduction to the revised and expanded edition : thoughts at age fifteen --
The frame of The Mismeasure of man --
Why revise The Mismeasure of man after fifteen years? --
Reasons, history and revision of The Mismeasure of man --
I. Introduction --
2. American polygeny and craniometry before Darwin : Blacks and Indians as separate, inferior species --
A shared context of culture --
Preevolutionary styles of scientific racism : monogenism and polygenism --
Louis Agassiz, America's theorist of polygeny --
Samuel George Morton, empiricist of polygeny --
The case of Indian inferiority : Crania Americana --
The case of the Egyptian catacombs : Crania Aegyptiaca --
The case of the shifting Black mean --
The final tabulation of 1849 --
Conclusions --
The American school and slavery --
3. Measuring heads : Paul Broca and the heyday of craniology --
The allure of numbers --
Introduction --
Francis Galton, apostle of quantification --
A curtain-raiser with a moral : numbers do not guarantee truth --
Masters of cranimoetry : Paul Broca and his school --
The great circle route --
Selecting characters --
Averting anomalies --
Big-brained Germans --
Small-brained men of eminence --
Large-brained criminals --
Flaws in a pattern of increase through time --
Front and back --
The cranial index --
The case of the foramen magnum --
Women's brains --
Postscript --
4. Measuring bodies : two case studies on the apishness of undesirables --
The ape in all of us : recapitulation --
The ape in some of us : criminal anthropology --
Atavism and criminality --
Animals and savages as born criminals --
The stigmata : anatomical, physiological, and social --
Lombroso's retreat --
The influence of criminal anthropology --
Coda --
Epilogue --
5. The hereditarian theory of IQ : an American invention --
Alfred Binet and the original purposes of the Binet scale --
Binet flirts with craniometry --
Binet's scale and the birth of IQ --
The dismantling of Binet's intentions in America --
H.H. Goddard and the menace of the feeble-minded --
Intelligence as a Mendelian gene --
Goddard identifies the moron --
A unilinear scale of intelligence --
Breaking the scale into Mendelian compartments --
The proper care and feeding (but not breeding) of morons --
Preventing the immigration and propagation of morons --
Goddard recants --
Lewis M. Terman and the mass marketing of innate IQ --
Mass testing and the Stanford-Binet --
Terman's technocracy of innateness --
Fossil IQ's of past geniuses --
Terman on group differences --
Terman recants --
R.M. Yerkes and the army mental tests : IQ comes of age --
Psychology's great leap forward --
Results of the army tests --
A critique of the army mental tests --
The content of the tests --
Inadequate conditions --
Dubious and perverse proceedings : a personal testimony --
Finagling the summary statistics : the problem of zero values --
Finagling the summary statistics : getting around obvious correlations with environment --
Political impact of the army data --
Can democracy survive an average mental age of thirteen? --
The army test and agitation to restrict immigration : Brigham's monograph of American intelligence --
The triumph of restriction on immigration --
Brigham recants --
6. The real error of Cyril Burt : factor analysis and the reification of intelligence --
The case of Sir Cyril Burt --
Correlation, cause, and factor analysis --
Correlation and cause --
Correlation in more than two dimensions --
Factor analysis and its goals --
The error of reification --
Rotation and the nonnecessity of principal components --
Charles Spearman and general intelligence --
The two-factor theory --
The method of tetrad differences --
Spearman's g and the great instauration of psychology --
Spearman's g and the theoretical justification of IQ --
Spearman's reification of g --
Spearman on the inheritance of g --
Cyril Burt and the hereditarian synthesis --
The source of Burt's uncompromising hereditarianism --
Burt's initial "proof" on innateness --
Later arguments --
Burt's blindness --
Burt's political use of innateness --
Burt's extension of Spearman's theory --
Burt on the reification of factors --
Burt and the political uses of g --
L.L. Thurstone and the vectors of mind --
Thurstone's critique and reconstruction --
The egalitarian interpretation of PMA's --
Spearman and Burt react --
Oblique axes and second-order g --
Thurston on the uses of factor analysis --
Epilogue : Arthur Jensen and the resurrection of Spearman's g --
A final thought --
7. A positive conclusion --
Debunking a positive science --
Learning by debunking --
Biology and human nature --
Epilogue --
Critique of The Bell curve --
The Bell curve --
Disingenuousness of content --
Disingenuousness of argument --
Disingenuousness of program --
Ghosts of Bell curves past --
Three centuries' perspectives on race and racism --
Age-old fallacies of thinking and stinking --
Racial geometry --
The moral state of Tahiti, and of Darwin.
Responsabilité : by Stephen Jay Gould.

Résumé :

The definitive refutation to the argument of The Bell Curve.  Lire la suite...

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A rare book-at once of great importance and wonderful to read. "

 
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Données liées


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schema:description"6. The real error of Cyril Burt : factor analysis and the reification of intelligence -- The case of Sir Cyril Burt -- Correlation, cause, and factor analysis -- Correlation and cause -- Correlation in more than two dimensions -- Factor analysis and its goals -- The error of reification -- Rotation and the nonnecessity of principal components -- Charles Spearman and general intelligence -- The two-factor theory -- The method of tetrad differences -- Spearman's g and the great instauration of psychology -- Spearman's g and the theoretical justification of IQ -- Spearman's reification of g -- Spearman on the inheritance of g -- Cyril Burt and the hereditarian synthesis -- The source of Burt's uncompromising hereditarianism -- Burt's initial "proof" on innateness -- Later arguments -- Burt's blindness -- Burt's political use of innateness -- Burt's extension of Spearman's theory -- Burt on the reification of factors -- Burt and the political uses of g -- L.L. Thurstone and the vectors of mind -- Thurstone's critique and reconstruction -- The egalitarian interpretation of PMA's -- Spearman and Burt react -- Oblique axes and second-order g -- Thurston on the uses of factor analysis -- Epilogue : Arthur Jensen and the resurrection of Spearman's g -- A final thought -- 7. A positive conclusion -- Debunking a positive science -- Learning by debunking -- Biology and human nature -- Epilogue -- Critique of The Bell curve -- The Bell curve -- Disingenuousness of content -- Disingenuousness of argument -- Disingenuousness of program -- Ghosts of Bell curves past -- Three centuries' perspectives on race and racism -- Age-old fallacies of thinking and stinking -- Racial geometry -- The moral state of Tahiti, and of Darwin."@en
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schema:description"Introduction to the revised and expanded edition : thoughts at age fifteen -- The frame of The Mismeasure of man -- Why revise The Mismeasure of man after fifteen years? -- Reasons, history and revision of The Mismeasure of man -- I. Introduction -- 2. American polygeny and craniometry before Darwin : Blacks and Indians as separate, inferior species -- A shared context of culture -- Preevolutionary styles of scientific racism : monogenism and polygenism -- Louis Agassiz, America's theorist of polygeny -- Samuel George Morton, empiricist of polygeny -- The case of Indian inferiority : Crania Americana -- The case of the Egyptian catacombs : Crania Aegyptiaca -- The case of the shifting Black mean -- The final tabulation of 1849 -- Conclusions -- The American school and slavery -- 3. Measuring heads : Paul Broca and the heyday of craniology -- The allure of numbers -- Introduction -- Francis Galton, apostle of quantification -- A curtain-raiser with a moral : numbers do not guarantee truth -- Masters of cranimoetry : Paul Broca and his school -- The great circle route -- Selecting characters -- Averting anomalies -- Big-brained Germans -- Small-brained men of eminence -- Large-brained criminals -- Flaws in a pattern of increase through time -- Front and back -- The cranial index -- The case of the foramen magnum -- Women's brains -- Postscript -- 4. Measuring bodies : two case studies on the apishness of undesirables -- The ape in all of us : recapitulation -- The ape in some of us : criminal anthropology -- Atavism and criminality -- Animals and savages as born criminals -- The stigmata : anatomical, physiological, and social -- Lombroso's retreat -- The influence of criminal anthropology -- Coda -- Epilogue --"@en
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