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The mismeasure of man

作者: Stephen Jay Gould
出版商: New York : Norton, ©1996.
版本/格式:   圖書 : 英語 : Rev. and expanded所有版本和格式的總覽
資料庫:WorldCat
提要:
This book was immediately hailed as a masterwork when first published in 1981, the answer to those who would rank people according to their supposed genetic gifts and limits. And yet the idea of innate limits--of biology as destiny--dies hard, as witness the attention devoted to "The Bell Curve," whose arguments are here so effectively anticipated and thoroughly undermined by biologist Gould. In this revised  再讀一些...
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類型/形式: History
文件類型: 圖書
所有的作者/貢獻者: Stephen Jay Gould
ISBN: 0393039722 9780393039726 0393314251 9780393314250
OCLC系統控制編碼: 33276490
描述: 444 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
内容: Introduction to the revised and expanded edition : thoughts at age fifteen --
The frame of The Mismeasure of man --
Why revise The Mismeasure of man after fifteen years? --
Reasons, history and revision of The Mismeasure of man --
I. Introduction --
2. American polygeny and craniometry before Darwin : Blacks and Indians as separate, inferior species --
A shared context of culture --
Preevolutionary styles of scientific racism : monogenism and polygenism --
Louis Agassiz, America's theorist of polygeny --
Samuel George Morton, empiricist of polygeny --
The case of Indian inferiority : Crania Americana --
The case of the Egyptian catacombs : Crania Aegyptiaca --
The case of the shifting Black mean --
The final tabulation of 1849 --
Conclusions --
The American school and slavery --
3. Measuring heads : Paul Broca and the heyday of craniology --
The allure of numbers --
Introduction --
Francis Galton, apostle of quantification --
A curtain-raiser with a moral : numbers do not guarantee truth --
Masters of cranimoetry : Paul Broca and his school --
The great circle route --
Selecting characters --
Averting anomalies --
Big-brained Germans --
Small-brained men of eminence --
Large-brained criminals --
Flaws in a pattern of increase through time --
Front and back --
The cranial index --
The case of the foramen magnum --
Women's brains --
Postscript --
4. Measuring bodies : two case studies on the apishness of undesirables --
The ape in all of us : recapitulation --
The ape in some of us : criminal anthropology --
Atavism and criminality --
Animals and savages as born criminals --
The stigmata : anatomical, physiological, and social --
Lombroso's retreat --
The influence of criminal anthropology --
Coda --
Epilogue --
5. The hereditarian theory of IQ : an American invention --
Alfred Binet and the original purposes of the Binet scale --
Binet flirts with craniometry --
Binet's scale and the birth of IQ --
The dismantling of Binet's intentions in America --
H.H. Goddard and the menace of the feeble-minded --
Intelligence as a Mendelian gene --
Goddard identifies the moron --
A unilinear scale of intelligence --
Breaking the scale into Mendelian compartments --
The proper care and feeding (but not breeding) of morons --
Preventing the immigration and propagation of morons --
Goddard recants --
Lewis M. Terman and the mass marketing of innate IQ --
Mass testing and the Stanford-Binet --
Terman's technocracy of innateness --
Fossil IQ's of past geniuses --
Terman on group differences --
Terman recants --
R.M. Yerkes and the army mental tests : IQ comes of age --
Psychology's great leap forward --
Results of the army tests --
A critique of the army mental tests --
The content of the tests --
Inadequate conditions --
Dubious and perverse proceedings : a personal testimony --
Finagling the summary statistics : the problem of zero values --
Finagling the summary statistics : getting around obvious correlations with environment --
Political impact of the army data --
Can democracy survive an average mental age of thirteen? --
The army test and agitation to restrict immigration : Brigham's monograph of American intelligence --
The triumph of restriction on immigration --
Brigham recants --
6. The real error of Cyril Burt : factor analysis and the reification of intelligence --
The case of Sir Cyril Burt --
Correlation, cause, and factor analysis --
Correlation and cause --
Correlation in more than two dimensions --
Factor analysis and its goals --
The error of reification --
Rotation and the nonnecessity of principal components --
Charles Spearman and general intelligence --
The two-factor theory --
The method of tetrad differences --
Spearman's g and the great instauration of psychology --
Spearman's g and the theoretical justification of IQ --
Spearman's reification of g --
Spearman on the inheritance of g --
Cyril Burt and the hereditarian synthesis --
The source of Burt's uncompromising hereditarianism --
Burt's initial "proof" on innateness --
Later arguments --
Burt's blindness --
Burt's political use of innateness --
Burt's extension of Spearman's theory --
Burt on the reification of factors --
Burt and the political uses of g --
L.L. Thurstone and the vectors of mind --
Thurstone's critique and reconstruction --
The egalitarian interpretation of PMA's --
Spearman and Burt react --
Oblique axes and second-order g --
Thurston on the uses of factor analysis --
Epilogue : Arthur Jensen and the resurrection of Spearman's g --
A final thought --
7. A positive conclusion --
Debunking a positive science --
Learning by debunking --
Biology and human nature --
Epilogue --
Critique of The Bell curve --
The Bell curve --
Disingenuousness of content --
Disingenuousness of argument --
Disingenuousness of program --
Ghosts of Bell curves past --
Three centuries' perspectives on race and racism --
Age-old fallacies of thinking and stinking --
Racial geometry --
The moral state of Tahiti, and of Darwin.
責任: by Stephen Jay Gould.

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The definitive refutation to the argument of The Bell Curve.  再讀一些...

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A rare book-at once of great importance and wonderful to read. "

 
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