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Modern Methods of Plant Analysis

Author: K BiemannN K BoardmanB BreyerW L ButlerD J DavidAll authors
Publisher: Berlin/Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1962.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : N
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Biemann, K.
Modern Methods of Plant Analysis / Moderne Methoden der Pflanzenanalyse.
Berlin/Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg, ©1962
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: K Biemann; N K Boardman; B Breyer; W L Butler; D J David; P S Davis; A E Dimond; A C Hildebrandt; F A Hommes
ISBN: 9783642459931 3642459935
OCLC Number: 953665997
Description: 1 online resource
Contents: - Contents..- Mono- and Oligosaccharides and Acidic Monosaccharide Derivatives.- A. Extraction of Tissue.- 1. Aqueous Extraction of Freshly Gathered Material.- 2. 70% Ethanolic Extraction of Forage Plants.- 3. 80% Ethanolic Extraction of White Potato.- B. Elimination of Interfering Substances from Plant Tissue Extracts.- I. Examination of Lead and Charcoal Methods.- II. Purification by Ion-Exchange Resins.- C. Qualitative Analysis of Carbohydrates in 80% Ethanolic Plant Extracts by Paper Chromatography.- I. Introductory.- II. Qualitative Paper Chromatography.- III. Typical Chromatography Data for Saccharides.- IV. Paper Chromatography of Oligosaccharides.- V. Some Recent (1953) Findings on Plant Materials Made through Paper Chromatography.- D. Electrophoretic Separation of Non-ionic Sugars.- I. Introduction.- II. Separation of Monosaccharides.- III. Separation of Disaccharides.- E. Quantitative Paper Chromatography.- I. Introduction: General Points of Technique.- II. A Direct Colorimetric Method for Reducing Sugars.- III. The Nelson Colorimetric Method for Reducing Sugars.- IV. Colorimetric Determination of Reducing Sugars and Furanosidic Non-reducing Sugars by Benzidine and Acetic Acid.- V. Colorimetric Determination of Hexuloses, Free or Combined.- VI. Colorimetric Determination of Reducing and Non-reducing Saccharides.- VII. Titrimetric Determination of Aldoses.- F. Separation of Saccharides by Column Chromatography.- I. Introduction.- II. Charcoal Columns.- III. Cellulose Columns: Separation of Monosaccharides.- IV. Starch Columns: Separation of Monosaccharides.- V. Quantitative Analysis of Saccharides Using Strongly Basic Ion-exchange Resins and Borate Buffers of Various pH's.- VI. Some Recent Discoveries of New Natural Compounds with the Aid of Column Chromatography.- G. Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Links by Acid.- I. Introductory.- II. Suitable Conditions for Hydrolysis.- III. Neutralisation of the Hydrolysate.- IV. Side Reactions which may Complicate Analyses.- H. Identifications of Monosaccharides.- I. Introduction.- II. Iso-propylidene Derivatives.- III. Preparation of Isopropylidene Derivatives.- IV. 2:5-Dichlorophenylhydrazones.- V. Toluene-p-sulphonylhydrazones.- VI. Miscellaneous Useful Derivatives of Monosaccharides.- J. Quantitative Determinations of Saccharides.- I. Introductory.- II. Colorimetric Determination of Saccharides, Reducing and Non-reducing.- III. Stoichiometric Titrimetric Methods.- IV. Non-Stoichiometric Methods.- K. Acidic Monosaccharide Derivatives.- I. Occurrence of "Sugar Acids".- II. Aldohexonic Acids.- III. Oxoaldonic Acids.- IV. Uronic Acids.- References.- Acyclic Sugar Alcohols.- A. Occurrence and Distribution of Sugar Alcohols.- I. Tetritols and Pentitols.- II. Hexitols.- III. Heptitols.- B. Estimation and Separation of Sugar Alcohols.- I. Estimation.- II. Separation.- C. Isolation and Characterisation of Sugar Alcohols.- References.- Inosite und verwandte Naturstoffe.- A. Einleitung.- B. Isolierung und allgemeine Bestimmung.- C. Spezielle Methoden.- I. Myo-Inosit und seine Derivate.- Methylather des myo-Inosits.- Die Phosphorsaure-ester des myo-Inosits.- II. Scyllit (Quercinit, Cocosit).- III. Optisch aktive Inosite.- IV. Die Monomethylather der optisch aktiven Inosite.- V. Pentaoxy-cyclohexane (Quercit, Viburnit).- VI. Tetraoxy-cyclohexane.- VII. Chinasaure.- VIII. Shikimisaure.- Literatur.- Ascorbinsaure.- A. Einleitung.- B. Verschiedene Bestimmungsmethoden.- I. Qualitative Methoden.- II. Quantitative Methoden.- C. Die allgemeine Methode.- I. Praktische Durchfuhrung der VC-Bestimmung.- II. Begrundungen und Erweiterungen der Methoden.- III. Die Spezifitat der Verfahren.- IV. Berechnung der Ergebnisse.- Literatur.- Phosphorylated Sugars.- A. Introduction.- I. The Sugar Phosphates in Phytosynthesis.- II. Applications of the Tracer Method in Development of New Analytical Methods.- III. Transients in Sugar Phosphate Concentrations.- B. Extraction of Phosphate Esters from Plant Material.- C. Separation of Sugar Phosphates.- I. Precipitation Methods for Fractionation of Sugar Phosphates.- II. Paper Chromatography of Sugar Phosphates.- III. Ion Exchange Separation of Sugar Phosphates.- D. Methods of Estimation of Sugar Phosphates.- I. General Methods.- II. Specific Methods.- References.- Starch, Glycogen, Fructosans and Similar Polysaccharides.- A. Isolation and Examination of Polysaccharides.- I. Isolation.- II. Characterisation.- III. Structural Determination.- B. Starch, Glycogen and Isolichenin.- I. Starch.- II. Floridean Starch.- III. Glycogen.- IV. Isolichenin.- C. Lichenin.- D. Laminarin and Yeast Glucan.- I. Laminarin.- II. Yeast Glucan.- E. Mannans.- F. Fructosans.- References.- Cellulose and Hemicelluloses.- A. Introduction.- B. Analytical Principles.- C. Generalised Method of Analysis.- I. General Preparation.- II. Removal of Water Soluble Polysaccharides ("Depectination").- III. Removal of Lignin.- IV. Fractionation of Holocellulose.- V. Hydrolysis of Fractions.- VI. Analysis of Hydrolysates.- VII. Calculation of Results.- D. Auxiliary Analyses.- I. Acetyl Groups.- II. Methoxyl Groups.- III. Uronic Acid.- IV. Pentosans.- V. Carbonyl Groups.- E. Isolation of Pure Polysaccharides and Determination of their Properties.- I. Cellulose.- II. Xylan.- III. Mannan.- References.- Pektine.- A. Nomenklatur der Pektine und Pektinstoffe.- B. Konstitution und Eigenschaften der Pektine.- C. Das Protopektin in der Pflanze und qualitativer Nachweis des Pektins.- I. Das Protopektin in der Pflanze.- II. Der qualitative Nachweis der Pektine.- D. Methoden der quantitativen Bestimmung der Pektine.- I. Theoretische Grundlagen.- II. Analytische Bestimmungsmethoden.- III. Die experimentelle Durchfuhrung der Methoden.- 1. Uronsaurebestimmung durch Decarboxylierung und CO2-Bestimmung.- 2. Titrimetrische Methoden zur Bestimmung der Carboxylgruppen.- a) Elektrometrische Titration.- b) Titration mit Indicatoren.- 3. Quantitative Bestimmung der Methoxylgruppe.- a) Methode von Zeisel.- b) Eine Methode zur gleichzeitigen Bestimmung von Galakturonsaure und Methoxyl.- 4. Bestimmungsmethode der Essigsaure in Pektin.- 5. Die osmotische Bestimmung des Molekulargewichts.- 6. Viskosimetrische Messung des Molekulargewichtes und Bestimmung der Km-Konstanten.- 7. Ermittlung des Geliervermogens.- E. Beurteilung der Untersuchungsmethoden.- F. Methoden fur die Isolierung der Pektine aus dem Pflanzenmaterial.- G. Vorkommen der Pektine in den verschiedenen Pflanzen.- Literatur.- Chitin.- A. Occurrence.- I. Vascular Plants.- II. Algae.- III. Fungi.- IV. Bacteria.- B. Qualitative Methods for Detection.- I. van Wisselingh Colour Test.- II. Chitosan Sulphate Test.- III. Other Qualitative Methods.- C. Quantitative Methods.- I. Chemical Methods.- II. Enzymic Method for Chitin.- III. Discussion of the Chemical and Enzymic Methods.- D. Isolation and Identification.- References.- The Analysis of Plant Gums and Mucilages.- A. Identification of the Gums and Mucilages.- B. The Principles Underlying the Methods of Detection and Estimation of Gums and Mucilages.- C. Detailed Analysis of Damson Gum.- I. Purification and Fractionation.- II. Paper Chromatographic Analysis of Sugars.- III. Quantitative Separation and Determination of the Sugars.- IV. Identification of the Sugars Produced on Hydrolysis of a Gum.- References.- Glycosides as a General Group.- A. Introduction.- B. The Detection and Estimation of Glycosides.- I. The Biochemical Method of Bourquelot.- II. Adsorption on Charcoal.- III. Applications of Partition Chromatography.- C. General Principles of Glycoside Isolation.- I. Preparation.- II. Extraction of Glycosides from Dried Powders with Organic Solvents.- III. Extraction and Crystallisation of Sparingly Soluble Glycosides with Water.- IV. The Use of Reagents to Remove Substances.- V. The Separation of Glycosides by Adsorption Methods.- VI. Partition Chromatography as a Preparative Method for Glycosides.- References.- Fats and Other Lipids.- A. Oils and Fats (Including Higher Fatty Acids).- I. The Naturally Occurring Higher Fatty Acids.- 1. Higher Saturated Acids.- 2. The Higher Unsaturated Acids.- II. Extraction of Oils.- 1. Determination of Oil Content.- 2. Determination of Moisture and Volatile Matter.- 3. Colour Tests for Oils.- III. Physical Constants.- IV. Chemical Tests.- 1. Saponification Value, Saponification Equivalent, Acid Value, Free Acidity.- 2. Determination of Unsaturation.- 3. Determination of Water-soluble and Water-insoluble Volatile Fatty Acids.- 4. Other Determinations.- V. Isolation and Identification of Fatty Acids.- B. Phospholipids.- I. The Nature of Phospholipids.- 1. Lecithin.- 2. The Cephalin Phospholipids.- 3. Phosphatidic Acids.- 4. Sphingomyelins.- 5. Acetal Phospholipids.- 6. The Lysolecithins.- II. Extraction of Phospholipids.- III. Determination of Total Phospholipids.- 1. Estimation of Acetone Insoluble Matter.- 2. Oxidation Methods.- 3. Determination of Total Phospholipids by Estimation of Phosphorus Content.- 4. Estimation of Nitrogen.- 5. Estimation of Phospholipids from Fatty Acid Content.- IV. Purification and Resolution of Phospholipids.- C. The Waxes, Cutin and Suberin.- I. Waxes.- II. Cutin.- III. Suberin.- Bibliography and References.- Volatile Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones and Esters.- A. Separation.- I. Removal of Volatile Compounds from the Plant.- II. Fractionation of the Volatile Compounds.- B. Volatile Alcohols.- I. Detection of Alcohols.- II. Quantitative Determination of Alcohols.- III. Identification of Alcohols.- C. Volatile Aldehydes and Ketones.- I. Detection of Aldehydes and Ketones.- II. Quantitative Determination of Aldehydes and Ketones.- III. Quantitative Detennination of Individual Compounds.- 1. Formaldehyde.- 2. Acetaldehyde.- 3. Furfural.- 4. Acetone.- 5. Diacetyl and Acetoin.- IV. Identification of Aldehydes and Ketones.- D. Volatile Esters.- I. Detection of Esters.- II. Quantitative Determination of Esters.- III. Identification of Esters.- References.- Volatile Acids.- A. Introduction and Scope.- B. Occurence.- C. Principles Involved in V. F. A. Determination.- D. Extraction of V. F. A..- E. Analysis.- I. Gram Scale Analysis.- II. Milligram Scale Analysis.- III. Microgram Scale Analysis.- IV. Procedures for Individual Acids.- References.- Nichtfuchtige Mono-, Di- und Tricarbonsauren. (Unter Ausschluss chromatographischer Methoden.).- A. Allgemeiner Teil.- I. Form der in Pflanzen vortiegenden Sauren.- II. Extraction der organischen Sauren.- III. Bestimmung der Gesamtsaure.- IV. Allgemein anwendbare Methoden zur Isolierung und Identifizierung organischer Sauren.- B. Spezielle Methoden.- I. Carbon- und Oxycarbonsauren.- II. Ketosauren.- Literatur.- Non Volatile Mono-, Di- and Tricarboxylic Acids. (Chromatographic and Ion Exchange Methods.).- A. Purification of Crude Extracts.- I. Chromatographic Methods.- II. Ion Exchange Methods.- B. The Analysis of Acid Mixtures by Paper Chromatography.- I. The Separation and Identification by One Dimensional Paper Chromatography.- II. Two Dimensional Paper Chromatography.- III. The Quantitative Analysis of Acid Mixtures by Paper Chromatography.- IV. Preparative Separations by Paper Chromatography.- C. The Analysis of Acid Mixtures by Column Chromatography.- I. The Separation and Estimation of Organic Acids Using Silica Gel Columns.- II. The Separation and Estimation of Acids on Columns of Celite.- III. The Separation and Estimation of Acids by Chromatography on Columns of Anion Exchange Resins.- D. Chromatography of Keto Acids.- I. Paper Chromatography of Keto Acids as 2,4-Dinitrophenyl Hydrazones.- II. Column Chromatography of 2,4-Dinitrophenyl Hydrazones of Keto Acids.- III. Paper Electrophoresis of Keto Acid Hydrazones.- IV. The Chromatography of Keto Acids as Nitroquinoxalinols.- References.- Lactones.- A. Nature and Distribution.- B. Detection and Estimation.- I. Titration.- II. Specific Tests.- III. Absorption Spectra of Lactones.- C. Isolation of Simple Lactones.- References.- Sachverzeichnis (deutsch-englisch).- Subject Index (English-German).
Responsibility: Moderne Methoden der Pflanzenanalyse.

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