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Motivation and action

Author: Heinz Heckhausen
Publisher: Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, ©1991.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats

An examination of human motivation, which traces the routes which led from the older theories of instinct and self-gratification to the more contemporary perspectives of personality theory,  Read more...


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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Heckhausen, Heinz.
Motivation and action.
Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, ©1991
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Heinz Heckhausen
ISBN: 3540542043 9783540542049 0387542043 9780387542041 3540529845 9783540529842 0387529845 9780387529844 9783642759635 3642759637
OCLC Number: 22889876
Notes: Translation of: Motivation und Handeln.
Description: xx, 504 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
Contents: 1 The Study of Motivation: Issues and Approaches.- Everyday Experiences and Three Issues.- Naive Explanations of Behavior.- An Explanation for Nonoccurring Behavior.- The Consistency Paradox.- Person-Specific Behavior.- Motive as an Explanatory Concept.- Motivation.- Intention Formation and Volition.- Action.- Postaction Phase.- The Chapter in Retrospect.- 2 Historical Trends in Motivation Research.- The Generation of Pioneers.- The Psychology of the Will.- The Instinct Theory Approach.- Personality Theories.- The Motivation Psychology Approach.- The Cognitive Psychology Approach.- The Personality Psychology Approach.- Associationist Theories.- The Learning Psychology Approach.- The Activation Psychology Approach.- Preview.- 3 Trait Theories of Motivation.- Trait Theories of Motivation: Motives.- Allport's Idiographic Approach.- Trait as a "Neuropsychic Entity".- Factoranalytic Trait Theory: R. B. Cattell.- Instinct-based Classification of Motives: W. McDougall.- Motive Classification based on Person-Environment Relationship: H. A. Murray.- A Hierarchical Model of Motive Classification: A. Maslow.- Basic Emotions as a Rudimentary Motivation System.- Taxonomic Problems of Motive Classification Systems.- Three Distinct Approaches.- Achievement-Oriented Behavior as a Distinct Motive Class.- 4 Situational Determinants of Behavior.- Stimulus-Response Association.- Need and Drive.- Drive Theory.- Antecedent Conditions of Drive.- Drive Stimuli.- Independence of Drive and Habit.- Energizing Effects of Drive.- Reinforcement Effects of Drive Reduction.- The General Nature of Drive.- Acquired Drives, Drive as a Strong Stimulus.- Frustration.- Fear as an Acquired Drive.- Conflict Theory.- Lewin's Conflict Theory.- Miller's Model of Conflict.- Applications of the Conflict Model.- Activation Theories.- The Construct of Arousal.- The Arousal Potential and its Effects.- Toward a Cognitive Appraisal of the Situation.- Emotion as an Outcome of a Cognitive Appraisal.- Emotion-Triggering Situations.- Emotion-Specificity of Neurovegetative Reactions.- Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotions.- The Valins Effect.- Appraisal of Threatening Situations.- Cognitive Balance.- Cognitive Dissonance.- Postdecision Conflicts.- Forced Compliance.- Selection of Information.- Challenged Convictions of Social Groups.- Unexpected Outcomes of Actions and Their Consequences.- Developments in Cognitive Dissonance Research.- Cognitive Appraisal Theories and Motivational Psychology.- Concluding Remarks.- 5 Motivation as a Function of Expectancy and Incentive.- Field Theory.- The Person Model.- Tension Systems in the Person Model.- Environment Model.- Environment Model: Postdictive not Predictive.- Relationship between the Two Models.- Experimental Contributions of Field Theory.- Aftereffects of Incompleted Tasks.- Complications of the Zeigarnik Effect.- Substitute Actions.- Psychological Distance and Strength of Valence.- Tolman's Analysis of Goal-Directed Behavior.- Expectancy and Goal-Orientation.- Incentive Effects.- Latent Learning: The Distinction between Learning and Motivation.- Expectancy-Value-Matrix.- Expectancy and Incentive Conceptualized in S-R Terms.- The Early Hull.- The Middle and Late Hull.- Spence's Extension of Hull's Model.- More Recent Developments.- Response Reinforcement: An Unnecessary Explanatory Construct.- Walker's Analysis of the Explanatory Concepts.- Bolles' Cognitive Model of Incentive Motivation.- Bindra's Quasi-Physiological Model of Incentive Motivation.- Expectancy-Value Theories.- Decision Theory.- Level of Aspiration and the Theory of Resultant Valence.- Success Expectancy and Valence.- Atkinson's Risk-Taking Model.- Rotter's Social Learning Theory.- Empirical Support.- Instrumentality Theory.- Vroom's Model of Valence, Action, and Performance.- Three-Component Model of Valence, Action, and Performance.- Performance Model.- Action Outcomes and Their Consequences.- Empirical Investigations.- Critical Concluding Remarks.- 6 Volition: Implementation of Intentions.- Ach's Psychology of the Will.- The Act of Will and the Determining Tendency.- Three Types of Volition Problems.- Persistence: Endurance of the Action Tendency until the Goal is Reached.- Initiation of Action.- Overcoming Obstacles to Action.- Kuhl's Theory of Action Control.- Mediating Processes of Action Control.- Two Modes of Control: Action Orientation and State Orientation.- Some Empirical Findings.- The Rubicon Model of Action Phases.- Motivational vs. Volitional States of Mind.- Empirical Evidence.- Four Action Phases.- Intention Formation in the Predecisional Motivation Phase.- Action Initiation: The Task of the Preactional Volitional Phase.- Actional Volition Phase.- Postactional Motivation Phase: Evaluation.- 7 Anxiety.- General Anxiety.- Situational Incentive Effects.- Anxiety as a Trait and as a State.- Test Anxiety.- Attention Hypothesis of Test Anxiety.- Interference Effects of Self-Esteem Threatening Thoughts.- Cognitive Interferences vs. Reaction to one's Incompetence.- Therapeutic Interventions.- 8 Achievement Motivation.- Evolutionary Psychological Perspectives.- Motive Measurement.- Thematic Apperception Test.- Measurement of Achievement Motivation.- Construction of a Thematic Coding System.- Measuring the Achievement Motive.- Measuring the Motive Tendencies "Hope for Success" and "Fear of Failure".- TAT Instruments for both Achievement Motives.- Test Quality and Construct Characteristics of the Variables.- The Consistency Issue from the Theoretical Perspective of Measurement and Construct Validity.- Other Techniques.- Behavioral Correlates of Motive Differences.- Socio-Cultural Motive Indices and Economic Growth.- Sex-Differences and "Fear of Success".- The Risk-Taking Model as the Dominant Research Orientation.- Motive-Dependent Valence Functions.- Choice: Maximal Product of Expectancy and Incentive.- Subjective Probability.- Level of Aspiration: Task Choice and Goal Setting.- Typical and Atypical Shifts in Level of Aspiration.- Maximizing Affect vs. Maximizing Information.- Persistence.- Feather's Analysis of Persistence Conditions.- "Inertial Tendency" of the Unfinished.- Performance Outcomes.- School Performance.- Motivational Level and Performance Outcome: Quantity vs. Quality.- Locke's Goal Theory: A Volitional Issue.- Efficiency of Task Performance.- Efficiency.- Empirical Evidence.- Other Approaches: Attention and Effort Control.- Cumulative Achievement.- The Double Role of Motivational Strength for Cumulative Achievements.- Empirical Evidence.- Reference Norms for Performance Outcomes.- The Preeminence of Individual Reference Norms within Motivation.- Reference-Norm Orientation.- Reference-Norm Orientation as Motivational Concept.- 9 Altruism.- Sociobiological Perspectives.- Research Direction.- Situational Conditions.- Weighting Costs and Benefits.- Diffusion of Responsibility.- Norms.- Norm of Social Responsibility.- Schwartz' Norm-Theoretical Concept.- Norm of Reciprocity.- Evaluative Perspectives for the Donor and Recipient of Aid.- Explanatory Models.- Causal Attribution by the Help-Giver.- Causal Attribution on the Part of the Aid Recipient.- Intention Attribution on the Part of the Aid Recipient.- Intention Attribution on the Part of the Helper.- Empathy.- Empathy from the Perspective of Learning Theory.- Empathy from a Psycho-Evolutionary Perspective.- Empathy Emotions from a Motivational Perspective.- Personality Dispositions.- Towards a Motivational Model of Altruism.- Altruism within an Expectancy-Times-Value Model.- 10 Aggression.- Definitions.- Biological Perspectives.- Sociobiological Aspects.- Neurobiological Aspects.- Norms.- Reciprocity: Norm of Retaliation.- Norm of Social Responsibility and Self-Justification of its Violation.- Evolution of the Research Activity.- Drive Theories.- Frustration-Aggression Theory.- Social-Learning Theory of Aggression.- Experimental Research on Aggression.- Situational Factors in Aggressive Behavior.- Intentions.- An Attributional Analysis.- Expectations for Goal Attainment and Potential Retaliation.- Aggression-Inducing Cues.- Degree of Satisfaction Derived from Accomplished Aggression Effects.- Self-Evaluation.- Evaluation by Others.- Emotion of Anger and General State of Arousal.- Additional Sources of Arousal.- Individual Differences and Preliminary Conceptualization of the Motive.- Stability of Aggressive Behavior.- Diverse Personality Characteristics.- Towards a Motive Construct of Aggression.- Olweus' View of the Aggression Motive.- Kornadt's Conceptualization of the Aggression Motive.- Aggression as Action Goal: The Catharsis Hypothesis.- Specification of the Catharsis Hypothesis in Motivation Theory.- Inconclusiveness of Catharsis Experiments.- Clarification Via Direct Measures of Motive.- 11 Social Bonding: Affiliation Motivation and Intimacy Motivation.- Ontogenetic and Phylogenetic Aspects of Social Bonding.- Affiliation Motivation.- Interpersonal Attraction.- Social Anxiousness.- Need Affiliation.- Measurement of Need Affiliation.- Behavioral Correlates for TAT Measures.- Physiological and Neuroimmunological Correlates.- Questionnaires.- Intimacy Motivation.- Measurement and Behavioral Correlates of the Intimacy Motive.- Intimacy vs. Affiliation.- 12 Power Motivation.- Motive Base.- Sources of Power.- Power Behavior.- Biological Aspects.- Individual Differences in Power Behavior: Power Motive.- 1. The Acquisition of Power Sources.- 2. Competence.- 3. Power Behavior.- 4. Morality of Purpose.- 5. Fear of Consequences of Power Behavior.- 6. Preferred Spheres.- Definitions of Motive.- Veroff s Motive Measure.- Uleman's Motive Measure.- Winter's TAT Measure.- Typology of Developmental States of Power.- Summary.- Combination of Values and Expectancy.- Inhibited Power Motive, Immune System, and Health-Related Consequences.- Psychoimmunological Effects.- Constellations of Power, Achievement, and Affiliation.- Experimental Studies.- Power-Oriented Behavior in Criterion Groups.- Demographic Differences and Historical Change.- 13 Attribution Theory.- Causal Attribution in the Motivational Process.- Historical Review of the Issues and Related Research Areas.- Phenomenal and Causal Description in Perception.- Person Perception in Social Psychology.- Internal vs. External Control.- DeCharms Concept of "Personal Causation".- Attribution to Reduce Cognitive Dissonance.- Bern's Self-Perception Theory.- Attribution of Internal Arousal States.- Fundamental Positions and Models.- Causal Attribution: Need or Ability.- Control Motivation.- Causal Attribution as a Moderator of Social Relations.- Initial Issues and Models of Attribution Research.- Heider's "naive" Analysis of Action.- Jones and Davis' Model of Correspondent Inferences.- Trope's Expansion of the Model.- Kelley's Covariance Model.- Empirical Support for the Covariance Model.- Configuration Concepts: Kelley's Causal Schemata.- Four Broader Issues.- The When Question.- The Information Bias Question.- The Expectation Question.- The "Fundamental Attribution Error".- The Motivational Bias Question.- Self-Serving Attribution after Success and Failure.- Counterdefensive Attribution.- Self-Serving Distortion or Rational Information Processing?.- Perspective Discrepancy between Actor and Observer.- A New Conception of the Perspective Discrepancy.- Attribution Asymmetry when the Observer's Pespective is Altered.- Attribution of Responsibility.- Motivational Biases in the Attribution of Responsibility.- 14 Attribution and Achievement Behavior.- Categories of Causal Dimensions.- Constellation of Conditions for Invoking Particular Causal Elements.- Covariance Information.- Causal Schemata.- Motive-Dependent Differences in Attributions.- Consequences of the Attribution of Success and Failure.- Predicting the Success of Others.- Location Dimension: Self-Evaluative Emotions.- Self-Evaluative Emotions: Ability vs. Effort Attribution.- Types of Self-Evaluative Emotions.- Control Dimension: Evaluation of Others and Self Affect.- Causal Dimensions and Emotions.- Emotions Following Performance Outcomes.- Effects on Behavior.- Task Choice.- Searching for Feedback.- Persistence.- Performance Outcomes.- Self-Evaluation a Motivation Principle.- Achievement Motive as a Self-Evaluating System.- Empirical Evidence for the Self-Evaluation Model.- Application: "Attribution Therapy".- Personal Causation.- Acquisition of Attribution Patterns.- Contributions of Attribution Theory to Achievement Motivation Theory.- 15 Expanded Perspectives.- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation.- Diverse Conceptions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation.- Drive without Drive Reduction.- Purposelessness.- Optimal Arousal Level or Incongruence.- Self-Determination.- Joyous Absorption in an Activity.- Thematic Similarity (Endogeny) between Action and Action Goal.- Evaluation of the Various Conceptions.- Undermining Intrinsic Motivation Through Extrinsic Reinforcement.- Do Reinforcement Programs Undermine Intrinsic Motivation?.- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Incentives in Expectancy-Value Models.- Evaluation of the Present State of Research.- An Expanded Motivation Model.- Expectancy.- Incentives.- The Expanded Model's Crucial Motivation Parameters.- Motivational Shifts: Atkinson and Birch's "Dynamic Action Model".- Action Shift: The "Dynamic Action Model".- Explanatory Value of the Dynamic Action Model.- An Empirical Test of the Model.- Learned Helplessness.- The Achievement-Focused, Experimental Paradigm.- Improvement in Place of Decrement.- Two Possible Explanations of Improved Performance.- An Attributional Style that Promotes Generalization: The Stable, Global, Internal Pattern.- Attributional Style as a Personality Variable.- Generalization of Helplessness.- Attributional Style and Depression.- The "Cognitive Deficit" among the Helpless and Depressives.- Helplessness and Action Control.- Functional Deficit.- Functional Deficit vs. Stable, Global Attributional Style.- The Genesis of Helplessness.- Self-Concepts.- Traditional Self-Concept Research.- Turning Self-Concepts into Dynamic Variables.- Self-Concept Variables in the Achievement-Motive Research.- Self-Concept of Ability and Calculation of Effort.- Task Choice, Persistence and Obtaining Feedback.- Self-Related Cognition During Task Evaluation.- Motive-Linked Self-Concept of Ability.- Name Index.
Other Titles: Motivation und Handeln.
Responsibility: Heinz Heckhausen ; translator, Peter K. Leppmann.


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