This project was undertaken to compile a definitive database on the personal, social, economic, career, and political attributes of judges who served on the United States Courts of Appeals from 1801 to 1994. The database includes conventional social background variables such as appointing president, religion, political party affiliation, education, and prior experience. In addition, unique items are provided: the temporal sequence of prior career experiences, the timing of and reason for leaving the bench, gender, race and ethnicity, position numbering analogous to the scheme used for the Supreme Court, American Bar Association rating, and net worth (for judges who began service on the bench after 1978). The second objective of this project was to merge these data with a multi-user database on U.S. Courts of Appeals decisions that is headed by Donald Songer and funded by the National Science Foundation. That database includes a unique identification number for each judge participating in a particular decision. The combined databases should enable scholars to explore: (1) intra- and inter-circuit fluctuation in the distribution of social background characteristics, (2) generational and presidential cohort variation in these attributes, and (3) state and partisan control of seats. The collection also facilitates the construction of models that examine the effects of personal attributes on decision-making, while controlling for the conditions above ... Cf.: http://dx.doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06796.