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The naval policy of Austria-Hungary, 1867-1918 : navalism, industrial development, and the politics of dualism

Author: Lawrence Sondhaus
Publisher: West Lafayette, Ind. : Purdue Univ. Press, ©1994.
Edition/Format:   Print book : State or province government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
The Austro-Hungarian navy warrants recognition because it functioned far better than most organs of the multinational Habsburg state. Ultimately, in the pre-World War I age of navalism, the fleet provided a unique common cause for a wide variety of nationalities and political parties. Dramatic funding increases fueled the expansion of the fleet, and lucrative naval contracts, judiciously distributed, reinforced and  Read more...
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Genre/Form: History
Naval history
Material Type: Government publication, State or province government publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Lawrence Sondhaus
ISBN: 1557530343 9781557530349
OCLC Number: 28112077
Description: xv, 441 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm
Contents: Preface --
Maps --
Ch. 1 The Era of Tegetthoff --
Prologue: The Battle of Lissa and the Navy of 1866 (starting p. 1) --
From Afterglow to Status Quo Ante (starting p. 7) --
The Navy and Austro-Italian Relations (1866-71) (starting p. 11) --
Tegetthoff and the Onset of Dualism (1868-71) (starting p. 16) --
Ch. 2 From Tegetthoff to the Triple Alliance --
"The Strength, Spirit, and Insight are Lacking": The Navy under Pock (1871-78) (starting p. 35) --
Tactics, Technology, and Shipbuilding in the Pock Era (starting p. 42) --
Stagnation and Retreat: The Navy under Pock (1878-82) (starting p. 51) --
The Navy and Austro-Hungarian Foreign Policy (1871-82) (starting p. 63) --
Ch. 3 A Decade of Uncertainty --
From Pock to Sterneck: A Changing of the Guard (1882-83) (starting p. 77) --
The Navy under Sterneck: Personnel, Policies, and Politics (1883-92) (starting p. 80) --
Torpedo Boats and Cruisers: Austria-Hungary and the Jeune Ecole (starting p. 95) --
The Navy and Grand Strategy: The Triple Alliance and the Mediterranean Agreements (1882-92) (starting p. 103) --
Ch. 4 Navalism Ascendant --
The Navy under Sterneck: Domestic and Foreign Policy (1892-97) (starting p. 123) --
Overseas Missions under Sterneck and Spaun (1892-1904) (starting p. 137) --
Spaun and the Politics of Naval Expansion (1898-1901) (starting p. 142) --
Labor Unrest, Political Problems, and the Deterioration of Austro-Italian Relations (1901-4) (starting p. 153) --
Ch. 5 Navalism Triumphant --
Montecuccoli, Francis Ferdinand, and the Modern Battle Fleet (1904-9) (starting p. 170) --
The Navy, the Economy, and Overseas Interests (1904-13) (starting p. 184) --
The Dreadnought Program and the Austro-Italian Naval Race (1909-13) (starting p. 191) --
The Italo-Turkish War, the Balkan Crisis, and the Triple Alliance (1911-12) (starting p. 204) --
Ch. 6 The Eve of War --
Montecuccoli in Trouble: Francis Ferdinand, Finances, and the Reorganization of the Navy (1912-13) (starting p. 218) --
The Haus Era: Prewar Policies and Politics (1913-14) (starting p. 224) --
The Triple Alliance Naval Convention and Prewar Plans for Mediterranean Cooperation (1913-14) (starting p. 232) --
The Navy, the July Crisis of 1914, and the Onset of War (starting p. 244) --
Ch. 7 The Navy at War in the Haus Era --
"I Consider It My First Duty to Keep Our Fleet Intact": Haus and the French War (1914-15) (starting p. 257) --
The Italian Navy, the Entente, and Intervention (1915) (starting p. 270) --
"Command of the Sea in the Adriatic": Haus and the Italian War (1915-17) (starting p. 276) --
Ch. 8 The Navy at War: From Njegovan to Horthy --
The Navy under Njegovan (February 1917-February 1918) (starting p. 302) --
The Cattaro Mutiny and its Consequences (February 1918) (starting p. 318) --
The Navy under Horthy (March 1918-October 1918) (starting p. 329) --
Ch. 9 Das Ende --
The October Revolution (1918) (starting p. 348) --
The Spoils of War (starting p. 356) --
The Legacy (starting p. 363) --
Epilogue (starting p. 379) --
App. Commanders and Leading Personnel of the Austro-Hungarian Navy (1867-1918) (starting p. 385) --
App. Armored Ships of the Austro-Hungarian Navy (1867-1918) (starting p. 389) --
App. Unarmored Ships of the Austro-Hungarian Navy (1867-1918) (starting p. 391) --
App. Austro-Hungarian Battleships (starting p. 394) --
App. The Austrian Naval-Industrial Complex (starting p. 396) --
Bibliography (starting p. 397) --
Index (starting p. 411)
Responsibility: Lawrence Sondhaus.

Abstract:

The Austro-Hungarian navy warrants recognition because it functioned far better than most organs of the multinational Habsburg state. Ultimately, in the pre-World War I age of navalism, the fleet provided a unique common cause for a wide variety of nationalities and political parties. Dramatic funding increases fueled the expansion of the fleet, and lucrative naval contracts, judiciously distributed, reinforced and further broadened the navy's base of support. Though often criticized by its German ally, the Austro-Hungarian navy succeeded in defending the Adriatic throughout World War I, in the process requiring the constant attention of a significant share of enemy sea power; as late as the spring of 1918, an American admiral characterized the Adriatic as "an Austrian lake." The navy collapsed only when Austria-Hungary as a whole disintegrated, in the last days of the war. This detailed study charts the uneven growth of the Austro-Hungarian navy from its high point following Archduke Ferdinand Max's administration and the War of 1866 to its ultimate dissolution after World War I. In following this development, Sondhaus not only relates the operational aspects of the Habsburg navy but also traces the growth of popular navalism in Austria-Hungary, the role of naval expansion in stimulating industrial development, and the peculiar difficulties of navy commanders in dealing with the Habsburg nationality problem and the cumbersome politics of Austro-Hungarian dualism. Drawing on a vast variety of archival sources and government documents and protocols, Sondhaus analyzes economic factors carefully and shows how these tended to complicate, perhaps even to override, political divisions. He ably demonstrates how such varied factors as the wavering policy of Italy, French naval theory, the need for consensus within the Dual Monarchy, and the general European escalation in naval armaments influenced the fortunes of the fleet.

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