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Nervous system regeneration in the invertebrates

Author: Stacia B Moffett
Publisher: Berlin ; New York : Springer, ©1996.
Series: Zoophysiology, v. 34.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

This text examines what is known about neural regeneration from studies of invertebrates. Although invertebrates exhibit a diversity of regeneration strategies, invertebrates and vertebrates share  Read more...

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Moffett, Stacia B.
Nervous system regeneration in the invertebrates.
Berlin ; New York : Springer, ©1996
(OCoLC)605343989
Online version:
Moffett, Stacia B.
Nervous system regeneration in the invertebrates.
Berlin ; New York : Springer, ©1996
(OCoLC)631626772
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Stacia B Moffett
ISBN: 354059454X 9783540594543
OCLC Number: 33206923
Description: xi, 208 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Contents: 1 The Phenomenon of Neural Regeneration.- 1.1 How Shall We Define Neural Regeneration?.- 1.1.1 What Systems Are Involved?.- 1.1.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Compromise Repair.- 1.1.3 Neural Injury Reinitiates Growth.- 1.1.4 Injury Tests the Limits of Neural Plasticity.- 1.2 Replacement of Neurons.- 1.2.1 Where Will New Neurons Come From?.- 1.2.2 How Will New Neurons Find Their Way?.- 1.2.3 Which Animals Can Replace Neurons?.- 1.2.4 What Factors Delineate Neurogenesis?.- 1.3 Regrowth of Neurites.- 1.3.1 Incidence of Neurite Repair.- 1.3.2 Comparisons Between Development and Regeneration.- 1.4 A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Neural Regeneration.- 1.5 Rationale for Studying Invertebrate Regeneration.- 1.5.1 Invertebrates Offer the Simplest Systems.- 1.5.2 Invertebrates Offer a Great Diversity of Solutions.- 1.6 Conclusions.- 2 A Survey of Neural Repair in Invertebrates.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Cnidaria: Neural Structure and Behavior.- 2.2.1 Examples of Regeneration.- 2.2.2 Regeneration in Hydra.- 2.3 Ctenophora: Comb Jellies.- 2.4 Platyhelminthes: The Simplest Bilateral Nervous System.- 2.4.1 Planarians: Masters of Body Regeneration.- 2.4.2 Role of the Nervous System in Body Repair.- 2.4.3 Repair of the Nervous System.- 2.5 Nemertea: Ribbon Worms.- 2.6 Nematoda: Roundworms.- 2.7 Annelida: Introduction to the Phylum.- 2.7.1 Polychaetes.- 2.7.2 Oligochaetes.- 2.7.3 Hirudinea.- 2.8 Arthropoda: Neural Organization and Repair.- 2.8.1 Reinnervation of Muscle.- 2.8.2 Refinement of Connectivity.- 2.8.3 Molting and Regeneration.- 2.8.4 Regeneration of Sensory Cells.- 2.9 Mollusca: Unsegmented Animals with a Range of Cephalization.- 2.9.1 Gastropods, The Snails and Slugs.- 2.9.2 Responses to Naturally Occurring Injuries.- 2.9.3 Axon Regeneration.- 2.9.4 CNS Regeneration.- 2.10 Echinodermata: The Spiny Deuterostomes.- 2.11 Chordata: Our Own Phylum.- 3 Early Responses to Neural Injury.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Immediate Responses of Injured Neurons.- 3.2.1 Is the Injury Discharge a Cry for Help?.- 3.2.2 Basis of an Injury Discharge.- 3.2.3 Effects of Depolarization and Ca2+ Entry.- 3.2.4 Repairing the Axon Membrane.- 3.2.5 Changes in Excitability Following Axotomy.- 3.2.6 Excitability Changes: Was Injury the First Teacher?.- 3.3 Growth Following Axotomy.- 3.3.1 Initial Outgrowth is Independent of Sorna Responses.- 3.3.2 Retrograde Signals.- 3.3.3 Anatomical Correlates of the Sorna Response.- 3.3.4 Metabolic Adjustments Associated with Regeneration.- 3.3.5 Under What Conditions Is Regeneration Initiated?.- 3.3.6 Speculation on the Role of Diffusible Factors in Regeneration.- 3.4 Survival of Anucleate Axon Segments.- 3.4.1 Mechanisms of Distal Segment Survival.- 3.4.2 Consequences of Distal Segment Survival.- 3.4.2.1 Target Support by Surviving Distal Segments.- 3.4.2.2 Pathway Preservation.- 3.4.2.1 Proximal and Distal Segment Fusion.- 3.4.2.2 Experimental Approaches to Axonal Fusion.- 3.1 Responses of Nonneural Cells to Injury.- 3.2 What Activates Responses in Uninjured Neurons?.- 3.3 Conclusions.- 4 Pathfinding by the Growth Cone.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Growth Cone Morphology.- 4.3 Growth Cone Extension.- 4.3.1 Membrane Addition.- 4.3.2 Reshaping the Cytoskeleton.- 4.3.3 Responses to the Environment.- 4.4 Ion Channels in the Growth Cone.- 4.4.1 Recording Channel Activity.- 4.4.2 Dynamics of Growth Cone Channel Distribution.- 4.4.3 Substrate Effects on Growth Cone Channels.- 4.4.4 Channel Expression Reflects Growth State.- 4.4.5 Electrical Synapses and Intercellular Communication.- 4.4.6 Developmental Regulation of Channel Expression.- 4.4.7 Sensitivity to Electrical Fields.- 4.4.8 Roles of Electrical Activity in Growing Neurites.- 4.4.9 Roles of Calcium.- 4.4.9.1 Calcium and the Cytoskeleton.- 4.4.9.2 Sprouting and Collapsing.- 4.4.9.3 Ca2+ Effects Mediated by Second Messengers.- 4.5 Responses of Growth Cones to Neurotransmitters.- 4.6 Differentiation Following Growth Cone Interactions.- 4.7 Receptors and Molecular Cues in the Environment.- 4.7.1 Functions of External Signals.- 4.7.2 Binding and Recognition Systems.- 4.7.2.1 Introduction.- 4.7.2.2 Homophilic Binding: Interactions between Like Molecules.- 4.7.2.3 Heterophilic Binding: Interactions between Unlike Molecules.- 4.7.2.4 Identification of Glycoproteins.- 4.7.2.5 Antibodies, Blockers and Mutations Disrupt Pathfinding.- 4.7.2.6 Cues Expressed in Gradients.- 4.8 Conditioned Medium and Growth Promotors.- 4.8.1 Growth Requirements in Culture.- 4.8.1.1 Growth Factors in Gastropod Conditioned Medium.- 4.8.1.2 Neurosecretory Products as Growth Factors.- 4.8.1.3 Insulin-Like Molecules Support Sprouting.- 4.8.1.4 Inhibitors of Sprouting.- 4.8.2 Culture Influences on Branching Pattern.- 4.9 Designing Culture Conditions.- 4.10 Conclusions.- 5 Synapse Formation and Alteration During Regeneration.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.1.1 Comparing Synaptogenesis in Regeneration and Development.- 5.1.2 Novel Connectivity in Regenerated Nervous Systems.- 5.1.3 Reduced Plasticity in Regenerating Neurons.- 5.1.4 Circuits Reformed in Vivo and in Vitro.- 5.2 The Road to Recovery.- 5.2.1 Behavior of Injured Animals.- 5.2.2 Connectivity Changes and Hypersensitivity.- 5.2.3 Remodeling of Connections.- 5.2.4 Consequences of Deafferentation.- 5.2.4.1 Effects of Sensory Deprivation.- 5.2.4.2 Central Compensation for Sensory Deficits.- 5.2.5 Compensation for Ablated Ganglia.- 5.2.6 Ganglion Regeneration.- 5.3 How Neurons Select Targets.- 5.3.1 Limitation of Choices by Pathway Cues.- 5.3.2 Cell-Adhesion Compatibility in Synaptogenesis.- 5.3.3 Specific Recognition Systems.- 5.3.3.1 Specificity in Arthropod Neuromuscular Innervation.- 5.3.3.2 Specific Connections Made by Transplanted Neurons.- 5.3.3.3 Mutants Elucidate Synaptic Specificity.- 5.4 Development of a Functioning Synapse.- 5.4.1 Neurotransmitters in Synapse Formation.- 5.4.2 Targets May Induce Excitation-Secretion Coupling.- 5.4.3 Alterations in Ca2+ Channel Distribution.- 5.4.4 Electrical Activity in Synapse Formation.- 5.4.5 Responses to Growth Cone Contact with Target.- 5.5 The Role of Competition.- 5.6 Conclusions.- References.
Series Title: Zoophysiology, v. 34.
Responsibility: Stacia B. Moffett.

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"...an excellent and long-overdue summary of cell-body and axonal regeneration of neurons in many invertebrate phyla." TINS

 
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