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Neurophysiological aspects of color vision in primates : comparative studies on simian retinal ganglion cells and the human visual system

Author: Eberhart Zrenner
Publisher: Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, 1983.
Series: Studies of brain function, v. 9.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Zrenner, Eberhart, 1945-
Neurophysiological aspects of color vision in primates.
Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, 1983
(OCoLC)558190528
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Eberhart Zrenner
ISBN: 0387116532 9780387116532 3540116532 9783540116530
OCLC Number: 8806106
Description: xvi, 218 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Contents: 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Color Vision Theories. Historical Aspects.- Trichromatic Vision; Color-Opponency; Photopigments.- 1.2 Electrophysiological Studies Related to Color Vision.- Recordings from Cell Populations: Electroretinogram; Visually Evoked Cortical Potential.- Single Cell Studies, Anatomy and Electrophysiology: Receptors; Horizontal Cells; Bipolar Cells; Amacrine Cells; Biplexiform Cells; Ganglion Cells (Early Data).- 2 Methods.- 2.1 Methods of Single Cell Recording in Rhesus Monkeys.- Preparation; Stimulation; Recording and Evaluation Procedure.- 2.2 Identification of Cone Inputs in Retinal Ganglion Cells.- 3 Types of Retinal Ganglion Cells and Their Distribution.- 3.1 Introductory Remarks.- Tonic Cells; Phasic Cells; X-Y Classification.- 3.2 The Concept of Color-Opponency.- Color-Opponent Responses; "On" and "Off"; The Neutral Point; Spatial Organization; The Cone Interaction.- 3.3 The Various Types of Color-Opponent Cells.- Incidence of the Main Types; Comparison Between Spectrally Different Types: Receptive Field Structure; Response Profiles; Spectral Sensitivity Functions.- 3.4 Variations in Color-Opponency.- Dependence Upon Spatial Variables; Fluctuations in the Neutral Point; A Scale of Color-Opponency; Color-Opponency Varies with Retinal Eccentricity.- 3.5 Spectrally Non-Opponent Ganglion Cells.- Spectrally Non-Opponent Tonic Ganglion Cells; Phasic Ganglion Cells; Rare Cell Types.- 3.6 Distribution of Classes of Ganglion Cells Across the Retina.- 3.7 A Simplified Classification Procedure.- 3.8 Resume: Some Implications for the Understanding of the Visual System's Function.- Red-Green Versus Blue-Yellow Opponency; On the Neutral Point; How Can Variations in Color-Opponency Improve Color Discrimination? Color Coding in the Retinal Periphery; The Consequences for the Circuitry of the Retinocortical Pathway: A Model; Anatomical Considerations; Brightness, Whiteness, and Color Contrast.- 4 Special Properties of Blue-Sensitive Ganglion Cells.- 4.1 Some Recent Electrophysiological and Psychophysical Data on the Blue-Sensitive Cone System.- 4.2 Chromatic Adaptation and Spectral Sensitivity.- Response Profiles; Action Spectra; Intensity-Response Functions.- 4.3 Paradoxical Phenomena Occurring During Light and Dark Adaptation in Blue-Sensitive Ganglion Cells.- Sensitization; Transient Desensitization; Psychophysical Correlates.- 4.4 A Model Describing the Interaction Between Cone Mechanisms in Blue-Sensitive, Color-Opponent Ganglion Cells.- 4.4.1 Forward Versus Backward Inhibition: Two Models.- General Circuitry; The Anatomy of the Feedback.- 4.4.2 Implications of the Backward-Inhibition Model in Terms of Membrane Properties, Ionic Action and Transmitters.- The Prerequisites; The Function in the Light Adapted and Non-Adapted State as well as Immediately After the Termination of Yellow Adaptation; The Dynamics; The Transmitter.- 4.4.3 The Limitations of the Model: Feedback onto the Receptor or onto the Bipolar Cell?.- Can the ERG Help to Solve the Problem? Hyperpolarizing versus Depolarizing Transmitter.- 4.4.4 Testing the Feedback Model.- A Membrane Circuitry; Computer Simulation of the Model.- 4.5 Resume: What is Special About the Blue Cone Mechanism?.- 4.5.1 Properties of the B-Cone System: Summary.- 4.5.2 The New Model of Cone Interaction: Its Implications.- Linearity; How is Color Contrast Enhanced? The Model's Possible Relation to Tritanopic Phenomena.- 4.5.3 Comments on the Retino-Cortical Pathway of the B-Cone Mechanism.- The "Yellow" Signal; The Westheimer Paradigm.- 5 Temporal Properties of Color-Opponent Ganglion Cells..- Flicker-Stimulation; Testing the "Channel" Hypothesis.- 5.1 Critical Flicker Frequencies (CFF) in Tonic and Phasic Ganglion Cells.- 5.2 Influence of Stimulation Frequency on the Spectral Sensitivity Function: Loss of Color-Opponency at Higher Flicker Rates.- The General Response Pattern; The Transition of the Action Spectra; The Paradox in the Ferry-Porter Law and the Gradual Change in Spectral Sensitivity.- 5.3 The Basic Mechanism: Phase-Shift Between Center and Surround Responses.- 5.4 Latency of Center and Surround Responses.- 5.5 The Processing of Luminous and Chromatic Flicker.- 5.6 Stimulus Duration Changes the Action Spectrum.- 5.7 Resume: Possible Implication of the Transition Between Antagonism and Synergism in Color-Opponent Ganglion Cells.- 5.7.1 Hue and Brightness Can be Signalled via the Same Channel.- 5.7.2 Enhancement Occurs by Synergistic Action of Center and Surround.- Conditions Which Can Modify or Suppress the Enhancement Effect; The Vx-Function; The Brucke Bartley Effect, Brightness and Darkness Enhancement.- 5.7.3 The Fechner-Benham Top.- Attempt at an Explanation; What Could Be the Reason for Different Colors in the Fechner-Benham Illusion? Colors Induced by "; The Neutral Point; Spatial Organization; The Cone Interaction.- 3.3 The Various Types of Color-Opponent Cells.- Incidence of the Main Types; Comparison Between Spectrally Different Types: Receptive Field Structure; Response Profiles; Spectral Sensitivity Functions.- 3.4 Variations in Color-Opponency.- Dependence Upon Spatial Variables; Fluctuations in the Neutral Point; A Scale of Color-Opponency; Color-Opponency Varies with Retinal Eccentricity.- 3.5 Spectrally Non-Opponent Ganglion Cells.- Spectrally Non-Opponent Tonic Ganglion Cells; Phasic Ganglion Cells; Rare Cell Types.- 3.6 Distribution of Classes of Ganglion Cells Across the Retina.- 3.7 A Simplified Classification Procedure.- 3.8 Resume: Some Implications for the Understanding of the Visual System's Function.- Red-Green Versus Blue-Yellow Opponency; On the Neutral Point; How Can Variations in Color-Opponency Improve Color Discrimination? Color Coding in the Retinal Periphery; The Consequences for the Circuitry of the Retinocortical Pathway: A Model; Anatomical Considerations; Brightness, Whiteness, and Color Contrast.- 4 Special Properties of Blue-Sensitive Ganglion Cells.- 4.1 Some Recent Electrophysiological and Psychophysical Data on the Blue-Sensitive Cone System.- 4.2 Chromatic Adaptation and Spectral Sensitivity.- Response Profiles; Action Spectra; Intensity-Response Functions.- 4.3 Paradoxical Phenomena Occurring During Light and Dark Adaptation in Blue-Sensitive Ganglion Cells.- Sensitization; Transient Desensitization; Psychophysical Correlates.- 4.4 A Model Describing the Interaction Between Cone Mechanisms in Blue-Sensitive, Color-Opponent Ganglion Cells.- 4.4.1 Forward Versus Backward Inhibition: Two Models.- General Circuitry; The Anatomy of the Feedback.- 4.4.2 Implications of the Backward-Inhibition Model in Terms of Membrane Properties, Ionic Action and Transmitters.- The Prerequisites; The Function in the Light Adapted and Non-Adapted State as well as Immediately After the Termination of Yellow Adaptation; The Dynamics; The Transmitter.- 4.4.3 The Limitations of the Model: Feedback onto the Receptor or onto the Bipolar Cell?.- Can the ERG Help to Solve the Problem? Hyperpolarizing versus Depolarizing Transmitter.- 4.4.4 Testing the Feedback Model.- A Membrane Circuitry; Computer Simulation of the Model.- 4.5 Resume: What is Special About the Blue Cone Mechanism?.- 4.5.1 Properties of the B-Cone System: Summary.- 4.5.2 The New Model of Cone Interaction: Its Implications.- Linearity; How is Color Contrast Enhanced? The Model's Possible Relation to Tritanopic Phenomena.- 4.5.3 Comments on the Retino-Cortical Pathway of the B-Cone Mechanism.- The "Yellow" Signal; The Westheimer Paradigm.- 5 Temporal Properties of Color-Opponent Ganglion Cells..- Flicker-Stimulation; Testing the "Channel" Hypothesis.- 5.1 Critical Flicker Frequencies (CFF) in Tonic and Phasic Ganglion Cells.- 5.2 Influence of Stimulation Frequency on the Spectral Sensitivity Function: Loss of Color-Opponency at Higher Flicker Rates.- The General Response Pattern; The Transition of the Action Spectra; The Paradox in the Ferry-Porter Law and the Gradual Change in Spectral Sensitivity.- 5.3 The Basic Mechanism: Phase-Shift Between Center and Surround Responses.- 5.4 Latency of Center and Surround Responses.- 5.5 The Processing of Luminous and Chromatic Flicker.- 5.6 Stimulus Duration Changes the Action Spectrum.- 5.7 Resume: Possible Implication of the Transition Between Antagonism and Synergism in Color-Opponent Ganglion Cells.- 5.7.1 Hue and Brightness Can be Signalled via the Same Channel.- 5.7.2 Enhancement Occurs by Synergistic Action of Center and Surround.- Conditions Which Can Modify or Suppress the Enhancement Effect; The Vx-Function; The Brucke Bartley Effect, Brightness and Darkness Enhancement.- 5.7.3 The Fechner-Benham Top.- Attempt at an Explanation; What Could Be the Reason for Different Colors in the Fechner-Benham Illusion? Colors Induced by "Stationary" Black and White Patterns.- 5.7.4 The Loss of Color-Opponency.- Is it Linked to a Loss of Visual Acuity? Can it Provide an Advantage?.- 5.7.5 Possible Consequences for Cortical Processing of Color.- 6 The Spectral Properties of the Human Visual System as Revealed by Visually Evoked Cortical Potentials (VECP) and Psychophysical Investigations.- 6.1 Methods as Applied in Human Observers.- The Observers; Stimulation Technique; Recording and Evaluation Techniques.- 6.2 Rods and Cones.- Intensity-Amplitude Functions; Spectral Sensitivity; Rod and Cone VECP Evoked by Eccentric Stimulation.- 6.3 Fundamental Cone Functions.- 6.3.1 Trichromatic Observers.- Selective Chromatic Adaptation; Cone Signals; Spectral Sensitivity Functions; Comparisons with Sensory Measurements; Anomalous Trichromats.- 6.3.2 Dichromatic Observers.- Incidence; Spectral Sensitivity in the VECP; Comparison with Psychophysical Data.- 6.3.3 The Peculiarities of the Blue-Sensitive Mechanism in the VECP.- 6.3.4 Monochromatic Observers.- A Case Report.- 6.4 Color-Opponency in the VECP and in Psychophysical Measurements.- 6.4.1 Color-Opponency in Normal Color Vision.- Action Spectra.- 6.4.2 Color-Opponency in Congenital Color Vision Deficiencies.- 6.4.3 Acquired Color Vision Deficiencies.- 6.4.3.1 Acquired Red/Green Defects.- A Drug-Induced Loss of Color-Opponency; Case Report; The Implications of a Functional Loss.- 6.4.3.2 Acquired Blue/Yellow Defects.- A Drug Affecting the Blue Cone Mechanism; Transient Tritanopia Under AR-L 115 BS; Standing Potentials Under AR-L 115 BS; The Possible Site of Action; A Speculation Based on the Calcium Hypothesis.- 6.5 The Influence of Flicker Frequency on Spectral Sensitivity.- Electrophysiological Recordings in Man; Psychophysical Data; Flicker Studies in Normal Individuals as Compared with Flicker Responses in Protanopes and Deuteranopes.- 6.6 Conclusion: To What Extent Can Visually Evoked Cortical Potentials Reveal the Function of Individual Receptor Mechanisms?.- Rods and Cones; The Three Spectrally Different Cone Mechanisms; Color-Opponency in Psychophysical and Electrical Data; Congenital Color Vision Deficiencies; Flicker.- Epilogue.- Summary.- References.
Series Title: Studies of brain function, v. 9.
Responsibility: Eberhart Zrenner.

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