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Neuropoisons : Their Pathophysiological Actions

Author: Lance L Simpson
Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 1995.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats

Poisons are topics of multidisciplinary concern. Six poisons of animal origin which are receiving considerable clinical and research attention are discussed. Each poison is presented first as a  Read more...


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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Printed edition
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Lance L Simpson
ISBN: 9781468429428 1468429426 9781468429404 146842940X
OCLC Number: 851766191
Description: 1 online resource (volumes)
Contents: 1 Clinical Aspects of Elapid Bite.- I. Introduction.- II. Elapidae.- A. Classification.- B. Geographic Distribution.- C. Venom Toxicity.- D. Venom Yield.- E. Epidemiology.- III. Symptomatology of Elapid Bite.- A. General Characteristics.- B. Local Poisoning.- C. Systemic Poisoning.- IV. Treatment.- A. Indigenous and Chemical Treatment.- B. First Aid.- C. Antivenins.- D. Cryotherapy.- E. Tracheostomy and Artificial Respiration.- F. Antibiotics and Tetanus Antitoxin.- G. Corticosteroids, Antihistaminics, and Other Drugs.- H. Treatment of Ophthalmia.- V. References.- 2 Mode of Action of Cobra Venom and Its Purified Toxins.- I. Introduction.- II. Chemistry of Cobra Venom.- A. Neurotoxins.- B. Cardiotoxin, Cobramines, DLF, Toxin ?, and Cytotoxin.- C. Enzymes.- D. Nonproteins.- III. Pharmacological Actions of Cobra Venom.- A. Toxicity, Symptoms Produced in Animals, and Cause of Death.- B. Absorption, Distribution, and Fate.- C. Actions on Neuromuscular Junction, Skeletal Muscle, and Nerve.- D. Action on Smooth Muscle.- E. Action on Sympathetic Ganglionic Transmission.- F. Action on the Cardiovascular System.- G. Local Action.- H. Actions on the Central Nervous System.- I. Actions on Blood.- J. Biochemical Effects.- K. Cytotoxic Effects.- IV. Concluding Remarks.- V. References.- 3 Symptomatology of Experimental and Clinical Crotalid Envenomation.- I. The Rattlesnake.- II. Rattlesnake Venom Potency.- A. Mouse.- B. Dog.- C. Monkey.- D. Averaged Potency.- III. Physiological Effects of Venom.- A. Effects of Venom on Cortical Electrical Activity.- B. Effects of Venom on Plasma Factors.- C. Effects of Actual Snake Bite.- IV. Treatment of Snake Bite.- V. Concluding Remarks.- VI. References.- 4 The Mechanism of Snake Venom Actions-Rattlesnakes and Other Crotalids.- I. Introduction.- A. Snakes in Family Crotalidae.- B. Components of Snake Venoms.- II. Action of Snake Venoms.- A. Local Actions.- B. Systemic Action.- C. Autopharmacological Effects.- D. Lethal Action of Snake Venoms.- III. References.- 5 The Use of Snake Venoms as Pharmacological Tools in Studying Nerve Activity.- I. Introduction.- II. Development and Differentiation of the Nervous System.- III. Neuronal Degeneration and Demyelination.- A. Immunosympathectomy by Antibodies to Nerve Growth Factor.- B. Neuropathological Changes Induced by Venoms.- IV. Axonal Conduction.- A. Use of Venoms as ChemicarDissectors.- B. Effects of Cholinergic Agents on Axonal Conduction.- C. The Acetylcholine Receptor.- D. Hyperexcitability.- V. Membrane Permeability.- A. Increased Permeability Induced by Venoms.- B. Structural Alterations Associated with Increased Permeability.- VI. Phospholipid Function in Nerve.- A. Component of Venom Responsible for Effects on Axon.- B. Mechanism of Phospholipase A Effects on Conduction and Permeability.- C. Maintenance of Conduction and Permeability in Presence of Phospholipid Splitting.- VII. Neuronal Metabolism.- A. Function and Structure of Mitochondria.- B. Acetylcholine-Synthesis, Storage, Release, and Hydrolysis.- VIII. Conclusions.- IX. References.- 6 Fugu (PufFer-Fish) Poisoning and the Pharmacology of Crystalline Tetrodotoxin in Poisoning.- I. Introduction.- II. Actual Conditions and Statistical Survey of Fugu Poisoning.- A. Varieties of Fugu.- B. Localization.- C. Influence of Season.- D. Statistical Survey.- E. Differences between Fugu Poisoning and Ciguatera.- III. Clinical Symptoms and Treatment of Fugu Intoxication.- IV. Pharmacological Actions Underlying Clinical Symptons.- A. Emetic Action.- B. Circulation.- C. Respiration.- D. Excitable Cells.- E. Nonexcitable Cells.- F. Biochemical Aspects.- G. Relationship between Chemical Structure and Pharmacological Action.- H. Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion.- V. Legislative Control for Preventing Fugu Poisoning in Japan.- VI. Tested Clinical Use of Crystalline Tetrodotoxin.- VII. References.- 7 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning and Saxitoxin.- I. Occurrence and Distribution of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning.- II. Shellfish Poisoning as a Public Health Problem.- III. Detection of Shellfish Poisoning.- IV. Isolation and Characterization of Shellfish Poisons.- V. References.- 8 Mechanism of Action of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and Saxitoxin (STX).- I. Introduction.- II. The Nature of the Nerve Impulse.- III. Cellular Actions of TTX and STX.- A. Peripheral Nerve.- B. Skeletal Muscle.- C. The Acetylcholine System.- D. Action of TTX and STX on Generator Potentials.- IV. Comparison of TTX and STX.- V. Mechanism of Action.- A. The Active Form of TTX and STX.- B. Structure-Activity Relationship.- C. Possible Mechanism of Interaction.- D. The Interaction of TTX and STX with Calcium.- E. Model Systems.- VI. Conclusion.- VII. References.- 9 Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxin as Pharmacological Tools.- I. Introduction.- A. History.- B. Chemistry.- II. Cellular Effects.- A. Properties of Excitable Membranes.- B. Actions of Toxins.- III. Pharmacological Uses.- A. The Early Transient Channel.- B. Synaptic Transmission.- C. Central Nervous System.- D. Generator Potentials.- E. Action Potentials Not Dependent on Sodium Ions.- F. General.- IV. Conclusion.- V. References.- 10 The Clinical Effects of Tetanus.- I. Tetanus: The World Problem.- II. Clinical Features.- III. The Natural History of Tetanus.- IV. Complications.- V. Causes of Death.- VI. Treatment.- A. Conservative Management.- B. Tracheostomy.- C. Intermittent Positive-Pressure Respiration.- VII. Prevention of Tetanus.- VIII. References.- 11 Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Tetanus Intoxication.- I. Introduction.- II. The Toxin.- A. Components of Culture Filtrates.- B. Purification of Tetanus Toxin.- C. Molecular Weight of Tetanus Toxin.- D. The Relationship Between Dose and Response in Tetanus Intoxication.- III. Biochemical Mechanisms Involved in Tetanus Intoxication.- A. General Considerations.- B. Direct Action of Tetanus Toxin on Skeletal Muscle.- IV. Effect of Environmental Temperature on Tetanus Intoxication.- A. Activation Energy for the Process.- V. Binding of Tetanus Toxin.- A. Rate of Binding of Tetanus Toxin In Vivo.- VI. Physiology of Tetanus Intoxication.- A. Effects of Tetanus Toxin on Neuromuscular Junctions.- B. Effects of Tetanus Toxin on the Physiology of Skeletal Muscle and the Problem of Local Tetanus.- C. Dual Target Sites of Toxin Action: The Central Nervous System and the Skeletal Muscle.- VII. Summary.- VIII. References.- 12 Tetanus Toxin as a Neuropharmacological Tool.- I. Introduction.- II. Techniques of Administration.- III. Tetanus Toxin and Central Inhibition.- A. Spinal Cord.- B. Cerebral Cortex.- IV. Tetanus Toxin and Cholinergic Transmission.- A. Sphincter Pupillae.- B. Peripheral Neuromuscular Junction.- C. Central Cholinergic Junction.- V. Mode of Action.- VI. Conclusion.- VII. References.- 13 The Clinical Aspects of Botulism.- I. History.- II. Botulism as a World Health Problem.- A. The Disease in Humans.- B. The Disease in Animals.- III. Epidemiologic Considerations.- IV. Pathogenesis.- V. Clinical Features of Botulism.- VI. Diagnosis.- A. Routine Laboratory Studies.- B. Electrocardiographic, Electroencephalographic, and Electromyographic Studies.- C. Specific Diagnosis.- D. Differential Diagnosis.- VII. Treatment.- VIII. Prognosis and Recovery.- IX. Remaining Problems.- X. References.- 14 The Neuroparalytic and Hemagglutinating Activities of Botulinum Toxin.- I. Introduction.- II. Characterization of the Botulinum Toxin Molecule.- A. Purification of Botulinum Toxin.- B. Attempts to Separate Neurotoxin and Hemagglutinin.- III. Botulinum Hemagglutinin.- IV. Target Organs of Botulinum Neurotoxin.- V. Mechanism of Neurotoxin Action.- A. Peripheral Cholinergic System.- B. Central Nervous System.- VI. Reactive Sites Involved in Neurotoxin Activity.- A. Free Amino Groups.- B. Fluorescence and Toxicity.- C. Tryptophan.- VII. Conclusion.- VIII. References.- 15 Botulinum Toxin as a Tool for Research on the Nervous System.- I. Introduction.- II. Neuromuscular Transmission.- III. Botulinum Toxin as a Pharmacological Tool.- A. Characteristics of an "Ideal Blocking Agent".- B. Comparison of Botulinum Toxin with Ideal Model.- IV. The "Trophic" Effects of Nerves.- A. Scope and Definition of the Problem.- B. Motor Nerves and Skeletal Muscle.- C. Possible Trophic Mechanisms.- D. Red and White Muscle.- E. Other Trophic Neuromuscular Relationships.- F. Conclusions.- V. Botulinum Toxin and the Autonomic Nervous System.- A. Parasympathetic Nervous System.- B. Sympathetic Nervous System.- VI. Botulinum Toxin as a Marker of Cholinergic Synapses: A Possible Future Use.- VII. The Role of Movement in the Development of Joints: A Model System.- A. Soft-Tissue Ankylosis.- B. Abnormalities of Joint Cavities and Other Articular Structures.- VIII. References.- IX. Appendix.
Responsibility: edited by Lance L. Simpson.


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