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Nova Scotia wind integration study : final report 2008

Author: Nova Scotia. Department of Energy.; Hatch Associates Ltd.
Publisher: Halifax, N.S. : Nova Scotia Dept. of Energy, 2008
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : State or province government publication : English
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Material Type: Document, Government publication, State or province government publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Nova Scotia. Department of Energy.; Hatch Associates Ltd.
OCLC Number: 609991922
Description: 1 online resource (xii, [211] pages : color illustrations, maps, tables, graphs)
Contents: 8. Conclusions and Recommendations --
8.1 Introduction --
8.2 Conclusions 8.3 Recommendations. 7. Impact Analysis and Mitigation --
7.1 Introduction --
7.2 System Operational Variability --
7.2.1 Base Plan --
7.2.2 Alternative Plans --
7.3 Impact on GHG and Other Air Emissions --
7.4 Estimation of the Avoided Cost of GHG Emissions --
7.5 Cost Impact of the Adequacy Impacts --
7.5.1 Cost Impact on Operating Reserve, AGC and Load Following Requirements --
7.5.2 Cost Impact on Unit Commitment and Water Allocation Decision Making for System Balancing --
7.5.3 Cost Impact on Intra-province Transmission --
7.6 System Generation and Cost Summary --
7.6.1 Generation and Cost Summary Information in 2010 --
7.6.2 Generation and Cost Summary Information in 2013 --
7.6.3 Generation and Cost Summary Information in 2020 --
7.6.4 System Costs and GHG Impacts of Wind Generation Capacity Addition --
7.7 Impact of Wind Energy Prices on System Costs --
7.8 Impact of the Size of Combined Cycle Unit on System Costs --
7.9 Sensitivity of Impacts to Project Size and Location --
7.10 Quantification of Costs of Day Ahead Scheduling and Re-Dispatch--
7.10.1 Day Ahead Unit Scheduling --
7.10.2 Two-Hour Ahead Dispatch Day Schedule --
7.10.3 Cost Analysis --
7.10.3.1 Impact of Wind Power Forecast Error on Unit Scheduling --
7.10.3.2 Additional Operational Costs Due to Inaccurate Wind Power Forecasting --
7.11 Wind Project Business Case With Output Curtailment --
7.12 Key Barriers --
7.12.1 Locations of Wind Power Plants --
7.12.2 Diversity of Wind Power --
7.12.3 Wind Power Forecasting Error --
7.12.4 Forward Market --
7.12.5 Curtailment of Wind Power and Spilling of Water --
7.12.6 Impacts on Operation of NSPI Thermal Units. 6. Transmission System Modeling 6.1 --
6.1 Introduction --
6.2 Steady State Reliability Requirements --
6.2.1 NPCC Definition of Contingency --
6.2.2 Nova Scotia Reliability Criteria --
6.2.3 Nova Scotia Steady State Performance Criteria --
6.3 Inputs to the Load Flow Model --
6.3.1 Introduction --
6.3.2 Wind Power Generations --
6.3.3 Major Transfer Limits and Special Protection Schemes --
6.3.3.1 (1) NS-NB Transfer Interface --
6.3.3.2 (2) Cape Breton Export Transfer Interface --
6.3.3.3 (3) Onslow Import Transfer Interface --
6.3.4 Contingency List for Assessments --
2013 --
6.3.5 Transmission Reinforcement Requirement By 2020 --
6.3.5.1 New 345 kV Transmission Line --
6.3.5.2 Reactive Power Requirements --
6.3.6 Updated Contingency List for Assessments --
2020 --
6.4 Description of the PSS/E Load Flow Models --
6.4.1 2013 Load Flow Models --
6.4.2 2020 Load Flow Models --
6.5 Load Flow Study and Contingency Analysis --
6.5.1 2013 Load Flow Study --
6.5.1.1 Study Procedure --
6.5.1.2 Contingency Analysis Results: --
6.5.2 2020 Load Flow Study and Contingency Analysis --
6.5.2.1 Transfer Limit Analysis --
6.5.2.2 Contingency Analysis Results --
6.5.3 Cost Estimate for the Identified Transmission Reinforcements --
6.6 Intra-Province Transmission Congestion --
6.7 Potential Impacts on System Security --
6.7.1 Reactive Power Capability of Wind Facilities --
6.7.2 Special Protection System --
6.7.3 Generation Dispatch and Scheduling --
6.8 Assessment of the Adequacy of FERC ORDER 661/661A Low Voltage Ride-Through Capability. 3. Major Assumptions for the Study 3.1 --
3.1 Introduction --
3.2 System Parameters --
3.3 System Capacity Reserve Requirements --
3.4 Expansion Plans to 2020 --
3.5 Allocation of New Wind Generation by Zone --
3.5.1 Zonal Boundary --
3.5.2 Allocation of New Wind Generation. 4. Wind Resource Data 4-14.1 Introduction --
4.2 Description of Data Received --
4.3 Data Validation and Selection --
4.3.1 Data Screening --
4.3.2 Continuity and Temporal Gaps --
4.3.3 Wind Shear --
4.3.4 Wind Speed Frequency and the Weibull Distribution --
4.3.5 Detection of Icing --
4.3.6 Long-term Variability --
4.3.7 Diurnal Trends --
4.3.8 Data Selection --
4.4 Conversion of Wind Resource Data to Generation by Zone --
4.5 Wind Power Forecasting --
4.6 Wind Power Capacity Accreditation --
4.7 Future Directions for Wind Generation Technology. 5. System Dispatch Modeling --
5.1 Introduction --
5.2 General Modeling Approach --
5.2.1 Modeling Time Step --
5.2.2 Modeling Scenarios --
5.3 Description of Vista Model --
5.4 Modeling of Hydro Plants 5.4.1 Turbine Characteristics --
5.4.2 Reservoir Storage Characteristics --
5.4.3 Tailwater Elevation Characteristics --
5.4.4 Spillway Characteristics --
5.4.5 Hydrology --
5.4.6 Reservoir Operational Constraints --
5.4.7 Hydro Generating Unit Outages --
5.4.8 Run-of-River Hydro Plants --
5.5 Modeling of Thermal Plants --
5.5.1 Minimum Cycling Time of Thermal Units --
5.5.2 Thermal Unit Outages --
5.6 Modeling of Reserve Requirements --
5.7 Modeling of System Load --
5.7.1 System Load --
5.8 Modeling of the New Brunswick Tie-Line --
5.8.1 Interrupted/NB Import --
5.9 Modeling of Wind Energy --
5.10 Modeling of Transmission Lines --
5.11 Base Case --
5.11.1 Energy Usage Comparison to 2008 --
5.11.2 Water Level Fluctuations --
Hydro --
5.11.3 Reserve Allocation --
5.12 Dispatch Example --
2020 Case --
5.13 Summary of Dispatch Results --
5.13.1 Water Allocation (Spilling) --
5.13.2 Thermal Plant Usage --
5.13.3 Reserve Allocation --
5.13.4 Transmission Usage --
5.14 Overall Summary of Findings. Disclaimer --
Executive summary --
1. Introduction --
1.1 Introduction --
1.2 Terms of Reference and Contract --
1.3 Advisory Committee --
1.4 Process of the Work --
1.5 Data Collection --
1.6 Outline of This Report. 2. Overview of Nova Scotia's Electric Power Sector 2-1 --2.1 Introduction --
2.2 Organizations Involved --
2.3 Existing Generation System --
2.4 Existing Transmission System --
2.5 Renewable Energy Standards --
2.5.1 Renewable Energy Standard 2010 --
2.5.2 Renewable Energy Standard 2013 --
2.6 NSPI 2007 Integrated Resource Plan --
2.6.1 Demand Side Management Programs --
2.6.1.1 Conservation and Energy Efficiency --
2.6.1.2 Interruptible Load --
2.6.2 System Load Forecast --
2.6.3 Generation Expansion Criteria --
2.6.4 Environmental Pollutant Emissions --
2.6.4.1 Air Pollutant Emissions --
2.6.4.2 Presumed Annual Emission Caps for the Nova Scotia Power Sector --
2.6.4.3 Presumed Air Pollutant Emission Intensities --
2.6.4.4 Presumed Carbon Offset Prices --
2.6.5 Other Assumptions --
2.7 2007 Renewable Energy RFP.
Other Titles: Final report :
Responsibility: HATCH.
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