skip to content
Of mice and academics : examining the effect of openness on innovation Preview this item
ClosePreview this item
Checking...

Of mice and academics : examining the effect of openness on innovation

Author: Fiona E S Murray; National Bureau of Economic Research.
Publisher: Cambridge, Mass. : National Bureau of Economic Research, ©2009.
Series: Working paper series (National Bureau of Economic Research), no. 14819.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
Scientific freedom and openness are hallmarks of academia: relative to their counterparts in industry, academics maintain discretion over their research agenda and allow others to build on their discoveries. This paper examines the relationship between openness and freedom, building on recent models emphasizing that, from an economic perspective, freedom is the granting of control rights to researchers. Within this  Read more...
Rating:

(not yet rated) 0 with reviews - Be the first.

Subjects
More like this

 

Find a copy online

Find a copy in the library

&AllPage.SpinnerRetrieving; Finding libraries that hold this item...

Details

Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Fiona E S Murray; National Bureau of Economic Research.
OCLC Number: 317116984
Notes: "March 2009."
Description: 1 online resource (32, [8] pages) : illustrations, digital.
Series Title: Working paper series (National Bureau of Economic Research), no. 14819.
Responsibility: Fiona Murray [and others].

Abstract:

Scientific freedom and openness are hallmarks of academia: relative to their counterparts in industry, academics maintain discretion over their research agenda and allow others to build on their discoveries. This paper examines the relationship between openness and freedom, building on recent models emphasizing that, from an economic perspective, freedom is the granting of control rights to researchers. Within this framework, openness of upstream research does not simply encourage higher levels of downstream exploitation. It also raises the incentives for additional upstream research by encouraging the establishment of entirely new research directions. In other words, within academia, restrictions on scientific openness (such as those created by formal intellectual property (IP)) may limit the diversity and experimentation of basic research itself. We test this hypothesis by examining a "natural experiment" in openness within the academic community: NIH agreements during the late 1990s that circumscribed IP restrictions for academics regarding certain genetically engineered mice. Using a sample of engineered mice that are linked to specific scientific papers (some affected by the NIH agreements and some not), we implement a differences-in-differences estimator to evaluate how the level and type of follow-on research using these mice changes after the NIH-induced increase in openness. We find a significant increase in the level of follow-on research. Moreover, this increase is driven by a substantial increase in the rate of exploration of more diverse research paths. Overall, our findings highlight a neglected cost of IP: reductions in the diversity of experimentation that follows from a single idea.

Reviews

User-contributed reviews
Retrieving GoodReads reviews...
Retrieving DOGObooks reviews...

Tags

Be the first.
Confirm this request

You may have already requested this item. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway.

Linked Data


Primary Entity

<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317116984> # Of mice and academics examining the effect of openness on innovation
    a schema:Book, schema:MediaObject, schema:CreativeWork ;
    library:oclcnum "317116984" ;
    library:placeOfPublication <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Place/cambridge_mass> ; # Cambridge, Mass.
    library:placeOfPublication <http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/countries/mau> ;
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Topic/academic_freedom_economic_aspects> ; # Academic freedom--Economic aspects
    schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1204155> ; # United States
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Topic/transgenic_mice_research_united_states> ; # Transgenic mice--Research--United States
    schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1145002> ; # Technological innovations
    schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/794988> ; # Academic freedom--Economic aspects
    schema:about <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85133143> ; # Technological innovations
    schema:bookFormat schema:EBook ;
    schema:contributor <http://viaf.org/viaf/3584238> ; # Fiona E. S. Murray
    schema:contributor <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Organization/national_bureau_of_economic_research> ; # National Bureau of Economic Research.
    schema:copyrightYear "2009" ;
    schema:datePublished "2009" ;
    schema:description "Scientific freedom and openness are hallmarks of academia: relative to their counterparts in industry, academics maintain discretion over their research agenda and allow others to build on their discoveries. This paper examines the relationship between openness and freedom, building on recent models emphasizing that, from an economic perspective, freedom is the granting of control rights to researchers. Within this framework, openness of upstream research does not simply encourage higher levels of downstream exploitation. It also raises the incentives for additional upstream research by encouraging the establishment of entirely new research directions. In other words, within academia, restrictions on scientific openness (such as those created by formal intellectual property (IP)) may limit the diversity and experimentation of basic research itself. We test this hypothesis by examining a "natural experiment" in openness within the academic community: NIH agreements during the late 1990s that circumscribed IP restrictions for academics regarding certain genetically engineered mice. Using a sample of engineered mice that are linked to specific scientific papers (some affected by the NIH agreements and some not), we implement a differences-in-differences estimator to evaluate how the level and type of follow-on research using these mice changes after the NIH-induced increase in openness. We find a significant increase in the level of follow-on research. Moreover, this increase is driven by a substantial increase in the rate of exploration of more diverse research paths. Overall, our findings highlight a neglected cost of IP: reductions in the diversity of experimentation that follows from a single idea."@en ;
    schema:exampleOfWork <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/424871513> ;
    schema:inLanguage "en" ;
    schema:isPartOf <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Series/working_paper_series_national_bureau_of_economic_research> ; # Working paper series (National Bureau of Economic Research) ;
    schema:isPartOf <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Series/nber_working_paper_series> ; # NBER working paper series ;
    schema:name "Of mice and academics examining the effect of openness on innovation"@en ;
    schema:productID "317116984" ;
    schema:publication <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/317116984#PublicationEvent/cambridge_mass_national_bureau_of_economic_research_2009> ;
    schema:publisher <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Agent/national_bureau_of_economic_research> ; # National Bureau of Economic Research
    schema:url <http://papers.nber.org/papers/w14819> ;
    wdrs:describedby <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/317116984> ;
    .


Related Entities

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Agent/national_bureau_of_economic_research> # National Bureau of Economic Research
    a bgn:Agent ;
    schema:name "National Bureau of Economic Research" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Organization/national_bureau_of_economic_research> # National Bureau of Economic Research.
    a schema:Organization ;
    schema:name "National Bureau of Economic Research." ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Place/cambridge_mass> # Cambridge, Mass.
    a schema:Place ;
    schema:name "Cambridge, Mass." ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Series/nber_working_paper_series> # NBER working paper series ;
    a bgn:PublicationSeries ;
    schema:hasPart <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317116984> ; # Of mice and academics examining the effect of openness on innovation
    schema:name "NBER working paper series ;" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Series/working_paper_series_national_bureau_of_economic_research> # Working paper series (National Bureau of Economic Research) ;
    a bgn:PublicationSeries ;
    schema:hasPart <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317116984> ; # Of mice and academics examining the effect of openness on innovation
    schema:name "Working paper series (National Bureau of Economic Research) ;" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/424871513#Topic/transgenic_mice_research_united_states> # Transgenic mice--Research--United States
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:hasPart <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh90000185> ;
    schema:name "Transgenic mice--Research--United States"@en ;
    .

<http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85133143> # Technological innovations
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:name "Technological innovations"@en ;
    .

<http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1145002> # Technological innovations
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:name "Technological innovations"@en ;
    .

<http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1204155> # United States
    a schema:Place ;
    schema:name "United States" ;
    .

<http://id.worldcat.org/fast/794988> # Academic freedom--Economic aspects
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:name "Academic freedom--Economic aspects"@en ;
    .

<http://viaf.org/viaf/3584238> # Fiona E. S. Murray
    a schema:Person ;
    schema:familyName "Murray" ;
    schema:givenName "Fiona E. S." ;
    schema:name "Fiona E. S. Murray" ;
    .


Content-negotiable representations

Close Window

Please sign in to WorldCat 

Don't have an account? You can easily create a free account.