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Organic field effect transistors : theory, fabrication and characterization

Author: Ioannis Kymissis
Publisher: New York, NY : Springer, ©2009.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
"Organic Field Effect Transistors discusses the fundamental mechanisms that apply to OFETs fabrication, operation, and characterization. This unique book presents the state-of-the-art in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with a particular focus on the materials and techniques useful for making integrated circuits. It also addresses many of the practical issues associated with OFET fabrication,  Read more...
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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Ioannis Kymissis
ISBN: 0387921338 9780387921334 1441947116 9781441947116 9780387921341 0387921346
OCLC Number: 302387145
Description: xii, 148 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Contents: 1 Introduction 1 --
1.1 Why OFETs? 1 --
1.2 A very brief history of OFETs 2 --
1.3 Organization of this book 3 --
2 The physics of organic semiconductors 5 --
2.1 Free electron model 5 --
2.1.1 Carbon is special 5 --
2.1.2 Conjugated molecules as a particle-in-a-box 5 --
2.1.3 Energy levels in semiconducting polymers 10 --
2.1.4 Applying the free electron model to small conjugated molecules 11 --
2.2 Charge and energy carriers in conjugated molecules 11 --
2.2.1 Carriers in organic semiconductors: n-type or p-type? 14 --
2.2.2 Electron rich and electron poor materials 15 --
2.3 Conclusion 15 --
3 Organic semiconductor materials for OFETs 17 --
3.1 Major classes of organic semiconductors 17 --
3.1.1 Polymer semiconductors 17 --
3.2 Small molecule semiconductors 20 --
3.2.1 Air Stability 25 --
3.2.2 Organic conductors 26 --
3.3 Conclusions 26 --
4 Basic OFET fabrication 29 --
4.1 Introduction 29 --
4.2 Basic OFET structure and operation 29 --
4.3 Unit operations 30 --
4.3.1 Thermal evaporation 30 --
4.3.2 Liquid deposition 40 --
4.3.3 Polymer CVD 41 --
4.3.4 Other applicable PVD and CVD processes 42 --
4.3.5 Subtractive patterning operations 43 --
4.3.6 Etching 45 --
4.4 Processing considerations for high crystallinity 45 --
4.4.1 Polymer crystallinity 45 --
4.4.2 Stranski-Krastanov growth of small molecule crystallites 46 --
4.4.3 Threshold voltage and bias stress 49 --
4.5 Several archetypical process flows and variants 49 --
4.5.1 Shadow masking 50 --
4.5.2 Parylene encapsulation 51 --
4.5.3 PVA resist 52 --
4.5.4 Subtractive inkjet/digital lithography 53 --
4.6 Conclusions 55 --
5 Advanced OFET fabrication 57 --
5.1 Introduction 57 --
5.2 Source and drain contacts 57 --
5.2.1 Work function considerations 57 --
5.2.2 Top vs. bottom contacts 60 --
5.2.3 Treatment of contacts 61 --
5.2.4 Creation of lithographic top contact devices 63 --
5.3 Gate dielectrics 63 --
5.3.1 Characteristics of gate dielectrics 63 --
5.3.2 Crystal structure improvement 64 --
5.3.3 SAM gate dielectrics 65 --
5.3.4 Introduction of surface dipoles 65 --
5.3.5 Functional gate dielectrics 66 --
5.4 Air sensitivity and encapsulation 66 --
5.5 Emerging deposition and patterning processes 68 --
5.5.1 LITI 68 --
5.5.2 OVPD 68 --
5.5.3 Surface energy modulation 68 --
5.6 Alternative OFET designs 69 --
5.6.1 SIT 69 --
5.6.2 Reduced patterning processes 70 --
5.6.3 Electrochemical OFETs 72 --
5.7 Self-aligned OFETs 73 --
5.8 Conclusions 74 --
6 Modeling and characterization 75 --
6.1 Models 75 --
6.1.1 The role of models 75 --
6.1.2 The IEEE 1620 standard 75 --
6.1.3 Long channel silicon device operation 75 --
6.1.4 Long channel silicon device model 78 --
6.2 Parameters 80 --
6.2.1 Mobility 80 --
6.2.2 Threshold voltage 82 --
6.2.3 Contact resistance 86 --
6.2.4 Hysteresis/bias-stress 88 --
6.2.5 Gate leakage 90 --
6.2.6 Subthreshold slope 91 --
6.2.7 Output conductance 91 --
6.3 Characterization 92 --
6.3.1 Gate sweep/transfer characteristic 93 --
6.3.2 Drain sweep/output characteristic 93 --
6.3.3 Capacitance 94 --
6.3.4 Gate leakage 95 --
6.4 Device model 95 --
6.5 Parameter summary 96 --
6.5.1 The limits of curve fitting in amorphous systems 98 --
6.5.2 Measurement and reporting 101 --
6.6 Conclusions 101 --
7 OFET applications 103 --
7.1 Displays 103 --
7.2 Mechanical sensors 105 --
7.3 Imagers 106 --
7.4 RFID and logic 107 --
7.5 Conclusions 107.
Responsibility: Ioannis Kymissis.
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Abstract:

As a basic introduction to the subject for practitioners, this text will also be of interest to researchers looking for references that are not part of their subject area, focusing on materials and  Read more...

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