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Particle physics and cosmology : the fabric of spacetime : École d'été de Physique des Houches, session LXXXVI, 31 July-25 August 2006 : École thématique du CNRS

Author: Francis Bernardeau; Christophe Grojean; J Dalibard
Publisher: Amsterdam, Netherlands ; Boston, Mass. : Elsevier, ©2007.
Edition/Format:   Print book : Conference publication : English : 1st ed
Summary:
This book is a collection of lectures given in August 2006 at the Les Houches Summer School on Particle Physics and Cosmology: the Fabric of Spacetime. It provides a pedagogical introduction to the various aspects of both particle physics beyond the Standard Model and Cosmology of the Early Universe, covering each topic from the basics to the most recent developments. It provides a pedagogical introduction to topics  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses
Material Type: Conference publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Francis Bernardeau; Christophe Grojean; J Dalibard
ISBN: 9780444530073 044453007X
OCLC Number: 166214580
Description: xxxi, 558 pages : illustrations portraits ; 24 cm
Contents: Long Lectures 1 --
Course 1 Gravitational waves / Alessandra Buonanno 3 --
2 Linearization of Einstein equations 8 --
2.1 Einstein equations and gauge symmetry 9 --
2.2 Wave equation 11 --
2.3 Transverse-traceless gauge 12 --
3 Interaction of gravitational waves with point particles 13 --
3.1 Newtonian and relativistic description of tidal gravity 13 --
3.2 Description in the transverse-traceless gauge 14 --
3.3 Description in the free-falling frame 15 --
3.4 Key ideas underlying gravitational-wave detectors 16 --
4 Effective stress-energy tensor of gravitational waves 18 --
5 Generation of gravitational waves 21 --
5.1 Sources in slow motion, weak-field and negligible self-gravity 21 --
5.2 Sources in slow motion and weak-field, but non-negligible self-gravity 23 --
5.3 Radiated energy, angular momentum and linear momentum 24 --
6 Application to binary systems 25 --
6.1 Inspiral waveforms at leading Newtonian order 25 --
6.2 Inspiral waveform including post-Newtonian corrections 28 --
6.3 Merger and ring-down waveforms 30 --
6.4 Templates for data analysis 32 --
7 Other astrophysical sources 36 --
7.1 Pulsars 36 --
7.2 Supernovae 39 --
8 Cosmological sources 39 --
8.1 Phenomenological bounds 40 --
8.2 Gravitational waves produced by causal mechanisms 41 --
8.3 Gravitational waves produced by cosmic and fundamental strings 44 --
8.4 Gravitational waves produced during inflation 45 --
Course 2 Baryogenesis / James M. Cline 53 --
1 Observational evidence for the BAU 57 --
2 Sakharov's conditions for baryogenesis 60 --
2.1 B violation 61 --
2.2 Loss of thermal equilibrium 62 --
2.3 C, CP violation 63 --
2.4 Examples of CP violation 65 --
2.5 More history 68 --
3 Example: GUT baryogenesis 69 --
3.1 Washout processes 73 --
4 B and CP violation in the standard model 76 --
4.1 CP violation in the SM 80 --
5 Electroweak phase transition and electroweak baryogenesis 82 --
5.1 Strength of the phase transition 85 --
5.2 EWPT in the MSSM 91 --
6 A model of electroweak baryogenesis: 2HDM 95 --
6.1 EDM constraints 103 --
7 EWBG in the MSSM 104 --
8 Other mechanisms; Leptogenesis 108 --
Course 3 String cosmology / James M. Cline 117 --
1 Dark energy 121 --
1.1 The problem of scales 121 --
1.2 The string theory landscape 121 --
1.3 The Bousso-Polchinski (Brown-Teitelboim) mechanism 124 --
1.4 Caveats to the landscape approach 130 --
2 Inflation 130 --
2.1 Brane-antibrane inflation 131 --
2.2 Warped compactification 136 --
2.3 Warped brane-antibrane inflation 140 --
2.4 The [eta] problem 141 --
2.5 Solutions to the [eta] problem 146 --
2.6 Confrontation with experiment 153 --
Course 4 Physics of the early universe and inflation / Lev Kofman 165 --
1 Preamble 169 --
2 Concise history of the early universe 169 --
2.1 Big Bang: answered questions 169 --
2.2 Big Bang: unanswered questions 175 --
3 Inflation 181 --
3.1 Inflation: answered questions 181 --
3.2 Models of inflation 185 --
3.3 Inflaton family portrait 189 --
4 Global geometry 194 --
4.2 De Sitter and FRW geometries 196 --
4.3 FRW geometry 198 --
4.4 Single FRW domain from inflation 199 --
4.5 Scalar field fluctuations in de Sitter geometry 202 --
4.6 Multiple FRW domains from inflation and fractal geometry in the future 207 --
5 Generation of fluctuations from inflation 211 --
5.1 Cosmic piano 211 --
5.2 Generation of the scalar metrics fluctuations 213 --
5.3 Generation of the tensor metrics fluctuations 214 --
5.4 Probing models with fluctuations 215 --
6 Preheating after inflation 219 --
6.1 Heating the universe after inflation 219 --
6.2 Pair creation by an electric field 221 --
6.3 Linear resonant preheating 222 --
6.4 Non-linear dynamics of resonant preheating 223 --
6.5 Inflaton fragmentation 226 --
6.6 Tachyonic preheating 228 --
6.7 Gravitational waves from preheating 228 --
Course 5 Cosmic microwave background anisotropies up to second order / N. Bartolo, S. Matarrese, A. Riotto 233 --
1 Preamble 237 --
3 Perturbing gravity 240 --
4 The collisionless Boltzmann equation for photons 242 --
5 Collision term 246 --
5.1 The collision integral 246 --
5.2 Computation of different contributions to the collision term 250 --
5.3 Final expression for the collision term 255 --
6 The Brightness equation 256 --
6.1 First order 256 --
6.2 Second order 257 --
6.3 Hierarchy equations for multipole moments 260 --
6.4 Integral solution of the second-order Boltzmann equation 263 --
7 The Boltzmann equation for baryons and cold dark matter 265 --
7.1 Energy continuity equations 267 --
7.2 Momentum continuity equations 269 --
8 Linear solution of the Boltzmann equations 274 --
8.1 Linear solutions in the limit of tight coupling 275 --
8.2 Perturbation modes with k [double less-than sign] k[subscript eq] 277 --
8.3 Perturbation modes with k [double greater-than sign] k[subscript eq] 278 --
Appendix A Einstein's equations 279 --
Appendix A.1 The metric tensor 280 --
Appendix A.2 The connection coefficients 280 --
Appendix A.3 Einstein tensor 280 --
Appendix A.4 Energy-momentum tensor 281 --
Appendix B First-order solutions of Einstein's equations in various eras 283 --
Appendix B.1 Matter-dominated era 283 --
Appendix B.2 Radiation-dominated era 283 --
Course 6 Physics beyond the standard model and dark matter / Hitoshi Murayama 287 --
1.1 Particle physics and cosmology 291 --
1.2 Next threshold 293 --
2 Why beyond the standard model 295 --
2.1 Empirical reasons 295 --
2.2 Philosophical and aesthetic reasons 296 --
2.3 Positron analogue 299 --
2.4 Hierarchy problem 302 --
3 Examples of physics beyond the standard model 302 --
3.1 Supersymmetry 303 --
3.2 Composite Higgs 305 --
3.3 Extra dimensions 306 --
4 Evidence for dark matter 310 --
5 What dark matter is not 312 --
5.1 MACHOs 313 --
5.2 Neutrinos 314 --
5.3 CHAMPs and SIMPs 316 --
6 WIMP dark matter 316 --
6.1 WIMP 316 --
6.2 Boltzmann equation 318 --
6.3 Analytic approximation 320 --
6.4 Numerical integration 321 --
6.5 The new minimal standard model 322 --
6.6 Direct detection experiments 324 --
6.7 Popular WIMPs 326 --
6.8 Indirect detection experiments 328 --
7 Dark horse candidates 328 --
7.1 Gravitino 328 --
7.2 Axion 330 --
7.3 Other candidates 332 --
8 Cosmic coincidence 332 --
Appendix A Gravitational lensing 334 --
Appendix A.1 Deflection angle 334 --
Appendix A.2 Amplification in microlensing 338 --
Appendix A.3 MACHO search 340 --
Appendix A.4 Strong lensing 342 --
Short Topical Lectures 349 --
Course 7 Effective field theories and gravitational radiation / Walter D. Goldberger 351 --
1 Lecture I 355 --
1.1 Introduction and motivation 355 --
1.2 Effective field theories: a review 358 --
2 Lecture II 370 --
2.1 The binary inspiral as an EFT calculation 370 --
2.2 The EFT for isolated compact objects 371 --
2.3 Calculating observables 374 --
2.4 Integrating out the orbital scale 381 --
2.5 Radiation 386 --
2.6 Finite size effects 390 --
Appendix A Redundant operators 393 --
Course 8 Holographic cosmology / Thomas Hertog 397 --
2 Framework 401 --
3 Anti-de Sitter cosmologies 403 --
4 Dual field theory evolution 405 --
Course 9 Neutrino physics and cosmology / Sergio Pastor 411 --
2 The cosmic neutrino background 415 --
2.1 Relic neutrino production and decoupling 415 --
2.2 Background evolution 418 --
3 Neutrinos and Primordial Nucleosynthesis 419 --
4 Extra radiation and the effective number of neutrinos 420 --
5 Massive neutrinos 421 --
5.1 Flavour oscillations and neutrino masses 421 --
5.2 Neutrinos as dark matter 423 --
6 Effects of neutrino masses on cosmology 424 --
6.1 Brief description of cosmological observables 425 --
6.2 Neutrino free-streaming 425 --
6.3 Impact of massive neutrinos on the matter power spectrum 427 --
6.4 Impact of massive neutrinos on the CMB anisotropy spectrum 429 --
7 Current bounds on neutrino masses 430 --
7.1 CMB anisotropies 430 --
7.2 Galaxy redshift surveys 431 --
7.3 Lyman-[alpha] forest 432 --
7.4 Summary and discussion of current bounds 432 --
8 Future sensitivities on neutrino masses from cosmology 434 --
Course 10 Cosmic microwave background: observational status / S. Prunet 437 --
2 CMB temperature anisotropies: the "early" days 442 --
3 WMAP first release 443 --
4 Polarization of the CMB --
discovery and first measurements 445 --
5 WMAP three year release 447 --
Course 11 Structure formation with numerical simulations / R. Teyssier 453 --
2 The hierarchical scenario 457 --
3 Computational cosmology 458 --
4 Internal structure of dark matter haloes 460 --
5 The halo model 463 --
6 Galaxy formation physics 464 --
7 The Mare Nostrum simulation 466 --
Course 12 Giving mass to the graviton / P. Tinyakov 471 --
2 Theoretical obstructions to massive gravity 477 --
3 Constructing the massive gravity models 482 --
4 Linear perturbations 486 --
5 Some phenomenological implications 489 --
5.1 Newton's potential 489 --
5.2 Cosmological evolution 493 --
5.3 Experimental signatures 494 --
6 Summary and outlook 496 --
Working Group Reports 501 --
Dark matter on the smallest scales / E.R. Siegel, G. D'Amico, E. Di Napoli, L. Fu, M.P. Hertzberg, N.T.T. Huong, F. Palorini, A. Sellerholm 503 --
2 The dark matter problem 504 --
3 Dark matter candidates 505 --
4 Small scale structure 506 --
5 Detectability and future work 507.
Other Titles: Fabric of spacetime
Ecole d'été de Physique des Houches
Responsibility: edited by Francis Bernardeau, Christophe Grojean and Jean Dalibard.

Abstract:

Provides a pedagogical introduction to the various aspects of both particle physics beyond the Standard Model and Cosmology of the Early Universe. This book offers necessary tools to build  Read more...

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